Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) <p>The Journal of Islam in Asia is published by the International Islamic University Malaysia. A peer-reviewed international Arabic-English online journal, published biannually in June and December. The Journal includes articles, selected studies, book reviews, reports of conferences etc., which are relevant to Islamic thought and Muslim concerns. The Journal sees itself as an instrument, and an extension, to promote the IIUM's mission of (IIICE); Integration, Islamicization, Internationalization and Comprehensive Excellence. The Editorial Board invites scholars and researchers to submit contributions to the Secretariat of the Journal.</p> <p><strong>EISSN: 2289-8077</strong></p> <p>This journal is listed and indexed in the following indexing sites:</p> <p><strong>1. <a title="MCC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Malaysian Citation Centre</a></strong></p> <p><strong>2. <a title="Google Scholar" href=";q=ISSN+1823-0970&amp;btnG=&amp;as_sdt=1%2C5&amp;as_sdtp=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></strong></p> <p><strong>3. <a title="JournalSeek" href=";query=1823-0970" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Genamics JournalSeek </a></strong></p> International Islamic University -Malaysia en-US Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 1823-0970 Abdul Salam @ Zulkifli B.Muhamad Shukri <p><strong>EDITOR-in-CHIEF</strong></p> <p><a href="">Abdul Salam @ Zulkifli B.Muhamad Shukri&nbsp;</a></p> <p>(International Islamic University Malaysia)</p> <p><strong>ASSOCIATE EDITOR</strong></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Homam Altabaa</a></p> <p>(International Islamic University Malaysia)</p> <p><strong>COPY EDITOR</strong></p> <p>Kamel Ouinez</p> <p>(International Islamic University Malaysia)</p> <p><strong>EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD</strong></p> <p><strong>Local Members</strong></p> <p>Abdel Aziz Berghout (IIUM)</p> <p>Badri Najib bin Zubir (IIUM)</p> <p>Hassan Ibrahim Hendaoui (IIUM)&nbsp;</p> <p>Jamal Badi (IIUM)</p> <p>Muhammed Mumtaz Ali (IIUM)</p> <p>Rahmah Bt. Ahmad H. Osman (IIUM)</p> <p>Sayed Sikandar Shah (IIUM)</p> <p>Thameem Ushama (IIUM)</p> <p>Wan Mazwati Wan Yusoff (IIUM)</p> <p>Nadzrah Ahmad (IIUM)</p> <p>Saidatolakma Mohd Yunus (IIUM)</p> <p><strong>International Members</strong></p> <p>Abu Bakr Rafique (IIUC,&nbsp;Islamic International University Chittagong, Bangladesh)</p> <p>Fikret Karcic (University of Sarajevo, Bosnia)&nbsp;</p> <p>Israr Ahmad Khan (Fatih Sultan Mehmet Waqf University, Turkey)</p> <p>Muhammad Al-Zuhayli (University Of Sharjah, UAE)</p> <p>Muhammad Elamin Musa (Qater&nbsp;University)</p> <p>Saheed Ahmad Rufai (Sokoto State University,&nbsp;Nigeria)</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1088 المحرمات من الأطعمة الواردة في القرآن الكريم وعلاقتها بالأوبئة دراسة موضوعية (Forbidden Foods in the Holy Qur’an and their Relationship with Pandemics: A Thematic Study) <p>تتناول هذه الدراسة الآيات التي ورد فيها ذكر المحرمات من الأطعمة وعلاقتها بالأوبئة، مبينة مقاصد التشريع الحنيف وحكمه الجلية في<strong> إباحة</strong> وتحريم ما ورد في هذه السور الكريمة مع التركيز على ما ورد في سور: (المائدة، الانعام والأعراف). وتتمثل أهمية الدراسة في <strong>إثبات إحاطة</strong> القرآن الكريم وتفرده في تناول جميع مناحي الحياة وترسيخ شمولية الآية الكريمة ﴿ <strong>وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ</strong> ﴾ [سورة النحل الآية 89].كذلك التأكيد على أهمية الرجوع <strong>إلى</strong> كتاب الله والاسترشاد بتوجيهاته التي جعلها الله شرعة ومنهاجا وما يعود على <strong>الإنسان</strong> من نفع عند الالتزام بها من تهذيب للفطرة وحفاظ على الصحة ووقاية من الأمراض.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>الكلمات المفتاحية:</strong> الأطعمة، المحرمات، الطيبات، الإباحة، القرآن.