IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Journal of Human Sciences is a bi-annual English journal, aimed at serving academics and researchers who seek to disseminate their research findings and knowledge discovery in the area of behavioral sciences or human sciences. It is also an avenue for postgraduate researchers to publish their research works, hence contribute to the development of human science disciplines and their application.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Authors are invited to submit their articles, book reviews, reports on conferences and seminars, as well as abstracts from Master’s and Doctoral theses which are related to the area of human sciences<strong>. </strong>Each journal article will be subjected to review process involving first reading by the IJOHS editorial team, followed by two reviewers in the field, language assessor, and proof reader.</p> </div> IIUM Press en-US IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2682-8731 A Phenomenological Study on the Lives of Low-Income Working Mothers During the COVID-19 Pandemic https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/304 <p><em>This study explores the lived experience of low-income (B40) working mothers in Klang Valley during the COVID-19 pandemic. It sheds light on their mental health struggles and unexpected silver linings. Eight participants were selected through purposive and snowball sampling. A seven-day diary-writing exercise followed by individual interviews was conducted. Data analysis is based on descriptive phenomenology, allowing in-depth exploration of participants' experiences. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) Multitasking is too taxing, highlighting the intensified role conflict faced by some mothers; (2) Struggling to regulate emotions, revealing the guilt and emotional challenges these mothers experienced as they juggled multiple roles; and (3) The upside of COVID-19, demonstrating how some participants found unexpected benefits in increased family bonding during lockdowns. In sum, low-income working mothers faced significant mental health challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, exacerbated by their unique circumstances. The findings underscore the importance of recognising their struggles and the need for interventions that promote their mental well-being. Additionally, providing training in emotional resilience and self-regulation could prove beneficial. This study contributes to the understanding of the nuanced experiences of low-income working mothers and calls for continued attention to their mental health needs, particularly in times of crisis.</em></p> Noor Najwa Baharuddin Ruhaya Hussin Nor Azlin Tajuddin Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 1 15 Religion in the Age of Superheros: An Examination of Consecration and Exemplarity in Hollywood https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/313 <p>Twenty-first-century cinema has witnessed a sharp rise in the production of movies based on mythological stories. The increased appetite for mythological content, which transcends race, colour, or creed, has helped shape new genres and academic curricula. At the centre of this trend is the concept of a superhero. The superhero embodies virtue combined with a perfect balance of traits that an average human being cannot achieve, as a mythical figure above the vagaries of emotion or weakness, who is a fighter for social justice and can single-handedly tackle internal and external threats. When first transposed from a classical to a contemporary prototype about a century ago, the modern superhero personified secular humanism as an ideal; however, recent enactments display a more succinct construct empowered by Biblical overtones. This paper explores why religion is making inroads into what has remained chiefly an areligious ideal in the modern world. Furthermore, the paper explores why a towering avatar of excellence epitomises secular virtue while embellished with legendary forms of valour entrenched in faith. The paper argues that the revival of modern-day exemplarity reflects a profoundly religious inclination of Western society. Despite its outward orientation, Western society harbours a metaphysical valuation of self. It may be that in the absence of an indispensable ethical or social figure, the superhero archetype underlines its yearning for a flawless role model. The methodology for this article is descriptive and analytical and based on the corpi of contemporary sociological and political texts.</p> Noor Ahmad Pitafi Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 16 30 Coping Strategies in Response to Riverine Floods During Pandemic Time: A Household Study in Kurigram, Bangladesh https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/286 <p>Bangladesh is one of the countries at risk of COVID-19 and climate change. The lockdown efforts failed to flatten the curve and needed to be more effective. As a result, the significant risk of transmission is obvious, given the rising incidence of cases. Due to climate risks like cyclones, floods, landslides, and heat waves, a multiple hazards scenario could arise in this country. This study sought to evaluate the potential vulnerabilities of a confluence of infectious disease epidemics and natural hazards like floods. This study used a mixed methodological approach to examine the multi-hazard scenario in a resource-constrained area with a high population density. This study used a questionnaire survey with 150 respondents and in-depth interviews with 20 villagers. The findings showed a high likelihood of worsening the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic if a climatic disaster like a flood occurs. This nation's inadequate and frail healthcare system cannot handle the extraordinary load. A lack of sectoral collaboration, communication and risk assessment could limit the government's contingency strategy. A strict strategic plan for emergency response and short-term and long-term management should be developed in light of the unprecedented worst-case scenarios.</p> Sohela Mustari Md. Shamim Hossain Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 31 44 Work-Family Interface in Malaysia: Perceptions of and Perspectives by Muslim Women https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/310 <p>This article contributes to the ongoing discourse in gender and women's studies by offering a comprehensive exploration of the work-family interface, focusing on Malaysian Muslim women's unique perspectives and experiences. Employing a quantitative survey approach and examining various facets of this phenomenon, including influencing factors, challenges, perceptions of conflict, and strategies for balance, this research aims to provide a nuanced understanding of the work-family interface. By directly incorporating the voices and experiences of working Malaysian Muslim women, this study sheds light on the intricate nature of their efforts to harmonise professional and family roles. The findings underscore the paramount importance of achieving work-family equilibrium in contemporary society and emphasise the need for shared domestic responsibilities, redefined gender roles, and career choices aligned with family priorities, reflecting the agency and resilience of these women in managing this multifaceted interface.