Revelation and Science <p><strong><strong><strong><strong>AIMS AND SCOPE OF THE JOURNAL</strong></strong></strong></strong></p> <p>Revelation and Science is a refereed academic journal published by the Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia. The journal aims to comprehensively integrate dimensions of knowledge conventionally regarded as separate and strengthen the efficiency of human intellectual progress. In line with the objectives of the Kulliyyah and the University, the journal is dedicated to the integration of science and religion, and the promotion of universal values. While acknowledging the substantial progress that has been made in the scientific fields, the journal is committed to the idea that the search for solutions to human predicaments can be enhanced by reference to an epistemological framework that is not restricted to reason and observation alone but acknowledges the role of Revelation (wahy). The Revelation and Science journal covers pure, theoretical and applied sciences as well as studies related to the integration of scientific knowledge and revelation. The journal is a compilation of academic and research articles, review articles, conference reports and abstracts that address contemporary issues within its scope.</p> <p> <a title="Vol.7, No. 1, 1438H/2017" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2229-9645</strong></p> <p><strong>E-ISSN: 2229-9947</strong> </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Currently Indexed by:</strong><br /> Google Scholar<br /> Malaysian Citation Index (MyCite)</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Publication Charges:</strong></p> <p>There are no charges for submission of a manuscript as well as no charges for article processing or publication.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Ethical Statement:</strong></p> <p>The manuscript must represent original work by the author(s). None of the material should be covered by any copyright; if copyrighted material exceeding approximately 100 words from a journal article or approximately 500 words from a book is used, the author has obtained written permission for its use. Further, this work should not infringe any intellectual property rights/secrecy laws of any person/organization/government/public or private agency, nor should it contain any defamatory matter.</p> <p>IIUM Press does not bear any responsibility for verifying copyright permissions provided by the author. Any breach of copyright laws will result in retraction of the published article/material <strong>as well as reporting to relevant authorities at the authors’ institutions.</strong></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Current Issue: <a title="Vol.7, No 1 1438H/2017" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vol.7,No.1(2017)</a> </strong></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>CALL FOR PAPER</strong></p> <p>On behalf of the Editorial Board, we would like to extend our invitation to you to contribute articles in the Journal of Revelation and Science. </p> <p>Submission can be made online at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Published articles can be viewed online at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p> </p> International Islamic University Malaysia en-US Revelation and Science 2229-9947 Table of Contents Mohd Zamani Zulkifli Abdurezak Abdullah Hashi Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.383 Leaf Anatomy of Morinda citrifolia L. in Pahang, Malaysia, and its Taxonomic Significance <p>Leaf anatomical study has been conducted on Morinda citrifolia L. from family Rubiaceae in Kuantan, Pahang. The aim of this study was to identify and list characteristics of leaf anatomy that can be used to identify and classification of species and genus in the Rubiaceae family. Methods used in this study were cross section using sliding microtome, epidermis peeling and leaf clearing and observation under a light microscope. Results from this study showed few characteristics can be used in identification in species studied. The result of this study showed that the presence of collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells, cell inclusions such as raphide at the petiole and midrib and hypostomatic stomata can be useful as an additional data to identify species studied. In conclusion, leaf anatomy characteristics can be used as an additional characteristic in the identification and classification of selected Rubiaceae species.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Leaf anatomy, Morinda citrifolia</p> Nur Ain Mohd Asri Che Nurul Aini Che Amri Rozilawati Shahari Noor Syaheera Mohd Yunus Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.382 Effect of Extraction Methods on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Ananas comosus Peel: A Mini Review <p>Pineapple (Ananas comosus), a tropical fruit belonging to the Bromeliaceae family, is rich in vitamins A and C, flavonoids, tannins, and various phenolic compounds. Pineapple peel is one of the antioxidant sources that could be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress and associated diseases such as antiinflammatory, anticancer, monitoring nervous system function, and healing bowel movement. However, improper disposal of pineapple peels can have a detrimental impact on the environment, necessitating innovative methods to convert them into valuable products. Despite their numerous potential health benefits, an investigation of various extraction methods for maximizing the antioxidant potential of pineapple peel has been lacking. Therefore, this review aims to evaluate both conventional methods such as maceration and reflux extraction, as well as non-conventional techniques like ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction for the preparation of antioxidant-rich pineapple extracts. The data on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of pineapple have mainly been obtained from online articles and journals through several online academic databases. The results of this review highlight the varying efficiency of different extraction methods in obtaining bioactive compounds from pineapple peels. Each method presents its distinct strengths and limitations, emphasizing the need for a method-selection approach aligned with specific goals and compounds of interest. These findings underscore the significant influence of extraction methods on the antioxidant potential of pineapple peel, which can contribute to the development of health-promoting products and sustainable waste management strategies.