IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Shukran Abd Rahman Open Journal Systems <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Journal of Human Sciences is a bi-annual English journal, aimed at serving academics and researchers who seek to disseminate their research findings and knowledge discovery in the area of behavioral sciences or human sciences. It is also an avenue for postgraduate researchers to publish their research works, hence contribute to the development of human science disciplines and their application.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Authors are invited to submit their articles, book reviews, reports on conferences and seminars, as well as abstracts from Master’s and Doctoral theses which are related to the area of human sciences<strong>. </strong>Each journal article will be subjected to review process involving first reading by the IJOHS editorial team, followed by two reviewers in the field, language assessor, and proof reader.</p> </div> The Role of Emotion Regulation, Family Function, and Sex Differences in Early Adulthood Anxiety 2021-12-14T17:31:00+08:00 Marida Rahma Salimah Lusi Nuryanti <p><em>Anxiety becomes one of the most common disorders in the world and the early adulthood phase becomes anxiety-prone because of all the demands and stressful conditions. In addition, anxiety also involves complex biological, psychological, and socio-cultural phenomena. This cross-sectional study examined the role of emotion regulation, family function, and sex differences in early adulthood anxiety. The study used convenience sampling technique and involved 222 participants (20.27% of male and 79.73% of female) aged between 18 to 30 years (M=24.9, SD=3) were assessed with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and Family Assessment Device (FAD). Data analysis used ANCOVA and multiple regression. The results suggest that emotion regulation, family functioning, and sex differences simultaneously play a significant role in anxiety (p=0.000). Emotion regulation, family function, as well as sex differences, partially indicated a significant role in anxiety (p=0.018, p=0.000, p=0.008). Therefore, enhancing emotion regulation ability and strengthening family function can be one way to prevent or minimize the likelihood of anxiety.</em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES Eco-Activist Social Media Influencers (SMI) on Twitter: Does Credibility Matter? 2021-06-26T12:00:22+08:00 Maisarah Ahmad Mijar Aini Mazinina <p>The emergence of social media specially twitter plays a significant role in today’s era. The bond between people and their smartphones is also inseparable. The first thing that people would do when they wake up is to check their phones. This leads to the deprivation of people watching television. People have now turn to Twitter for any news or trends that are occurring and substitute the physical newspaper. With the vast number of users on social media, Social Media Influencers (SMI) have also been influencing others by their opinions or expertise. However, with all the technologies and changing that are going on, environment still suffers from these man-made developments. Therefore, this paper seeks to understand how the eco-activist SMI create awareness on environment on Twitter. Using Social Credibility Theory, a qualitative content analysis of eco activist SMI twitter accounts was conducted. The findings indicate that trustworthiness, expertise and active online presence are salient features of an eco-activist SMI when communicating environmental messages through twitter.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES Examining Factors that Influence IIUM Students’ Involvement in Da’wah Activities via Social Media 2021-09-01T01:21:55+08:00 Tengku Siti Aisha Tengku Mohd Azzman Shariffadeen Anisa Rasyida <p><em>The rapid development of new media and communication technology has revolutionised how da’wah is disseminated. Consuming and sharing Islamic content online has become a norm in the contemporary lifestyle of Muslims due to the advancement in social networking and communication technology. However, there are concerns with the credibility, reliability, and accuracy of religious information shared on social media. Communication scholars have long examined social media use among young adults and much of the focus has been on identifying different motives for using social media, and how social media use and intensity predicts motives for using social media. However, not many studies have focused on religious motives in using social media, and how it affects involvement in da’wah activities through social media. The quantitative approach was utilised, using a cross-sectional survey distributed online among IIUM students (N = 275). Overall, as predicted by the uses and gratification theory, social media involvement is positively correlated to motives for using social media. Those who were more involved in using social media were also more likely to engage in da’wah activities via social media. Findings also indicate that students who have more formal exposure to Islam are also more interested in online da’wah activities via social media. Finally, social interaction and informational motives in using social media lead to higher involvement in da’wah activities via social media. Based on the findings, specific suggestions to improve participation in da’wah activities using social media platforms are provided in this study.