Images of Islam in Taiwan: from Chinese Islam to Global Islam (Imej Islam di Taiwan: Dari Muslim berbangsa Cina kepada Islam Global)

  • Bao Hsiu-Ping Assistant Professor, Department of History, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.

Abstract

Taipei Grand Mosque looks like a mini global village. Every Friday, the prayer hall is always overcrowded with Muslims from diverse ethnic backgrounds, including local Chinese Muslims (Hui), Arabs, Turks, Africans, Malaysians and Indonesians. They meet each other and exchange ideas after the congregational prayer. However, in the 1970s, there was a different image of Islam in Taiwan. Only Chinese Muslims were included in the congregation. The first generation of Chinese Muslims (around 20 to 50 thousand people) arrived in Taiwan with the National Government in 1949 and early 1950s when the Communist Party took over China. These Chinese Muslims showed distinctive features of ‘Chinese Islam’ in Taiwan. The elites among these Chinese Muslims were those who played a leading role in the revival of Islam in China during the 1930s and 1940s. When they settled in Taiwan, they resumed work serving Islam as they did the same in China, such as constructing mosques, building Muslim cemeteries and dispatching Muslim students to Middle Eastern countries. However, with the passage of time, their work on the revival of Islam seems to have been unsuccessful. The population of Chinese Muslims stagnated and even declined. Instead, with the open policy for drawing in foreign workers and students by the government in Taiwan during the 1990s, foreign Muslims from various countries began to appear in Taiwan, thereby exhibiting another images of Islam to the public. Nowadays, Chinese Muslims seem to be an invisible community in Taiwan as they and their descendants have become outnumbered by foreign Muslims. This paper aims to describe and analyze the paradigm shift in images of Islam in Taiwan over a half century.

Keywords: Images of Islam, Hui Muslim, Taiwan, Foreign Muslim.

Abstrak

 Masjid Besar Taipei seolah-olah seperti sebuah kampung global mini dimana setiap hari Jumaat, dewan solat masjid tersebut akan dipenuhi oleh umat Islam dari pelbagai latar belakang etnik, termasuk orang Cina (Hui), Arab, Turki, Afrika, Malaysia dan Indonesia. Mereka bertemu antara satu sama lain dan bertukar-tukar pendapat usai solat berjemaah. Walau bagaimanapun, pada tahun 1970-an, gambaran imej Islam di Taiwan mengalami perubahan. Hanya orang Cina yang beragama Islam diiktiraf sebagai ahli solat jemaah. Generasi pertama umat Islam di China (sekitar 20 hingga 50 ribu orang) tiba di Taiwan semasa pemerintahan Kerajaan Negara pada tahun 1949 dan pada awal 1950-an ketika Parti Komunis mengambil alih pemerintahan negara China. Ciri-ciri umat Islam Cina yang berasal daripada negara China adalah berbeza dengan orang-orang Islam Cina di Taiwan. Para elit di kalangan umat Islam Cina ini adalah mereka yang memainkan peranan penting dalam pemulihan Islam di China pada tahun 1930-an dan 1940-an. Apabila mereka menetap di Taiwan, mereka meneruskan kerja-kerja untuk Islam sebagaimana yang mereka lakukan di China, seperti membina masjid, membuka tanah perkuburan Islam dan menghantar pelajar Islam ke negara-negara Timur Tengah. Walau bagaimanapun, dengan peredaran masa, usaha-usaha mereka membangunkan Islam tidak berjaya. Bilangan penduduk umat Islam China tidak berubah malah mengalami kemerosotan disebabkan oleh dasar terbuka Taiwan yang menggalakkan kemasukan pekerja dan pelajar asing pada tahun 1990-an, natijahnya, ramai umat Islam dari pelbagai bangsa dan negara mulai muncul di Taiwan yang telah memberi kesan kepada imej Islam yang sebelumnya kepada orang awam. Pada masa kini, kaum Cina Muslim seolah-olah menjadi komuniti yang tidak kelihatan di Taiwan kerana mereka dan keturunan mereka telah menjadi lebih ramai hasil pencampuran daripada umat Islam asing. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan dan menganalisa peralihan paradigma terhadap imej Islam di Taiwan setelah separuh abad.

Kata Kunci: Imej Islam, Hui muslim, Taiwan, Muslim asing

 

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Published
2019-04-12
How to Cite
Hsiu-Ping, B. (2019). Images of Islam in Taiwan: from Chinese Islam to Global Islam (Imej Islam di Taiwan: Dari Muslim berbangsa Cina kepada Islam Global). Journal of Islam in Asia <span style="font-Size: 0.6em">(E-ISSN: 2289-8077)</Span&gt;, 16(1), 137-160. https://doi.org/10.31436/jia.v16i1.776