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Pineapple, antioxidant; free radical scavenging effect; oxidative stress</p> Noor Haslinda Noor Hashim Nor Azahana Abdullah Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.381 Analysis Of Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties in Methanolic Extract of Piper Sarmentosum Roxb. Against Mcf-7 Cells <p>Cancer is by far one of the most worrying health issues that continue to be the major killing diseases worldwide, accounting for more than six million deaths. In the confrontation of advances in modern medicine such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy, cancer disease persists as a worldwide problem. In recent years, there has been a focused effort to explore new alternatives, with a particular emphasis on identifying medicinal herbs from local natural resources. Approximately, 60% of cancer drugs are derived from natural sources, due to their fewer side effects. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. which is locally known as ‘kaduk’, is a natural medicinal plant that has been used traditionally to treat headache, arthritis, menstrual pain, cough, and eczema. It is proven to have various biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimalarial, antiplasmodial, anti-diabetic, antifungal, and anti-carcinogenic. In this study, the phenolic content of P. sarmentosum was quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Next, the antioxidant activity was determined using a DPPH scavenging assay. MTS assay was conducted to analyse the effect of the extract on human breast cancer cells, MCF-7. The results showed that the P. sarmentosum extract contained a high TPC which was 89.22 mg GAE/g. The extract also exhibited a good antioxidant activity with an EC50 value of 96.98 ± 2.29 ?g/mL. The in vitro cytotoxicity test on MCF-7 cell proliferation showed the extracts’ IC50 at 24.63 ± 0.23 ?g/mL. In conclusion, methanolic extract of P. sarmentosum contained a high phenolic content and is a potent antioxidant capacity as well as anticancer activity against the tested breast cancer cell. <br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Breast cancer, medicinal plant, Piper sarmentosum, phenolic content, radical scavenging <br />activity</p> Maizatul Akma Ibrahim Nor Farahiyah Ghazali Nor Hafizah Zakaria Fadzilah Adibah Abdul Majid Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.380 Foliar Morphological and Micromorphological Variation of Dioscorea Species in Terengganu, Malaysia <p>Dioscorea species are recognised for their production of tuberous roots and are referred to as "ubi" by the local population in Malaysia. The tubers of Dioscorea are commonly consumed by individuals residing in the East Coast region of Peninsular Malaysia as their primary food source. These tuberous roots are particularly abundant during the monsoon season, typically observed in local markets from October to December. Due to the availability and potential of this Dioscorea species, a study about the variation in morphological and micromorphological study of the leaves of three species of Dioscorea in Terengganu was conducted in order to identify the variation in their morphological and micromorphological characteristics. The selected species are D. esculenta (ubi itik), D. alata (ubi besar), and D. hispida (ubi gadong). The collection has been done in the Kuala Berang Terengganu area. The leaves morphological characteristics such as leaf colour, leaf type, leaf shape, leaf size, leaf margin and hairiness of adaxial and abaxial surface and shape of leaves and petiole were recorded. The morphological descriptors were suggested by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) / International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). The foliar anatomical studies of selected Dioscorea were followed by the standard tissue sectioning procedures and the observation was done by using light microscopy. The morphological study shows the variations in leaf shape, leaf base, and leaf size but they have the similarity in term of leaf margin shape and leaf attachment which is all species are petiolate. The micromorphological study shows the presence of non-glandular and uniseriate trichomes which is only obtained in the D. esculenta and D. hispida. Hence, this study contributes to the information on these species, especially for classification and identification of Dioscorea species.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Dioscorea, morphology, foliar anatomy</p> Azahana A Dahlia A.S. Noor Syaheera M.Y. Noor Haslinda N.H. Othman H.S. Salleh M.S. Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.379 Taxonomic Significance of Leaf Micromorphology in Selected Garcinia from Peninsular Malaysia <p>Garcinia is a notably large genus from Clusiaceae. This genus is approximately discovered across Asia and Africa, predominantly in Southeast Asia. The recent taxonomic revision revealed several changes in the species classification within the Garcinia taxa. Additionally, few data on the anatomical characteristics of Garcinia species in Malaysia have been documented recently. This study aims to identify the leaf micromorphological characters using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on Garcinia mangostana var. mangostana, G. mangostana var. malaccensis and G. celebica in Peninsular Malaysia. The result of this study found several important characteristics in terms of stomatal size, stomatal shape as well as abaxial and adaxial cuticular sculpturing. In conclusion, this study proposed that the anatomical characteristics in these selected Garcinia species might have a significant taxonomic value that can be applied to species identification and classification. <br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Garcinia, Garcinia celebica, Garcinia mangostana var. malaccensis, Garcinia <br />mangostana var. mangostana, leaf micromorphology</p> Aiesyaa Majdiena Emlee Che Nurul Aini Che Amri Mohd Razik Midin Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.378 EVALUATION OF SEDIMENT QUALITY ALONG THE RIVER OF BALOK MANGROVE FOREST, KUANTAN, PAHANG, MALAYSIA <p>In the modern world, water has been a serious threat including heavy metals contamination. Certain heavy metals can be hazardous when accumulated and can travel through several routes to reach different parts of the body. A field study has been conducted to determine the heavy metals and selected nutrients content in sediment collected along the river of mangrove area located in Balok River, Kuantan, Pahang. A total of 10 sediment samples were collected and analysed for pH, total organic carbon (TOC), heavy metals mainly Zn and Cu) and selected available nutrients particularly Ca, Mg, and K using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Sediment samples were digested with aqua regia acids prior to the analysis. To assess the level of contamination, heavy metals results were compared to the average continental shale level and assessment through Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) value. The soil pH ranges from neutral to slightly acidic and the TOC showed a comparable value with other studies. The average concentration of Zn and Cu were 152.985 ± 36.93 ppm and 31.125 ± 15 ppm, respectively. The average concentration of nutrients element, Ca, Mg, and K were 239.1 ± 147.04, 587.9 ± 326.87 and 176.891 ± 178.76 ppm. The Cu was categorized as uncontaminated and Zn were in the category 1, range from uncontaminated to moderately contaminated. Hence, findings of this study may suggest that Balok mangrove river is contaminated by Zn element. <br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Soil, Heavy Metals, River, Contamination</p> Faiz Sakeri Nur Shuhada Muhamad Tajudin Rozilawati Shahari Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.377 LEAF ANATOMY OF MEDICINALLY VALUABLE Melastoma malabathricum L. IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA <p>Melastoma malabathricum, commonly known as senduduk, is a member of the Melastomataceae family. It is well-known for its therapeutic and medicinal properties, deeply rooted in local traditional knowledge and supported by scientific evidence. Often considered a robust plant and even labeled as a weed, M. malabathricum can be easily spotted along roadsides. However, despite its potential value, recent publications have provided limited information about its leaf anatomy. This study aimed to improve species identification by thoroughly examining the leaf anatomical characteristics of M. malabathricum. Leaf samples were collected from 10 different locations in Peninsular Malaysia and subjected to laboratory procedures involving sectioning and staining. The prepared permanent slides were then observed under a light microscope. A total of 35 leaf anatomical characteristics, including 10 types of trichomes, were successfully identified. Important characteristics such as the petiole, midrib, marginal outline, paracytic stomata, and vascular bundle types were systematically documented. Notable discoveries included the presence of hypodermal layers, collenchyma cells, druses, mucilage cells, and medullary phloem, all of which are distinctive anatomical traits of M. malabathricum. During the leaf anatomical analysis, it became evident that the majority of examined M. malabathricum samples displayed substantial similarities with minor variations in the combination of trichome types on the leaf surface. These variations might be influenced by ecological and geological factors. Nonetheless, it is essential to emphasize that the types of trichomes and other anatomical characteristics remained consistent within each sample. Consequently, these findings offer valuable insights into the systematic classification of M. malabathricum through the documentation of leaf anatomy characters.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Leaf anatomy, Melastoma, Melastoma malabathricum, Medicinal herbs</p> Noor Syaheera Mohd Yunus Che Nurul Aini Che Amri Rozilawati Shahari Rusea Go Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.376 Integrated Farming of Stingless Bee and Pesticide-Free Chilli Fertigation: Sharing Experience from Knowledge Transfer Project (KTP-RIGS) with Persatuan Anak Kuantan Utara and Organic Farm Venture <p>Persatuan Anak Kuantan Utara (PAKUTA) has been established with the aim of improving the socioeconomic well-being of communities especially the B40 families around the Northern Kuantan areas. Through a collaborative effort among PAKUTA, Organic Farm Venture and IIUM, a pilot project on ‘cili api bara’ fertigation has been conducted under the KTP-RIGS program. This pilot project consists of about 250 polybags of chilli, handled by En Ahmad Bakar who is one of the B40 members of PAKUTA at Kg. Beserah, Kuantan. Several academic staff from IIUM have been invited to be the technical advisors for this project. A colony of stingless bees has also been installed in this pilot project. Apart from the knowledge and skill transfer on Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) of pesticide-free chilli fertigation and stingless bee integrated farming for the B40 members of PAKUTA, additional elements on proper financial record keeping and business documentation along with appropriate postharvest handling of chilli and stingless bee honey have been also incorporated in this project.