</p> Zulqernain Haider Subhani Bouhedda Ghalia Rohaiza Rokis Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 45 61 Urbanisation, Land Resources and Social Change in Tinghir https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/302 <p>From its initial tribal environment, the city of Tinghir underwent intense and rapid socio-spatial changes during the second half of the 20th century that facilitated the spread of an urban way of life among its inhabitants. The transformation of social relations and their diversification, the evolution of social institutions, and the upheaval of the old spatial logics that had reigned in the Todgha valley for centuries have all accompanied the transformation of the ksour of the valley into the polynuclear pre-Saharan city that we know today. By adopting the historical approach, the study highlights the tension between the different elements composing the urban landscape of Tinghir: those imported, following globalisation, and the substrates of a very ancient local culture.</p> Moulay Abdallah Odghiri Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 62 78 An Examination of Salafiyyah Scholars' Discourse on Kneeling and Bending as Manners of Greeting in Islam https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/295 <p>Bending, bowing, and kneeling are popular greetings across various tribes and societies, especially in Nigeria. The admissibility or otherwise of these manners has attracted the attention of Salafiyyah scholars in Islam. Relying on different sources, both from the Qur'ān and aḥādith, the past and present scholars in the Salafiyyah bloc have declared these manners as forbidden in Islam, which may even constitute Shirk (associating partners with Allah). The objective of this paper is to examine various pieces of evidence that are relied upon by these scholars for making such declarations, having realized that the issues of kneeling or bending, among others, are not expressly declared as such in either of the two primary sources of Islamic legislation compared to other acts that constitute ḥarām or Shirk. The exegetical and analytical methods of research were adopted in this paper. The two methods enable the assessment of relevant verses of the Qur'an and aḥādith of the Prophet in the light of classical Mufassirūn's submissions on those verses and renditions of scholars like Al-Bani on most cited aḥādīth on the issue of bending as a manner of greeting in Islam. After a critical examination, the finding revealed that most verses are grossly misconstrued; the most relied upon ḥadīth is weak, while the supporting ones are unfounded. It is also discovered that there are a lot of misconceptions, misunderstandings, and overgeneralizations in the Salafiyyah scholars' submissions as regards the issues of bending and other manners of greeting. This paper, therefore, concluded that there is no substantive basis for a declaration of kneeling and bending while greeting as either ḥarām or Shirk due to the absence of express provision from the Qur'ān and ḥadith. </p> Yusuph Dauda Gambari Oniye Olayinka Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 79 93 Necmettin Erbakan's Views on Turkey's Modernisation Process https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/299 <p>This paper highlights Necmettin Erbakan’s views on Turkey’s modernisation process. Erbakan, the prime minister of the Republic of Turkey from 1996 to 1997, is an influential politician, engineer, academic, and intellectual. Also, Erbakan is the first devout president in the history of the Republic of Turkey. He examined Turkish modernisation, which he saw as one of Turkey's most important problems, and made important studies on this subject. He thought that the main mistake made in the Turkish modernisation process was to “imitate the West”. Therefore, he thought that while Turkey wanted to modernise, it became Westernised, that is, modernisation and Westernisation were confused with each other in Turkey. This idea of his reveals that Turkey has taken very concrete steps towards Westernisation and, as a result, has lost the characteristics of traditional Turkish and Islamic culture. Trying to modernise by imitating the West, based on Erbakan's ideas, is a foreign model for the Turkish people who adhere to Islamic identity and values. Therefore, this study suggests that there should be a more inclusive alternative modernisation model for the Turkish nation based on Erbakan's ideas.</p> Esra Polat Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 94 104 Dakwah on Instagram and the Potential Application of ELM and Relevance Theory https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/301 <p>Instagram is popular in Indonesia, with 109.03 million users in a country with a population of 277,534,122 in 2023. It is the third most popular social media platform after Facebook and YouTube. The phenomenon of using dakwah on Instagram has gained significant attention in recent years, but it has yet to be studied using the fusion of Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Relevance Theory in Indonesia, which creates a research gap. Amongst the rise of social media platforms in Indonesia, according to previous studies, Instagram has become a popular platform for Muslims to engage in dakwah, which refers to the act of spreading Islamic teachings and inviting others to embrace Islam. The most attractive feature of Instagram is its great visual appeal and potential for engagement, which is attractive to young Muslims. This conceptual paper explores the possibility of using ELM and Relevance Theory as part of a conceptual framework for analysing dakwah content on Instagram from the perspective of young Indonesian users. ELM is a persuasive communication theory that seeks to understand how individuals process and respond to persuasive messages. Relevance Theory, on the other hand, focuses on the cognitive processes involved in communication and how the relevance of messages to users is determined. By applying both of these frameworks to the context of dakwah on Instagram, we can understand how persuasive messages are received and processed by Instagram users and how relevance is established in relation to Islamic messages.</p> Muhammad Arie Wiranegara Aida Mokhtar Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 105 116 Social Awareness Toward Marital Rape Among Married Women: A Case of Gombak https://journals.iium.edu.my/irkh/index.php/ijohs/article/view/315 <p>This study measures the level of awareness among married women toward marital rape who live in Gombak. It uses a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches, with 54 respondents using the Likert Scale and SPSS version 26 and three interviewees using thematic analyses to understand married women’s awareness towards marital rape. The findings indicate a correlation between cultural misunderstanding and religious misconceptions with the level of awareness. It is further supported by views based on these women’s experiences and perceptions. This study helps to circulate awareness about marital rape and consequently to take appropriate action from the authorities</p> Nuradlina Izzati Ahmad Rohaiza Rokis Copyright (c) 2023 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 5 2 117 133