Approaches to Integration of Knowledge: A Study of Al-Ghazali And Alwani’s Views (Pendekatan ke Arah Mengintegrasikan Ilmu Pengetahuan: Satu Kajian terhadap Pandangan Al-Ghazali dan Alwani )

  • Sayyid Muhammad Yunus Gilani Assoc. Prof., Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, IIUM.
  • Tazul Islam Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Quranic and Sunnah Studies, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.

Abstract

This research aims to study the approaches to integrating scientific and Islamic knowledge based on the views of two selected Muslim scholar, namely Al-Ghazali and Alwani. A considerable amount of research has been produced on knowledge integration, yet there is still a lack of study in exploring the ‘processes’ of integration. Hence, this research highlights this particular aspect from both traditional and contemporary perspectives. Qualitative in nature, the data for this work was collected from the writings of the selected scholars and analyzed in order to find out how the integration is achieved. As a result, this study finds out two distinctive approaches to integration: Firstly, in al-Ghazali’s view, integration is an external and complementary factor where Islamic knowledge and science maintain their own entity but the later complements the former as a supportive tool; secondly, Alwani sees the integration as an internal and essential matter where a knowledge evolves as a result of a mix of scientific reading of the Quranic texts as well as reading of the nature based on Quranic worldview.       

Keywords: Generic skills, Integration of Knowledge, Islamization of knowledge, Al-Ghazali, Alwani, Islamic Worldview.

Abstrak

Kajian ini bertujuan mengkaji pendekatan untuk mengintegrasikan ilmu Sains dan Islam berdasarkan pandangan dua cendiakawan Islam iaitu Al-Ghazali dan Alwani. Sejumlah besar kajian telah pun dilakukan namun masih terdapat kekurangan kajian dari aspek proses integrasi ilmu pengetahuan. Oleh itu kajian ini secara khususnya akan memaparkan proses tersebut berdasarkan perspektif tradisional dan kontemporari. Disebabkan bersifat kualitatif, data-data kajian ini diperolehi daripada penulisan-penulisan para cendiakawan yang terpilih yang kemudiannya akan dianalisa untuk mengetahui proses bagaimana integrasi dapat dicapai. Hasil kajian mendapati dua pendekatan untuk tujuan integrasi, yang pertama menurut pandangan al-Ghazali, integrasi merupakan faktor luaran dan pelengkap dimana ilmu pengetahuan Islam dan Sains mengekalkan entiti tersendiri, namun Sains merupakan penyokong kepada ilmu pengetahuan tersebut. Kedua, Alwani melihat integrasi sebagai faktor dalaman yang penting untuk perkembangan ilmu hasil daripada pembacaan saintifik teks-teks al-Quran dan alam menurut perspektif al-Quran.

Kata Kunci: Kemahiran Generic, Pengintegrasian ilmu, Pengislaman ilmu, Al-Ghazali, Alwani, Pandang dunia menurut Islam.

References

Abdul Muhaya. “Unity Of Sciences According To Al-Ghazali.” Walisongo, Volume 23, Nomor 2, November 2015.

Abu Hamid al-Ghazālī, “Al-Risālah al-Laduniyyah,” in Majmuah Rasāil al-Imām al-Ghazālī, ed. Ibrahim Amin Muhammad (Cairo: al-Tawfiqa Bookshop, N. D).

Abu Hamid al-Ghazālī, Revitalization of the Sciences of Religion, trans. by Ahmad A Zidan. Egypt, Cairo: Islamic Inc, 1997, Vol. 1.

Abu Sulayman, A. H. Islamization of knowledge: Reforming contemporary knowledge. International institute of Islamic thought: Virginia: USA, 1994.

Ahmad Zaki Mansur Hammad, Abu Hamid al-Ghazali’s Juristic Doctrine in Al-Mustasfa min Ilm al-Usul with Translation of Volume One. United States, Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1987,

Abu Hamid al-Ghazālī, Al-Mustasfa. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1993.

Abu Hamid al-Ghazālī. “AI-Risaiah al-Laduniyyah." In Majmuah al-Rasa'il aI-Imam al-Ghazali. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, 1986, vol. 4.

Abu Hamid al-Ghazālī, al-Iqtiṣād fī al-ʿItiqād, ed. Cubukcu and H. Atay. Ankara, 1962.

George F. Hourani. “Ghazālī on the Ethics of Action.” Journal of the American Orien-tal Society, vol. 93, Issue 1 (Jan.-Mar., 1976).

Andi Nurbaethy, Development of al-Ghazālī’s Concept of the Knowledge of God in His Three Later Works: Ihya, al-Munqidh, and Iljam al-‘Awamm, MA thesis, 1998, Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University.

Attaran, M. Trends of educational culture and history in Iran and Europe (Tehran, Negah), 3rd edn. ,1989.

Dennis Morgan Davis Jr. Al-Ghazali on Divine Essence: A Translation from the Iqtisad F La L -Ictiqad with Notes and Commentary. ProQuest Information and Learning Com-pany 300 North Zeeb Road, 2005.

Fadlou Shehadi. Ghazālī’s Unique Unknowable God. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1964.

Fathi Hasan Malkawi, Epistemological Integration: Essentials of an Islamic Methodology. International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), London, Washington.

Franz Rosenthal. Knowledge Triumphant: The Concept of Knowledge in Medieval Islam. Leiden: E.J. Brill, UK, 1970.

Hamid Reza Alavi. “Al‐Ghazāli on moral education.” Journal of Moral Education, 36:3, 309-319, 2007, DOI: 10.1080/03057240701552810.

Malkawi, Fathi Hasan. Manhajiyyah al-Takamul al-Ma’rifi,. The International Institute of Islamic Thought, Herndon, USA. 2011

Muhammad Abul Quasem. The Jewels of the Qur’ān: al-Ghazālī's Theory. London: Kegan Paul International, first published in 1983, reprinted in 1989.

Mustafa Mahmoud Abu-Sway. The Genetic Development in Al-Ghazali’s Epistemology. USA: University Microfilms International A Bell & Howell Information Company, 1993

Othman, N., & Mohamad, K. A. “Eclectic Model in the Malaysian Education System.” International Education Studies, 4, no. 4, (2011): p. 111–117.

Sidek Baba. “The Integrated Approach in Malaysian Education: The International Islamic University as a Model.” Journal Pedidikan Islam 13.2, 2009, p.87-99.

Surajudeen, A. T., & Mat, M. Z. A. “Classification and Integration of Knowledge: The Qur’ānic Educational Model.” Revelation and Science, 03, no. 02, (2013)

Susan Drake. Planning for Integrated Curriculum: The call to adventure. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993.

Tazul Islam & M.Y. Zulkifli, “A Forgotten Theoretical Connection if Al-Ghazali’s Classifications of Religious Sciences: A Critical Analysis.” Al-Shajarah, vol. 20, no. 1, 2015.
Published
2018-12-24
How to Cite
Gilani, S. M. Y., & Islam, T. (2018). Approaches to Integration of Knowledge: A Study of Al-Ghazali And Alwani’s Views (Pendekatan ke Arah Mengintegrasikan Ilmu Pengetahuan: Satu Kajian terhadap Pandangan Al-Ghazali dan Alwani ). Journal of Islam in Asia <span style="font-Size: 0.6em">(E-ISSN: 2289-8077)</Span&gt;, 15(2), 389-410. https://doi.org/10.31436/jia.v15i2.756
Section
English Articles