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Community project, Sustainable Development Goal, Stingless bee integrated farming, Pesticide-free chilli fertigation, environmentally friendly</p> Mohd Syahmi Salleh Muhamad Fahmi Yunus Azmir Ahmad Muhammad Salahuddin Haris Salina Kassim Adibah Amir Hashim Udin Muhammad Zakiyuddin Md Yusof Muhammad Zulhariz Hamid Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.375 Evaluating the Benefits of Empty Fruit Bunch Compost from Oil Palm into Coconut Coir Dust Growing Media for Soilless Culture Practice <p>This study was conducted to provide a preliminary and fundamental evaluation of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) compost into coconut coir dust for soilless cultivation. Four-leafed chilli seedlings were transplanted into polybags containing either of 100% coconut dust or a mixture of coconut dust and EFB compost in a ratio of 3:1 (v/v). A few parameters, such as fruit yield, fruit number, relative chlorophyll content, and maximum quantum yield of Photosystem II, were evaluated. The incorporation of EFB compost into coconut coir dust media significantly increased fruit fresh weight around 35.7% as well as 23.5% increase in the overall number of fruits. Additionally, there was an observed improvement in the chlorophyll content values at four distinct stages, specifically during the fruiting and mature stages. Nevertheless, there was a marginal increase in the Fv/Fm reading in media amended with EFB compost. This study suggests that the addition of EFB compost can be advantageous in enhancing the growth and productivity of chilli plants in soilless culture cultivation.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: EFB compost, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fv, coconut coir dust, soilless culture</p> Mohd Fauzihan Karim Nur Nazifah Saimi Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.374 IN VITRO CALLUS INDUCTION OF SACHA INCHI (PLUKENETIA VOLUBILIS), A PUFA-RICH PLANT <p>In vitro callus induction has been established using young leaves and ovule of sacha inchi as explants. The effects of different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on callus induction and morphology was analysed. Different treatments of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) have influenced the callus induction under two different photoperiods, either 24 hours light or 24 hours dark conditions. The young leaves explants deemed promising in developing callus in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with two different combinations of PGRs at different concentrations (0.1 mg L-1 2,4-D + 0.05 mg L-1 BAP; and 1.0 mg L-1 2,4-D + 0.05 mg L-1 BAP). Meanwhile ovule explant cultured on MS media supplemented with 0.1 mg L-1 2,4- D + 0.05 mg L-1 BAP and grown under both photoperiods, 24 hours light or 24 hours dark were seen optimal in inducing callus. In addition, all the other treatments also demonstrated callus induction using ovule as explant. This is the first report attempted on using ovules as explant. The reported result shows intriguing possibilities for the utilization of sacha inchi’s parts other than the seeds or leaves, as an alternative source for induction of callus culture. In future, the embryogenic callus could be developed into sacha inchi plantlets. On the other hand, the callus could also be developed into suspension cultures or batch cultures for productions of pharmaceutically important polyunsaturated fatty acids at larger scale. <br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: tissue culture; sacha peanut; 2,4-D, BAP, super food, omega</p> Tamil Chelvan Meenakshi Sundram Widya Abdul Wahab Jasrina Mohd Jalil Norsyahira Rosle Lisa Amiera Rosli Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.373 TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE IN AZOLLA <p>Azolla is an aquatic fern which belongs to Salviniaceae family that has huge potential as biofertilizers in paddy plantation, alternative food source for livestock and phytoremediation for wastewater. This plant is widely distributed in Southeast Asia, East Asia, Australia, India, and Africa. Previous study had successfully used morphological characteristics to identify the species of Azolla and to distinguish the Asian Azolla pinnata and African Azolla pinnata. In Malaysia, Azolla species can be easily found and highly reproductive in major irrigation schemes like ponds, lake, paddy field and river. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify morphological structure of Azolla species found in two different locations in Selangor. The identification and characterization of Azolla were made by evaluating the 16 morphological features applied to all Azolla accessions, the degree of dorsal leaf lobe imbrication and the length to width ratio of ventral leaf lobes. The morphological data were compared with previous study and analysed using Multivariate Statistical Procedures (MVSP plus Version 2.2) software to calculate the similarity matrix between the species. The findings of this study identifies both Azolla as A. pinnata subsp. asiatica based on the morphological features assessed from the two Azolla accessions. This study confirms that morphological features can be used to identify Azolla and the environment of the growth region may cause variations to the Azolla species. Thus, specific future collection as to the character of the collecting site and its ecological setting is recommended. <br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Azolla, A. pinnata subsp. asiatica, morphological, identification</p> Nur Izzati Abdul Kodit Qatrunnada Qurratu’Aini Mohd Razemin Abdul Latif Noh Copyright (c) 2023 Revelation and Science 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 1 1 10.31436/revival.v1i1.372