IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Journal of Human Sciences is a bi-annual English journal, aimed at serving academics and researchers who seek to disseminate their research findings and knowledge discovery in the area of behavioral sciences or human sciences. It is also an avenue for postgraduate researchers to publish their research works, hence contribute to the development of human science disciplines and their application.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Authors are invited to submit their articles, book reviews, reports on conferences and seminars, as well as abstracts from Master’s and Doctoral theses which are related to the area of human sciences<strong>. </strong>Each journal article will be subjected to review process involving first reading by the IJOHS editorial team, followed by two reviewers in the field, language assessor, and proof reader.</p> </div> IIUM Press en-US IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2682-8731 The Relationship between the Instagram Usage and Self-esteem among IIUM Students https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/169 <p><em>This study aims to determine the effects of Instagram usage on the self-esteem of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) students. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to assess IIUM students’ level of Instagram usage; (2) to assess IIUM students’ level of perception of Instagram usage; (3) to assess IIUM students’ level of attitude in using Instagram; (4) to assess IIUM students’ level of behaviour in using Instagram; and (5) to determine the relationships of usage, perception, attitude, and behaviour in using Instagram with self-esteem. A quantitative research design was employed in this research. For data collection, network sampling was used as a sampling technique and an online survey questionnaire was used as the research instrument. A total of 160 undergraduate and postgraduate students participated in this study. The results show a high level of Instagram usage among students, where most of them used it more than five times a day. Therefore, their usage of the platform had a positive impact on their self-esteem. The findings also show that the students tended to have a positive perception, attitude, and behaviour towards self-esteem in using Instagram. The relationships between Instagram usage, perception, attitude, behaviour, and self-esteem were strong and statistically significant. Hence, when all the students have a highest level of Instagram usage, they will have a positive perception, attitude, and behaviour towards their self-esteem. This study tested the social comparison theory, and all the developed hypotheses were accepted</em><em>.</em></p> <p> </p> Md. Salah Uddin Saodah Wok Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 2 2 1 14 The Relationship between Religiosity and Psychological Distress among University Students during COVID-19 and Movement Control Order (MCO) https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/157 <p><em>The outbreak of COVID-19 has forced the Malaysian government to initiate a Movement Control Order (MCO) that requires people to stay at home. All businesses have been shut down including private and public higher learning institutions. This pandemic and the MCO may add to the existing stress faced by university students as past studies have reported that psychological distress is prevalent among them. In addition, earlier studies associated low levels of psychological distress with high religiosity. In this regard, this study would like to investigate if there is any association between the degree of psychological distress reported by university students and their religiosity during the pandemic and the MCO. This study was conducted on a purposive sample of Malaysian Muslim undergraduate and postgraduate students (N = 257, Mage = 22.28, SD = 2.16) using the IIUM Religiosity Scale (IIUMRelS) and the General Health Questionnaires (GHQ-12). The results suggest higher average scores in religiosity and lower scores in psychological distress. Furthermore, there was a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between religiosity and psychological distress (r = -.286, p &lt;0.01). These findings provide good suggestions for future studies to explore the predictive effect of religiosity on psychological distress as in this study both variables are associated.</em></p> <p> </p> Nazariah Sharie Janon AZHAD CHE IZHAR Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 2 2 15 24 The Subjective Burden of Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia in Pekanbaru https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/167 <p><em>Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder experienced for a long time and accompanied by several times relapse. It gives negative impacts, recognised as the objective and subjective burdens, on families who care for schizophrenic patients (caregiver). The objective burdens were related to high medical costs, while the subjective burdens were related to emotional and social pressure in treating a schizophrenic patient.</em> <em>This study aimed to identify the subjective burden of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Pekanbaru City. It will be the basis for determining the appropriate treatment for schizophrenic patients in the community.</em> <em>The method used was a survey involving 31 caregivers as research samples determined using cluster sampling techniques, obtained from 6 sub-districts of 12 subdistricts, namely Rumbai, Rumbai Pesisir, Senapelan, Payung Sekaki, Sukajadi, and Marpoyan Damai. Researchers used the Indonesian version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale as a research instrument, validated by Utami (2011). The statistical analysis used was a descriptive statistical analysis.</em> <em>This research showed that most caregivers suffered from subjective burden in the moderate category (38.70%). The main burden includes the feeling of unable to care while feeling overburdened occupied the second position and the lowest was the feeling of rejection. Female caregivers mostly felt a higher burden than males. Furthermore, caregivers aged over 60 years old showed the feeling of overburdened and unable to care higher than other ages, but lower in rejection than others.