Intellectual Discourse <p><strong>About the Journal</strong>: Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> International Islamic University Malaysia en-US Intellectual Discourse 0128-4878 Table of Contents Intellectual Discourse Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 Text Inside Cover Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 Editor’s Note <p>Intellectual Discourse, Volume 27, Number 1, 2019 contains thirteen<br>research articles and a book review. The subjects covered by these<br>articles are indeed wide and include a variety of diverse issues from<br>the syntactical regulator in the Arabic syntax, consequences of the Thai<br>military’s crackdown on the Red Shirts in May 2010, to an analysis of<br>Order and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) from<br>the point of view of the English School of International Relations.</p> Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 1–5 1–5 Injustice in Non-Transitional Regimes: The Eighth Anniversary of the Massacre of the Thai ‘Red Shirts’ <p>The concept of transitional justice has been widely discussed in<br>Thailand following the massacre of the Red Shirt protesters in 2010, which<br>resulted in the highest death toll resulting from a military action against<br>political protestors in Thai history. The eighth anniversary of that tragedy<br>offers an opportunity to analyse Thailand’s response to the use of military<br>violence against these political activists. This analysis is performed through<br>the application of the seven conceptual components of transitional justice:<br>regime change, finding truth, prosecution, security sector reform, victimscenteredness,<br>reparation, and memorialization. The current study is based on<br>an analysis of various textual sources, such as books, journal articles, news<br>articles, online sources, and other documents. The evidence shows that in the<br>case of Thailand, as in other countries, if the first component, regime change, is<br>not realised such that the authoritarian regime is replaced by one that is civilian<br>and democratic, then justice for past violence can never be established. As a<br>result, the remaining six components of transitional justice in Thailand have<br>been applied in a distorted and incorrect manner in the past eight years.</p> Siwach Sripokangkul Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 7–45 7–45 The By-Election in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia: Testing Political Party Support <p>The Cameron Highland’s by-election held in January 2019 was<br>keenly contested by two major political coalitions in a district in Pahang. It<br>was an election with a difference. The ruling coalition at the national level was<br>the underdog contesting in a state controlled by BN/UMNO, the opposition<br>which, in turn, has been in shambles since GE 14, with only three of 13 parties<br>remaining in the coalition. The by-election created history by electing an Orang<br>Asli (aboriginal people) as a member of parliament. The ruling coalition lost<br>the by-election which was attributed to the use of race and religion by the<br>opposition BN/UMNO in alliance with a party promoting race and religion.<br>The candidate of the ruling coalition won the Chinese and some Indian votes.<br>Based upon ethnographic fieldwork, targeted interviews, and documentary<br>materials, this study analyses the Cameron Highland’s by-election by focusing<br>upon several factors including the nature of the constituency, the party system,<br>and the candidates campaigning highlighting the local and national issues. The<br>study found that racial issues did play a strategic role in the outcome of the byelection.<br>The ruling coalition needs to manage the economy and address the<br>issues faced by Malaysia’s myriad ethnic communities.</p> Abdul Rashid Moten Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 47–61 47–61 Communicative Ecology of Hajj Pilgrims and Its Impact on Perceived Satisfaction with the Services Provided by the Saudi Government <p>This study has examined the problems’ related to communicative<br>ecology of pilgrim sojourners in Saudi Arabia and its impact on the levels<br>of their satisfaction with the services provided in a probability sample of<br>439 Pakistani pilgrims. The sojourners’ communication ecology in problem<br>situations comprises eleven communication sources. Of these, contacts<br>with family/friends and co-pilgrims made top of the list followed by such<br>community organization sources like information counters, tour operators, and<br>the Pakistani Hajj mission officials. The mediated sources of contacts with the<br>ethnic newspaper (the Urdu language newspaper), and the mainstream Saudi<br>mass media ranked the 3rd and the 4th. The Internet and the digital billboards<br>were each cited in less than 10 percent of the responses. Stepwise multiple<br>regressions revealed that the most important sources of impact on satisfaction<br>were: contact with community organizations, family/friends and co-pilgrims,<br>the ethnic newspaper, and the digital screens. Implications of the impact on<br>satisfaction are discussed for communicating with the pilgrims.