</em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES Social Movement Theories: From Class Conflict to Post-Industrial Interpretations - A Search for A Muslim Perspective 2021-12-06T14:03:16+08:00 Zulqernain Haider Subhani <p><em>Social movements have become an important topic within sociology in modern times. Even though it has not reached a consensus regarding its definition and typology, people define it as a collective action against a particular class to achieve a specific end. It has been articulated through various theories and perspectives. Sometimes, it is also compared with notions such as political parties, interest groups, civil society, and religious organisations. However, it has been presented both as a catalyst for social change and a result of social change and structure. The objective of this paper is to examine various social movement theories, especially concerning its relevance to social movement analysis of Muslim societies. This paper also investigates a Muslim perspective of social movement peculiar with Muslim societies, focussing on the Arab spring particularly the Egyptian case, to understand the scope and relevance of social movement theories in the Muslim world. The content analysis method are used to achieve the objectives. This paper finds that social movement is suitable as an analytical tool, not an empirical category, to understand Muslim societies. However, instead of any theory or paradigm, a multidisciplinary approach is more compatible to be used in the study of the Muslim world. </em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES The Paternal Side of the Family within a Matrilineal Society: An Example of the Minangkabau in Indonesia 2021-12-06T13:45:58+08:00 Alexander Stark Fatan Hamamah Yahaya <p><em>There are numerous publications about the Minangkabau society in West Sumatra. Often the focus of the anthropologists is on the matrilineal social structure. Only very few researchers look at the situation of the father and the male family members. In this article, the researchers want to consider the paternal side of the family. This view is essential as there have been many changes in the past years. The researchers used a qualitative research approach that observed the village life of one community. Various open-ended interviews were conducted. Both the traditional representatives of the matrilineages and the local population were given the opportunity to express their opinions. In addition, the local publications were analysed too. In these books, traditional scholars publish their views. In the past, there were patrilineal elements, like the kingdom, within the Minangkabau society. The historical perspective shows that such patrilineal elements were important in daily life. Furthermore, it was discovered that cognates play a crucial role in certain rites and have become more influential nowadays. Nevertheless, the matrilineal concept still plays an essential role, particularly in the rules of exogamy and inheritance.</em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES The Failure of Former African Liberation Movements to Transition to Democracy after Ascension to Power: A Descriptive Analysis of Eritrean People’s Liberation Front 2021-09-18T11:35:32+08:00 Idris Mohamad Elfatih Abdullahi Abdulhamid Mohamed Ali Zaroum <p><em>This paper investigates the perplexing issue of the democratic deficit in Africa's post-liberation states. It seeks to answer why former African liberation movements failed to make a genuine transition to democracy during the second stage of the national liberation struggle, instead of leaving behind authoritarian military regimes and one-party states that disappointed people. The paper's primary goal is to study the transitional path of former liberation movements in Africa and examine the factors that contribute to the failure of the transformation process from armed resistance to conventional politics. The research is descriptive and analytical in nature, conducted using the qualitative research method. The findings show that former liberation movements in Africa failed as governments due to a variety of factors, the most important of which is elite resistance to democratisation, which led to the transition to dictatorship, the absence or weakness of political institutions due to the persistence of the liberation era's political culture, and the tinkering with the constitution and failure to put some of its key principles into effect. Furthermore, the study showed that anti-colonial revolutions in Africa only liberated the state, not the people. Finally, the paper ends with some recommendations i.e. several steps to be taken in order for African countries to overcome the dilemma of the liberation movement's democratic transition failure</em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES The Role of Learning in Nurturing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Toilet Hygiene Among Youth in