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study deals with what foods are allowed and not allowed for Muslims to eat according to the Holy Quran. This study also shows why these foods are banned and how these foods are closely related to pandemics. This wisely proves How conclusive the Holy Quran is! The verses which support this idea are included in the Surahs such as (Al-Ma'dah, Al-An'am, and Al-Araf). The search signifies that the Holy Quran includes uniquely all walks of human life. For example, At Surah Al-Ana'm verse 89, Allah says, (.....and WE have sent down to you (prophet Muhammad) PBUH, the Quran as exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves to Allah). This verse goes side by side with the straight human nature and it is a real application to the English wise saying, (prevention is better than cure).To sum up, the Holy Quran has an amazing impact on humans as it protects them from pandemics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Foods, Forbidden, Al-Tayibat, Permissibility, Qur'an.</p> حنان عوض إبراهيم علي Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 1 36 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1044 أهمية فهم طبائع العلوم الإسلامية في إعداد الأستاذ المُتخصص فيها وصفاته (Importance of Understanding the Natures of Islamic Sciences In the Preparation of Specialised Lecturer and His Attributes) <p>تتناول الورقة بالدراسة مسألة طبائع العلوم الإسلامية والشرعية، وما يميزها عن غيرها وأثر ذلك على نوعية الأستاذ الجامعي الذي يُدرسها وصفاته وملكاته. وتهدف الورقة إلى بيان هذه الطبائع في تحديد صفات الأستاذ الذي يتعلمها ويُعلمها. ويتبع البحث المنهج الوصفي التحليلي وتحليل النصوص. وخلص البحث إلى أن من طبائع هذه العلوم أنها توحيدية المرجعية، وعملية وعلمية ومنهجية ومقصدية، وتدور حول رسالة الاستخلاف في الأرض واعمارها المتوازن. وعليه فإن الأستاذ الذي يتعلمها ويُعلمها ينبغي أن يتصف بصفات منها: الرسالية والإيمان القوي، والقيادة والإمامية العلمية، والعلم والخبرة، والقدوة النموذجية والحكمة والرشد والتزكية والتطهير. ويوصي البحث بضرورة تطوير برامج تأهيلية متخصصة لأستاذ العلوم الإسلامية والشرعية في الجامعات تراعي واقع التعليم المعاصر، ونوعية المتعلمين وطرق التدريس والتعليم المتلائمة وطبائع هذه العلوم والواقع الذي تُدرس فيه.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحية:</strong> طبائع العلوم الإسلامية، الأستاذ، الصفات، التعليم الجامعي.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This article analyses the importance of understanding the natures of Islamic sciences, and what distinguishes them from others and the impact of this on the attributes and competencies of the university lecturer who teaches them. The aim of the paper is to show the how these natures influence preparation of the lecturers. The article followed the descriptive analytical method and textual analysis. It concluded that some of the natures of these sciences are: revealed reference, practical, scientific, methodological and purposeful, and revolve around the message of <em>Istikhlaf</em> (vicegerency) and civilisation (umran) on the earth. Accordingly, the teacher who learns and teaches them should have attributes and qualities such as; sense of mission, strong faith, Intellectual leadership, knowledge and experience, exemplary role model, wisdom, guided reasoning, purification and spiritualty. The article recommended the need to develop specialised programs for the lecturers of Islamic and Shari’ah sciences in universities that take into account the realities of contemporary education, the quality of learners, teaching methods and the natures of these sciences. </p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Natures of Islamic Sciences, Lecturer, Attributes, University Teaching<strong>.</strong></p> عبد العزيز برغوث Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 37 68 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1086 إِشكَالِيةُ العَقْلِ الحَدَاثِيِّ في بِناءِ المَعرفةِ الدِّينيةِ قراءة تحليلية لآراء عبدالكريم سروش (The Problem of The Modernist Mind In Constructing Religious Knowledge: An Analytical Reading of The Opinions of Abdul Karim Soroush) <p>يهدف هذا البحث إلى تسليط الضوء على قراءة عبد الكريم سروش لمفهوم العقل ودوره في بناء المعرفة الدينية، حيث ذهب أن الغاية منه هو البحث والتقصي فقط وليس الوصول إلى الحق والحقيقة، وزعم أن حدود عمل العقل مطلقة لا حدود لها، وأن مخرجاته تتسم في النهاية بالنسبية إذ يصعب الوصول إلى الحقيقة وفهم الخطاب بحسب وجهة نظره، ومن أبرز نتائج هذه القراءة أن رؤية سروش هذه تؤدي إلى تقويض مفهوم العقل وإسقاط حجيته ودوره في تشكيل المعرفة الدينية ذلك لأنها جعلته في مصافِّ النسبية، وعملت على الإخلال بغرضه.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحية:</strong> العقل، الحداثة، الفكر الإسلامي، عبد الكريم سروش.