</p> Fazal Rahim Khan Osman Gazzaz Fatima M. Al Majdhoub Copyright (c) 2019 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 62–88 62–88 Globalization, Terrorism, and Morality: A Critique of Jean Baudrillard <p>This paper challenges the claim, made by French sociologist and<br>philosopher, Jean Baudrillard in The Spirit of Terrorism, that contemporary<br>“Islamic” terrorism as exemplified by the 9/11 attacks in the United States is<br>a phenomenon that defies morality. By considering alternative explanations<br>and applying a thought experiment, we find that Baudrillard’s claim should<br>be rejected because it is based on invalid premises and inconsistencies.<br>The problematic premises include Baudrillard’s statements that terror is an<br>effective strategy and the only means available to marginalized group seeking<br>to oppose Western globalization. We argue that contemporary terrorism cannot<br>lie beyond the limits of morality, and we suggest that the main cause of the<br>upsurge in terrorist incidents today lies in the logic of Western globalization, or<br>the consumption system, that has given rise to simulation.</p> Meutia Irina Mukhlis Naupal Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 89–108 89–108 The Syntactical Regulator in the Arabic Syntax: An Analytical Study <p>The research focuses on the effectiveness of the syntactical regulator<br>in providing meaning in the Arabic Syntax and attempt to explain semantic<br>changes resulting from phonetic changes in word endings, especially with<br>respect to vowels. It further looks into the dynamics which bring about such<br>changes in phonetics and evaluates the significance of the altered meanings<br>from the viewpoint of semantics. In order to interpret semantic changes,<br>Classical Arabic denotes eight cases as the determinants or basis for the change<br>at the level of the mind that lead to transformation as an anonymous process<br>for comprehending speech utterances. The dynamics of the above process<br>provide the orientation effecting precise and accurate meaning bearing upon<br>the entire sentence construction comprehensively. Thus, the research purpose<br>is to demonstrate the underlying inner structure providing the dynamism and<br>process preceding production of verbal utterances intrinsic within the Arabic<br>Syntax.</p> Solehah Yaacob Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 109–129 109–129 The Impact of Culture on Chinese Young People’s Perceptions of Family Responsibility in Hong Kong, China <p>This is a quantitative research study with a cross-sectional design<br>and a survey approach to address the views of a large sample (n=1132) of young<br>people in relation to family responsibility in a society where East meets West.<br>The survey results suggest that the sample hold relatively positive attitudes<br>towards Chinese cultural values and family responsibility. The traditional value<br>of importance of family, filial piety and harmony with others were still strongly<br>supported by many young people. The findings further revealed that the more<br>the Chinese cultural values the young people associated with, the more the<br>positive attitudes in family obligation they would have. However, global<br>influences which emphasize the right of freedom and to have personal choice<br>may have been at work too. There are implications for a matrix of policies to<br>support young people in their transitions to adulthood.</p> Tabitha Ng Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 131–154 131–154 Reviewing Judicial Separation in Malaysia: Creating a Need for Certainty <p>This article intends to explore the law relating to judicial separation in<br>Malaysia from the perspective of its importance and the issues that have arisen<br>with respect to its effectiveness, as an avenue to encourage the preservation of<br>a marriage. The investigation extended to an analysis on the lacuna in law on<br>judicial separation in Malaysia, specifically with respect to the need for a time<br>frame, which would essentially create certainty and encourage reconciliation<br>between the parties. A comparative legal research methodology is employed in<br>comparing the positions in Malaysia and India. It is hoped that the findings of<br>this paper on judicial separation, particularly related to the need for a statutory<br>time frame, will encourage reconciliation between the parties and preserve the<br>sanctity of marriage, as is envisioned in the concept of a judicial separation.</p> Daleleer Kaur Randawa Akbar Kamaruddin Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 155–173 155–173 A New Classification and An Extension of Waste from Business Practices and Islamic Perspective <p>Taking the idea of waste as an in-use phenomenon, we developed a<br>matrix to explain four categories of waste which result from users’ failure to<br>use a resource properly. These categories were illustrated by examples built on<br>practical food waste measurements, surveys, theses formatting requirements<br>and newspaper reports. We have categorized different facets of waste from a<br>business perspective; thus, contributed to have improved waste management<br>practices. We also showed that parsimony was also a wasteful behaviour.