</em></p> Juliarni Siregar Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 2 2 25 34 Risk Factors of Radicalisation towards Violent Extremism: Challenges and Progress https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/164 <p><em>Statistics have shown that violent extremism was responsible for tens of thousands of deaths, destructions of properties, and billions of economic losses to multiple nations for years. Despite a wide array of research conducted since the early 1940s, some academics in the past decades believe that studies on risk factors of radicalisation towards violent extremism are hindered by many setbacks causing the field to be at infancy stage in research and knowledge compared to other areas of studies. Challenges faced by academics in the field had caused stagnation in reaching a holistic understanding of the risk factors of radicalisation. However, some academics have stressed that it is untrue to refer to the research field as stagnant as it dismisses a multitude of empirical studies which have been published for decades. Some scholars had found that progress has been made, but it is relatively slow due to some research challenges imposed on the field. This paper highlights the challenges that remain true and prevalent to many academics that attempted to study the risk factors of radicalisation towards violent extremism. Also, this paper provides some relevant evidence which shows that the notion regarding the challenges may be true. </em></p> Nurul Miza Mohd Rashid Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 2 2 35 46 Intellectual and Entrepreneurial Leadership: Reflection on Thailand’s Emerging Middle Power Diplomacy in the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/171 <p><em>Thailand’s diplomacy was considerably more active during Thaksin’s premiership than the governments after him. Thailand’s intellectual and entrepreneurial leadership in the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) is characterised as a catalyst, facilitator and manager state as described in the behavioural middle power approach. Utilising the behavioural model of the middle power approaches, this study argues that Thailand is a potential emerging middle power state in Asia for its role in intellectual and entrepreneurial leadership in the ACD. Even though the ACD after 2006 was somewhat negligent due to Thailand’s internal political strife. The ACD remains a significant foreign policy reflecting Thailand’s middle-power status.</em></p> Jiraroj Mamadkul Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 2 2 47 60 The Effects of Perceived Threats and Social Media Exposure about COVID-19 on Mental Health in Malaysia https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/158 <p><em>The objective of this study is to examine the effects of perceived threats and social media exposure of COVID-19 on mental health. </em><em>For this cross-sectional design survey-based study, a sample of 315 university students in Malaysia, aged between 19 to 35 years (Mean age = </em><em>23.31</em><em>, SD = </em><em>2.808</em><em>), were recruited by cluster sampling. Sociodemographic variables, perception of threat level of COVID-19, social media exposure level of COVID-19 and mental health of individuals was measured through a collection of online self-reported data. Standard multiple regression and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted. Results showed that individuals with higher levels of social media exposure had lower levels of mental health problems, whereas individuals with a higher level of perception of threat had more mental health problems.</em><em> Findings of this study has great implementations in research as it shows that the pandemic-related perception of threat generates mental health problems. As such, for the purpose of strengthening mental health services, campaigns and interventions should be introduced by policy makers, the government and mental health practitioners.</em></p> Zeynep Umran Fadzil Pamilia Lourdunathan Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 2 2 61 74 The Quranic-based Healing through Sound and its Psychological Effect: A Review of Literature https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/172 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The effects of sound in human psychology and physiology are complex. The psychology of sound, also called auditory psychology, has its own features of pitch, intensity and timbre. The study of the effect of healing through the sound of recitation the Qur’an is an important issue that has not been given sufficient attention to research. Also, Muslim believes that the Qur'an is not like other books whose sources may be obscure. Furthermore, in several verses, the Qur'an has been said as a "cure", and also it is known as a heart healer (And We send down of the Quran that which is healing and mercy for the believers, but it does not increase the wrongdoers except in loss, (Al-Israa 82). Many studies have been conducted on the effect of healing through the Qur'an in many areas. Based on the studies, the sound of recitation the Qur’an can improve the psychological and the physiological parameters including reducing heart rate, anxiety and stress, increasing mental health and memory performance for children and adults. Therefore, listening and reading the Qur’an can be recommended as supportive care improvement especially the psychological performance of people. This article reviews studies that have been conducted on Quranic recitation and the psychological effects associated with it.</p> </div> </div> </div> Oualid Hechehouche Mariam Adawiah Dzulkifli Intan Aidura Alias Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 2 2 75 80 Political Discussions Among Young Malay Voters on WhatsApp During Malaysia’s 14th General Election: A Case Study of IIUM Students https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/117 <p><em>This study was aimed to explore the usage of WhatsApp among young Malaysian voters in discussing political issues in Malaysia. In addition, it was also conducted to investigate the kinds of political and related issues discussed by the members of the created WhatsApp groups. WhatsApp, categorized as Mobile Messaging Applications (MMAs), was regarded in past studies as providing a new avenue for group of individuals to assemble virtually and discuss politics. In the context of this study, WhatsApp was expected to enable any politically savvy individuals to engage in prolong and detailed political discussions, regardless of their location and time. In the context of 14<sup>th</sup> Malaysian General Election (GE14), held on 9 May 2018, WhatsApp was seen by political observers and media practitioners as an attractive virtual gathering place for some Malaysians to express and share their opinions and observations of politics in Malaysia. This study employed a virtual focus group, with respondents assigned to two different WhatsApp groups, i.e. Group A and Group B. The discussions among the members of the groups were monitored and observed from 23 April 2018 until 10 May 2018. Both groups were exposed to political news i.e. pro-Barisan Nasional (BN) or/and pro-Opposition, reported by several news agencies. The Group A was fed with pro-BN new only, whereas the Group B was fed with pro-BN and pro-Opposition news. This was done to see whether or not the types of news fed influenced the topics or issues discussed by the respondents in the groups. The findings of the study showed that some respondents, in both groups, actively participated in political discussion on the WhatsApp. The interactive and user-friendly features of the application that allowed the respondents to express their opinions and at the same time attached additional information or evidence turned their discussions into evidence-based and detailed exchange of ideas on Malaysian politics. The results also indicated that WhatsApp also provided the ambience of real political discussions, similar to that of face-to-face group communication</em><em>.</em></p> Nerawi Sedu Wan Norshira Wan Mohd Ghazali Copyright (c) 2020 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 2 2 81 93