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This research aims to highlight Abd al-Karim Soroush’s reading of the concept of reason and its role in building religious knowledge, where the goal is to research and investigate only and not to reach the facts and truth, as he claimed that the limits of mind ability are absolute, and that its outputs are in the end relative, as it is difficult to reach the truth and understand the discourse according to his point of view. The most important result of this reading is that Soroush's vision of the concept of reason leads to undermining this concept and dropping its authority and role in shaping religious knowledge, because it placed it in the ranks of relativism, and worked to violate its purpose.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Reason, Modernity, Islamic thought, Abdolkarim</p> نشوان عبده خالد يونس البقالي Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 69 94 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1076 المعاقبة النحوية وتطبيقاتها الدلالية: معاقبة الأفعال أنموذجاً (The Grammatical Alternation and Its Semantic Applications: The Alternation of Verbs as A model) <p>يهدف هذا البحث إلى دراسة المعاقبة في الدرس النحوي والتعريف بمفهومها وبيان وسائلها، وخصائصها النحوية وتحليل أمثلتها الواردة في كتب النحاة دلالياً، وتأتي أهمّيّة هذه الظاهرة من حيث إنّ قِدمَها قِدَمُ اللغة، وهي ظاهرة سادت لغة بعض القبائل العربيّة التي احتجّ بها النحويون، وهذه الظاهرة توضّح الفرق الدلالي بين الكلمات، مثلاً: ريّا وروّى؛ فالأولى صفة والثانية اسم؛ لذا فهذه الظاهرة لم تكن اعتباطًا بل كانت مقصودة لبيان دلالات الكلمات فضلاً عن أهمّيّة هذه الظاهرة صوتيًّا، ويستخدم البحث المنهجين الوصفي والتحليلي وذلك من خلال جمع المعلومات اللازمة حول الدراسة من تعريفات وشروح متعلّقة بها، وتحليلها تحليلاً دلالياً للوصول إلى النتائج، ومن أهم النتائج التي توصل إليها البحث: أنّ الفعل اللازم قد يرد بمعنى فعل آخر متعد عن طريق التضمين، فيعمل عمل ذلك الفعل، فينصب المفعول به. وأنّ العرب قد استخدمت الفعل الماضي بمعنى المضارع، فيجيء بلفظ الماضي والمعنى بلفظ المضارع، وذلك أنّه أراد الاحتياط للمعنى، فجاء بمعنى المضارع المشكوك في وقوعه بلفظ الماضي المقطوع بكونه، حتى كأن هذا قد وقع واستقر لأنّه متوقع مترقب.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحية: </strong>المعاقبة النحوية، الدلالة، الأفعال.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This research aims to study the alternation in the grammatical lesson, define its concept, explain its means, and grammatical characteristics, and analyze its examples in the grammarians’ books semanticly. The semantic difference between the words, for example: raya and rawa; The first is an adjective and the second is a noun. Therefore, this phenomenon was not arbitrary, but rather was intended to show the semantics of the words as well as the importance of this phenomenon phonetically. To it search: that the necessary verb may be received: The imperative verb may be received in the sense of another transitive verb by means of an inclusion, so the action of that verb works, and the object is made in it. And that the Arabs have used the past verb in the sense of the present, so he comes with the wording of the past and the meaning with the wording of the present, and that is because he wanted to be cautious of the meaning, so he came with the meaning of the present whose occurrence is doubtful with the wording of the past that is cut off from being, even as if this had occurred and settled because it is expected and awaited.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Grammatical Alternation, Semantics, Verbs.</p> أحمد محمد عطوف الديرشوي عبد الوهاب زكريا أدهم حموية Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 95 126 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1069 ظاهرة التوازي في قصائد شوقي الوطنية: دراسة وصفية تحليلية (The Phenomenon of Parallelism in Shawky's Nationalistic Poems: A Descriptive Analytical Study) <p>يتناول هذا البحث تحليل ظاهرة التوازي في قصائد شوقي الوطنية، بمعنى أن هذه الخاصية الفنية أهم عنصر لتوظيف الموسيقى الداخلية، في حين أنها ظاهرة تحتوي على ثروة دلالية كأبرز وسيلة للتعبير عن تجربة الشاعر وانفعالاته. اعتمادا على المنهج الوصفي والتحليل؛ يهدف هذا المقال إلى الكشف عن السمات الجماليات إيقاعيا ودلاليا، المتعلقة بأبرز أنماط التوازي: الصوتي والتركيبي والدلالي، التي استثمرها شوقي في الأشعار التي عبر فيها عن قضايا وطنه. وتبرز أهمية هذه الدراسة في أنها تسلط الضوء على أشكال بلاغية: الجناس، والترصيع، والتقسيم، والطباق، والمقابلة، والعكس والتبديل وغيرها مما له أكبر تأثير في تشكيل ظاهرة التوازي. وخلص البحث إلى أن الشاعر توسل في تشكيل البنية الإيقاعية بإبداعاته الفنية في هذه الظاهرة؛ لإثراء النغمة الموسيقية التي تؤثر في عواطف المتلقين، والتي كانت أيضا صدى لانفعالات الشاعر وأحاسيسه.