Malaysian University 2021-12-06T15:49:49+08:00 Kamaruzzaman Abd Manan Zeti Azreen Ahmad Siti Nor Amalina Ahmad Tajuddin Roslan Ali <p>In Malaysia, the cleanliness of public toilets continues to be a challenge. A dirty toilet could become a site that spreads diseases and hurts the image of the country as a whole. Even though campaigns promoting good toilet hygiene practices have been ongoing since 1997, not much has been achieved from these campaigns. A good toilet hygiene practice requires knowledge and the right attitude among users. Therefore, early education is required to shape the public’s perception and influence their practice of toilet hygiene. Hence, this study selected the Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) theory to measure the factors influencing university students’ toilet hygiene practices. Moreover, the education factor was added to the model to see how the teaching and learning process affects the knowledge and attitude of youth. This study used the partial least squares (PLS) method and structural equation modelling (SEM) software to examine the selected factors. The results show that respondents level knowledge (87%), attitude (88%), practice (81%) and education (79%) on toilet hygiene are high. Moreover, education, knowledge, and attitude have a significant influence on the practice of toilet hygiene. This study has extended the KAP theory by adding education as a factor that influences youth’s knowledge and positive attitude towards toilet hygiene. The findings are useful for policymakers, higher education institutions, and public relations (PR) practitioners in their effort to improve campaign strategies to generate attitudal and behavioural change towards hygiene and cleanliness issues.&nbsp; Limitations and suggestions for future research are also included in this paper.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES The Evaluation of an Online Peer Support Group on the Level of Situational Motivation among University Students Amidst a Pandemic: A Self-Determination Theory Approach 2021-09-19T15:45:56+08:00 Nur Najlaa Fayyadhah Norhasmi Nur Syafiqah Amir Rasid Nan Syarifah Munirah Megat Alias Muhammad Syahmi Fadzril Mohd Sohaini Siti Mariam Sh Abdull Rahman Nurfatin Afiqah Baharin Nor Quratun Aina Abdul Talib Mohammad Azizi Mohd Sha’ari Nur Alia Mohamed Afendi Pamilia Lourdunathan <p><em>During the Covid-19 pandemic, many students have reported a loss of motivation while</em><br /><em>pursuing remote learning. The loss of motivation can be attributed to various factors,</em><br /><em>among which are a loss of social support, such as from friends and lecturers, in</em><br /><em>completing their assessments. This study aimed to help IIUM undergraduate students to</em><br /><em>increase their level of motivation through online peer support group sessions using a</em><br /><em>Sport Psychology approach. The Self Determination theory was adopted as a framework</em><br /><em>in guiding the process of the research. This study also employed two other psychological</em><br /><em>techniques which are a cognitive behavioural approach and a relaxation exercise. A total</em><br /><em>of 13 undergraduate university students of IIUM from different faculties were selected</em><br /><em>using a convenience sampling method based on their voluntary participation in the peer</em><br /><em>support group. The participants were required to answer two online surveys and commit</em><br /><em>to joining two online peer support group sessions. The first online measure used was</em><br /><em>conducted as a need analysis to assess their level of motivation. This measure comprised</em><br /><em>demographic information form, an informed consent form, and a few qualitative openended</em><br /><em>questions related to their level of motivation. This yielded useful indicators for the</em><br /><em>content of the peer support group sessions while the second online measure was used as</em><br /><em>a pre-test and post-test measure using the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). The data</em><br /><em>collected using the online questionnaire was measured using a paired sample T-test to</em><br /><em>evaluate the effectiveness of the online peer support group sessions on the level of</em><br /><em>situational motivation among IIUM undergraduate students. The findings of the study</em><br /><em>showed that although there was no statistically significant difference in the pre-test and</em><br /><em>posttest results of the SIMS scale, interestingly qualitative findings from the participants</em><br /><em>yielded positive results which were evident through several meaningful emergent themes</em><br /><em>that were obtained from the feedback of the participants post intervention. It is hoped that</em><br /><em>the planned initiative of peer support groups will be expanded to include more students</em><br /><em>in order to help prevent any further progression of loss of motivation and secondary crisis</em><br /><em>of compromised mental health in those who have suffered from self-isolation, physical</em><br /><em>distancing, and quarantining.</em></p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 IIUM JOURNAL OF HUMAN SCIENCES