Mysticism and the Renewal of Islamic Literature (Tasawuf dan Pembaharuan Kesusasteraan Islam)

  • Homam Altabaa Assist. Prof. Dr, FIDS, KIRKHS, IIUM.
  • Adham Hamawiya Assist. Prof. Dr, FIDS, KIRKHS, IIUM.

Abstract

Literature has been a medium to express and explore the depths of human life and Truth. This is accurate of Islamic literature that has been produced across the globe over hundreds of years. This paper seeks to highlight key mystical aspects of classical Islamic literature and their relevance to world literature and culture. Mysticism is essentially understood in this context as a set of beliefs and practices that lead to a form of proximity or union with the Divine. The paper explores key manifestations of mysticism in prominent works of Islamic literature by renowned classical figures such as Rumi, Ibn ‘Arabī, ’Al-Ghazālī, Ibn ‘Al-Fāriḍ and Rābi‘ah. These manifestations include prevalent themes such as divine essence and attributes, gnosis and knowledge, the concept of mystical path and divine love. The paper concludes that contemporary Muslim writers and literary commentators have a rich tradition that can be re-examined, revived and matched to renew and rejuvenate the literatures of Muslim nations.

Keywords: Islamic literature, Mysticism, Mystical literature, Sufism, Sufi poetry.

Abstrak

Kesusasteraan merupakan satu medium untuk menzahir dan meneroka kehidupan manusia dan kebenaran. Ini bertepatan dengan kesusasteraan Islam yang terhasil dari seluruh dunia sejak ratusan tahun dahulu. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menyoroti aspek tasawuf dalam kesusasteraan Islam klasik dan kaitannya dengan kesusasteraan dan budaya dunia. Tasawuf dalam konteks ini pada asasnya difahami sebagai satu set kepercayaan dan amalan yang membawa kepada suatu bentuk kedekatan atau kesatuan dengan ketuhanan. Makalah ini meneroka manifestasi utama dalam karya-karya kesusasteraan Islam oleh tokoh terkenal seperti Rumi, Ibn 'Arabī,' Al-Ghazali, Ibn 'Al-Fāriḍ dan Rābi'ah. Manifestasi ini termasuk tema lazim seperti intipati dan sifat ketuhanan, gnosis dan pengetahuan, konsep tasawuf dan ketuhanan. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahawa para pengarang Islam kontemporari dan pengulas kesusasteraan telah ditinggalkan dengan tradisi yang kaya untuk dikaji, dihidupkan semula dan dipadankan untuk memperbaharui dan memperkasa kesusasteraan Islam.

Kata Kunci: Kesusasteraan Islam, Tasawuf, Persuratan Tasawuf, Sufism, Puisi sufi.

 

References

‘Al-Qushayrī. Al-Qushayri’s Epistle on Sufism. Reading, UK: Garnet Publishing, 2007.

Arberry, Arthur John. Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam. Lon-don: Routledge, 2008.

Audi, Robert. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, second edition, 1999.

Bamba, Adama. Islamic Dimensions in the Western African Frncophone Novels: Analytical Study. Kuala Lumpur: IIUM thesis manuscript, 2004.

Bowering, Gerhard. “The Light Verse: Quranic Text and Sufi Interpreta-tion.” Oriens, Vol. 36, (2001).

Chittick, William. The Sufi Path of Love: The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1983.

Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic Philosophy. London: Kegan Paul In-ternational, 1993.

Fakhry, Majid. Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Mysticism: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2000.

Gairdner, William Henry Temple. The Niche for Lights by Al-Ghazzali: Translation and Introduction. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1924.

Gellman, Jerome. "Mysticism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (Spring 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = < http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mysticism/>.

Grant, Patrick. Literature of Mysticism in Western Tradition. London: Macmillan Press, 1985.

Harrison, Victoria S. “Scientific And Religious Worldviews: Antagonism, Non-Antagonistic Incommensurability and Complementarity.” The Heythrop Journal, Vol. 47, No. 3, (2006).

Homerin, Thomas Emil. Umar Ibn ’Al-Fāriḍ: Sufi Verse, Saintly Life. New York: Paulist Press, 2001.

Ibrahim, Nasr El Din. Islamic Literature: Theoretical and Applied Study. Kuala Lumpur: IIUM, 2008.

Jones, Lindsay. ed. Encyclopedia of Religion. Detroit: Macmil-lan/Thomson Gale, 2005.

Khafājī, Muḥammad. ’Al-’Adab fī ’Al-Turāth ’Al-Ṣūfī. Cairo, Gharīb Books, 1983.

Kornberg Greenberg, Yudit. ed. Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions. Santa Barbra: ABC-CLIO, 2008.

Leaman, Oliver and Ali, Kecia. Islam: Key Concepts. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Marcotte, Roxanne. "Suhrawardi", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philos-ophy (Summer 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2012/entries/suhrawardi/>.

Mason, Herbert W. Al-Hallaj. London, Routledge, 1995.

McIntosh, Mark A. Mystical Theology: The Integrity of Spirituality and Theology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.

Nadeem, S. H. A Critical Appreciation of Arabic Mystical Poetry. Delhi: Adam Publishers, 1993.

Nicholson, Reynold A. The Mystics of Islam. Bloomington: World Wis-dom, 2002.

Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, se-cond edition.

Runes, Dagobert D. The Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: Philo-sophical Library, 1983.

Ryce-Menuhin, Joel. ed. Jung and the Monotheisms: Judaism, Christi-anity and Islam, (London: Routledge, 1994), chapter by Sara Sviri, “Mysterium Coniunctionis: From Polarity to Oneness in Sufi Psychology”.

Schimmel, Annemarie. As Through a Veil: Mystical Poetry in Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.

Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: Uni-versity of North Carolina Press, 1975.

Smith, Margaret. The Persian Mystics: Attar. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1932.

Watt, Montgomery. The Faith and Practice of Al-Ghazali. Oxford: One World, 2000.

Werner, Karel. “Mysticism as Doctrine and Experience.” in The Yogi and the Mystic: Studies in Indian and Comparative Mysticism, edited by Karel Werner, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1994.

Published
2019-12-30
How to Cite
Altabaa, H., & Hamawiya, A. (2019). Mysticism and the Renewal of Islamic Literature (Tasawuf dan Pembaharuan Kesusasteraan Islam) . Journal of Islam in Asia <span style="font-Size: 0.6em">(E-ISSN: 2289-8077)</Span&gt;, 16(3), 374-394. https://doi.org/10.31436/jia.v16i3.838