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحية: </strong>ظاهرة التوازي، القصائد الوطنية، الأشكال البلاغية، البنية الإيقاعية، ثروة دلالية.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This research analyses the phenomenon of parallelism in Shawky's nationalist poems, in the sense of that this is the most important element for employing the internal rhyme, while it is a phenomenon that carries semantic richness, as it is considered one of the most prominent ways to express the poet’s experiences and emotions. Relying on the descriptive analytical approach, this article aims to reveal the rhythmic and semantic aesthetic features related to the most remarkable patterns of parallelism: phonemic, syntactic, and semantic, that Shawki used it in his poems, through which he expressed the issues of his homeland. The importance of this study is evident in that it focuses on rhetorical forms: Alliteration (al Jinas), Homoioptoton (al Tarsi'), Antithesis (al Tibaq, al Muqabala), Antimetabole (al 'Aks), etc., which has the greatest impact on shaping the phenomenon of parallelism. The research concluded that the poet could form the rhythmic structure with his artistic creations in this phenomenon, it enriches the musical tone that influences the emotions of the recipients, which was also as the echo of the poet’s emotions and feelings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Phenomenon of parallelism, Nationalistic poems, Rhetorical forms, Rhythmic structure, Semantic richness.</p> محمد حفيز بن محمد شريف نصر الدين إبراهيم أحمد حسين Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 127 164 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1060 The Role of Mosque Committee in Empowering Mosque’s Educational Programmes: Case Study of Mosques in Gombak District, Malaysia (Peranan Ahli Jawatankuasa Masjid dalam Penambahbaikan Program Pendidikan Masjid: Kajian Kes bagi Masjid-Masjid di Daerah Gombak) <p>This article analyses the roles of the mosque committee in enhancing the mosque’s educational programmes in Gombak, Selangor. Gombak as an administrative district that is located inside the hectic and modernized area of Klang Valley is prone to foreign ideologies and socio-cultural issues. This study aims to broaden the understanding of how the mosque committee in Gombak could empower the mosque’s educational programmes in addressing these issues. This study also aims to discover creative improvision that the committee could make in making the mosque’s educational programmes attractive to the surrounding community. This study focuses on the role of the mosque committee in improving their mosque’s educational programmes with a specific case study on selected mosques in the Gombak district. It is a qualitative study that utilizes the deductive and inductive methods derived from surveys collected from Focus-group Discussion (FGD) and literature studies. Recordings from the FGD survey and recent literature studies related to this topic are examined and analysed according to its appropriation. The result indicates the importance of the mosque committee and their significant roles in enhancing the mosque’s educational programmes such as adjusting the curriculum to cater the diversity of people and continuously improvising the lesson through feedback taken from the surrounding community.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Mosque Educational Programme, Mosque Committee, Islamic Education, Gombak District, Majlis Agama Islam Selangor.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Artikel ini mengkaji peranan yang boleh dimainkan oleh ahli jawatankuasa masjid dalam usaha penambahbaikan program pendidikan masjid di sekitar kominiti Gombak, Selangor. Gombak merupakan sebuah daerah pentadbiran terletak di dalam kawasan Lembah Kelang yang sibuk dan moden terdedah kepada ideologi asing dan permasalahan sosio-budaya. Kajian ini bermatlamat untuk memperluaskan kefahaman berkaitan tentang bagaimana ahli jawatankuasa masjid boleh menambahbaik program pendidikan masjid untuk menanggapi permasalaha-masalah tersebut. Kajian ini juga bertujuan untuk menemukan kaedah penambahbaikan kreatif yang boleh dilakukan oleh ahli jawatankuasa masjid untuk menjadikan program pendidikan masjid menarik bagi masyarakat sekitar. Kajian ini juga memfokuskan kepada peranan ahli jawatankuasa masjid dalam menambahbaik fungsi program pendidikan masjid dengan kajian kes keatas masjid terpilih di daerah Gombak. Ini adalah kajian kualitatif yang menggunapakai kaedah deduktif dan induktif yang berasal dari hasil dapatan tinjauan Diskusi Kelompok Terfokus (FGD) dan juga kajian literatur. Rakaman dari tinjauan FGD dan kajian literatur terkini yang berkaitan dengan topik ini akan dikaji dan dianalisa mengikut kesesuaiannya. Hasil menunjukkan kepentingan ahli jawatankuasa masjid dan peranan besar mereka dalam menambahbaik program pendidikan masjid contohnya dalam menyesuaikan kurikulum untuk menyantuni kepelbagaian masyarakat dan penambahbaikan berterusan pengajian melalui maklum balas yang diperolehi dari masyarakat setempat.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci: </strong>Program Pendidikan Masjid, Ahli Jawatankuasa Masjid, Pengajian Islam, Daerah Gombak, Majlis Agama Islam Selangor.</p> Muhammad Ayman al-Akiti Che Mahzan Bin Ahamad Che’ Razi Bin Jusoh Ismail bin Mamat Aliza Bin Elias @ Mayah Mohd Helmi Bin Mohd Sobri Lihanna Binti Borhan Mohd Noh Bin Abdul Jalil Sofiah Binti Samsudin Majdan Bin Alias Shukran bin Abd Rahman Kamaruzzaman Bin Abdul Manan Khamsiah Bin Mohd Ismail Mohamad Haeqal Bin Ishak Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 165 187 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1058 Revival of Islamic Civilization: Strategies for the Development of Muslim Society in the Thought of Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi (Kebangkitan Tamadun Islam: Strategi Pembangunan Masyarakat Islam dalam Pemikiran Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi) <p>This study attempts at analysing Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi’s suggestions towards a revival of Islamic civilization as an alternative to the Western civilization. It is based on library research and is qualitative in nature as it basically focuses on textual analysis. Moreover, the major approaches are descriptive, analytical and evaluative. This study found that Nadwi believed in the capacities of Islamic civilization to be revived if the existing challenges are overcome. For him, despite its tremendous breakthroughs in the fields of science and technology, Western civilization is bound to fail due to its moral decline. Therefore, it is only an Islamic civilization which is overtaken by the Western civilization should lead the humanity. In light of his argument, this study explores the strategies provided by Nadwi for the development of Muslim society as a revival of Islamic civilization. It focuses on three basic domains, namely, intellectual, political, and institutional aspects of reform. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Western civilization, Muslim leadership, <em>Ijtihad</em>, <em>Jihad</em>, Intellectual reform, Political reform, Institutional reform. </p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kajian ini cuba menganalisis cadangan Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi ke arah kebangkitan tamadun Islam sebagai alternatif kepada tamadun Barat. Ia berdasarkan penyelidikan perpustakaan dan sifat kualitatif di mana ia pada dasarnya memberi tumpuan kepada analisis tekstual. Selain itu, pendekatan utama adalah deskriptif, analisis dan penilaian. Kajian ini mendapati bahawa Nadwi percaya kepada keupayaan tamadun Islam untuk dihidupkan semula jika cabaran sedia ada dapat diatasi. Baginya, walaupun kejayaannya yang luar biasa dalam bidang sains dan teknologi, tamadun Barat sebenarnnya gagal kerana kemerosotan moralnya. Oleh itu, Nadwi menegaskan bahawa hanyalah tamadun Islam yang harus memimpin manusia. Kajian ini meneroka hujah Nadwi tentang strategi untuk pembangunan masyarakat Islam sebagai usaha ke arah kebangkitan semula tamadun Islam. Ia memberi tumpuan kepada tiga domain asas, iaitu, intelektual, politik, dan aspek institusi pembaharuan. </p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci:</strong> Tamadun Barat, Kepimpinan Islam, <em>Ijtihad</em>, <em>Jihad</em>, Pembaharuan Intelektual, Pembaharuan Politik, Pembaharuan Institusi.</p> Adibah Abdul Rahim Saud Muhammad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 188 204 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1056 Islam, Modernity and the Concept of Progress (Islam, Pemodenan dan Konsep Kemajuan) <p>This paper aims to review definitions and scope of modernity and analyze it in the context of a specific religion, Islam. The paper then highlights the harmony between progress and Islam based on the historical examples from the glorious eras of Islamic civilization in Andalusia and the Abbasid caliphate, in which modernity and religion were complementary in producing the novel innovations of that time. Knowledge creation and technological advancements were strongly pursued during that time by numerous renowned Muslim scholars, intellectuals and philosophers. This paper then examines the current situation in the Muslim world. The majority of Muslim nations are backward, impoverished and stagnant due to rigidity and restrictions in political and intellectual freedom, in addition to gender inequality and discrimination. As the paper finds, these unprecedented qualities are not a part of Islamic teachings, but the consequential effect of post colonialism and the politicization of religion by certain squatters using Islam for political interests and purposes. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Modernity, Islam, Islamic Civilization and innovations, Muslim Spain, Abbasid Caliphate, Modernity today, Islam and modernity. </p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Penulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengulas definisi, dan skop kemodenan seta menganalisa hubungan antara modernisasi dengan agama iaitu, Islam. Terbukti pemodenan boleh wujud dengan keharmonian antara kemajuan dan Islam itu sendiri dengan mengaplikasikan contoh sejarah daripada zaman kegemilangan tamadun Islam seperti di Andalusia dan Abbasiyah dimana pemodenan dan agama saling berkait rapat antara satu sama lain untuk menghasilkan inovasi yang terbaik pada waktu itu. Penciptaan ilmu pengetahuan dan kemajuan teknologi tercetus dengan kelahiran ulama, ahli intelek dan ahli falsafah Muslim. Selain itu, bahagian berikut bagi penulisan ini mengkaji situasi masa kini di dunia Islam dimana majoriti negara Islam dikatakan mundur, dibelenggu kemiskinan dan berfikiran jumud disebabkan ketegasan dan pembatasan didalam kebebasan berpolitik dan intelek, kesaksamaan jantina dan diskriminasi. Penulisan ini menemui, sifat sifat negatif tersebut tercetus bukan berdasarkan daripada ajaran Islam, tetapi kesan daripada pasca penjajahan dan pempolitikan berlandaskan agama daripada puak tertentu yang menggunakan Islam atas tujuan kepentingan politik.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Pemodenan, Islam, Tamadun Islam dan inovasi, Muslim Sepanyol, Khalifah Abbasiyah, Kemodenan hari ini, Islam dan pemodenan.</p> Nor Farhain Zaharani Elmira Akhmetova Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 205 230 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1087 A Review of Kahlil Gibran’s Major Creative Works (Ulasan Hasil Karya Kreatif Utama Kahlil Gibran) <p>Kahlil Gibran is one of the most important writers of modern Arabic literature and one of the most successful poets of English in the twentieth century. He is undoubtedly a pioneer among Arab poets and novelists writing in English and the most important figure in the Émigré literary movement. His world-wide popularity is due in large part to his universal spiritual message of love and compassion. This study, focusing on both his Arabic and English works, seeks to explore the various contextual aspects that affect all of Gibran’s works since his birth in Mount Lebanon. It also presents a critical overview of all his works for readers and critics that seek a deeper appreciation and a more comprehensive understanding of this literary genius. The study highlights the spiritual element which serves as the link that unifies his Arabic and English works and propels them to enduring literary and popular success across cultures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Kahlil Gibran, Āmigré Literature, Diaspora Writers, Spirituality, Perennialism. </p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kahlil Gibran merupakan salah seorang penulis yang tersohor dalam kesusasteraan Arab moden dan salah seorang penyair Inggeris yang berjaya pada abad kedua puluh. Kredibiliti beliau tidak diragukan kerana beliau merupakan perintis dalam kalangan penyair dan novelis Arab yang menulis dalam bahasa Inggeris dan tokoh terpenting dalam gerakan sastera Émigré. Sebahagian besar popularitinya di seluruh dunia adalah disebabkan oleh mesej rohani universal cinta dan belas kasihannya. Kajian ini difokuskan kepada kedua-dua karya Arab dan Inggerisnya untuk meneroka pelbagai aspek kontekstual yang mempengaruhi semua karya Gibran sejak kelahirannya di Gunung Lubnan. Kajian ini juga memberikan gambaran keseluruhan yang kritis mengenai semua karya beliau kepada pembaca dan pengkritik yang mencari penghayatan yang lebih mendalam dan pemahaman yang lebih komprehensif tentang kehebatan sastera ini. Kajian ini juga mengenengahkan unsur kerohanian yang berfungsi sebagai penghubung yang menyatukan hasil karya Arab dan Inggerisnya dan mendorong mereka kepada kejayaan sastera dan popular yang berkekalan di seluruh budaya.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Kahlil Gibran, Sastera Āmigré, Penulis Diaspora, Kerohanian, Perenialisme.</p> Homam Altabaa Waleed Fekry Faris Adham Hamawiya Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 231 253 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1082 Technical Framework of Qatar’s Foreign Aid Policy: Guiding Documents and Operative Institutions (Rangka Kerja Teknikal Dasar Bantuan Asing Qatar: Dokumen Panduan dan Institusi Pelaksana) <p>This paper presents essential aspects of the State of Qatar foreign aid policy (QFAP), which is closely tied to the wider country’s foreign policy. The study traces and explains vital foundations of the country’s foreign aid policy framework and its decision-making process, mainly the guiding documents and operative institutions. Evidently, the content and structure of these two technical elements reflect the political and socio-cultural background as well as the regional and global surrounding of the state of Qatar. Although it is an emerging donor, Qatar’s aid documents and institutions are showing radical development and prestigious institutionalizing. The technical guidance and the inclusiveness of QFAP documents and widespread operations of its institutions show that Qatar has further benefited from its partnerships and global engagements to advance its aid policy making. This research used face-to-face interviews with key Qatari officials and scrutinized the state official documents and quoted speeches and statements, in addition to other relevant academic materials.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Foreign Aid Policy, Qatar, Documents, Institutions, Policy-Making. </p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Artikel ini membentangkan aspek dasar bantuan luar negeri Qatar (QFAP), yang berkait rapat dengan rangka kerja umum dasar luar negeri yang lebih luas. Kajian ini mengesan dan menerangkan 2 asas penting rangka kerja dasar bantuan asing negara dan proses membuat keputusannya; iaitu dokumen panduan dan institusi pelaksana. Melalui kajian ini, jelas menunjukkan bahawa kandungan dan struktur kedua-dua elemen teknikal ini mencerminkan latar belakang politik dan sosio-budaya serta persekitaran serantau dan global negara Qatar. Walaupun Qatar merupakan penderma yang baru menonjolkan diri dalam landskap bantuan global, namun dokumen dan institusi bantuan Qatar menunjukkan ia sebagai perkembangan positif dan institusi yang berprestij. Panduan teknikal dan keterangkuman dokumen QFAP dan operasi meluas institusinya menunjukkan bahawa Qatar telah terus mendapat manfaat daripada perkongsian dan penglibatan globalnya untuk memajukan pembentukan dasar bantuannya. Kajian ini dijalankan berdasarkan temu bual langsung dengan para pegawai Qatar dan pakar yang berkaitan, di samping menganalisis dokumen dan laporan rasmi negara, memetik ucapan dan kenyataan rasmi, serta mengambil kira sumber akademik dan saintifik lain yang berkaitan.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Dasar Bantuan Asing, Qatar, Dokumen, Institusi, Proses Pembentukan Dasar.</p> Fadhl A. Bashir El Fatih Abdullahi Abdelsalam Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Islam in Asia (E-ISSN 2289-8077) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 18 3 254 275 10.31436/jia.v18i3.1008