<br>Parsimony was shown to be a waste by its effects on others’ need of fulfilment<br>and other-worldly consequences for the miser.</p> Abu Saim Md Shahabuddin Mohd Edil Abd. Suko ABM Helal Uddin Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 175–195 175–195 Indian Muslims’ Support for Ottoman Pan-Islamism: The Case of Shibli Nu’mani <p>Following their violent suppression of the Indian Revolution of<br>1857, the British founded and consolidated their secular empire in the Indian<br>Subcontinent, which marginalized and bypassed religion as far as possible,<br>particularly Islam, which had been the official religion of the Mughal ancien<br>régime. Contemporaneous Ottoman efforts to counter European imperialism led<br>to Sultan Abdul Hamid II’s (r. 1876-1909) policy of pan-Islamism, particularly<br>the call for Islamic unity against the Russian aggression against Turkey in<br>1877. It was at this critical juncture that some Indian Muslim scholars gallantly<br>volunteered to counter this threat, and to preserve the Islamic faith and heritage<br>worldwide, despite the severe problems faced by the Muslims in India itself.<br>This study highlights the role of an eminent scholar in this movement, namely<br>Allama Shibli Nu’mani (1857-1914), who in 1914 conceived the idea of<br>founding the world-famous Islamic research institute Darul Musannefin Shibli<br>Academy in his home town of Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Shibli was very<br>active and instrumental in collecting donations from the wealthy landowners<br>(zamindars) among the Muslim elite in his hometown of Azamgarh for the<br>Ottoman cause, raising 3,000 rupees, which was handed to Husain Hasib<br>Afendi, the Ottoman Consul in Bombay in 1877. Furthermore, his eloquent<br>poetry rallied Muslims across India to support the valour and heroism displayed<br>in the jihad by Ghazi Usman Pasha against the Russians. Shibli travelled to<br>Istanbul in 1892 and met with the Pasha, on whose efforts Tamgha-i Majidi<br>(gold medal) was granted to Shibli on 13th Muharram, 1310/7th August, 1892.<br>This article is based on Shibli’s major works in Urdu, particularly his arousing<br>eulogies (qasaid), Turkish archival reports, newspapers and magazines, and<br>secondary sources in Urdu and English.</p> Arshad Islam Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 197–220 197–220 The Relationships of Individual Well-Being and Working Environment with Job Satisfaction among Factory Workers in Malaysia <p>The present study examined the factors influencing job satisfaction<br>in the context of factory workers in Malaysia. The major purpose of the<br>study was to identify the main problems faced by those factory workers. The<br>study also aimed to examine the influence of demographic variables on job<br>satisfaction and the relationships of family income, individual well-being, and<br>perceptions of the working environment with overall job satisfaction among<br>those factory workers. A survey was distributed among 551 factory workers working in the Klang Valley area. Results from the survey indicated that the<br>two main problems faced by the factory workers are, fear of the influx of<br>foreign workers that may threaten their jobs, and the relatively low pay, taking<br>into account the high cost of living in the Klang Valley. Findings also indicated<br>that while gender and race did not significantly influence perceptions of the<br>working environment and job satisfaction, job positions did. Those working as<br>security and logistics staff were significantly more satisfied with their working<br>environment than those holding administrative or technical/production posts.<br>Job satisfaction also varied significantly across job positions; those working in<br>security and logistic positions were significantly more satisfied with their jobs<br>compared to the other employees (administrative, managerial/professional, and<br>technical/production). Finally, using hierarchical linear regression, with family<br>income as the control variable, the findings suggested that both individual<br>well-being and perceptions of the working environment emerged as positive.<br>Both of these are significant predictors of perceived job satisfaction among<br>factory workers. The implication of these findings will be discussed within the<br>framework of organizational satisfaction and individual well-being.</p> Aini Maznina A.Manaf Tengku Siti Aisha Tengku Mohd Azman Shariffadeen Mazni Buyong Syed Arabi Idid Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 221–243 221–243 The Financial Distress of Corporate Personality: A Perspective from Fiqh <p>Oriental scholars discuss the concept of corporate personality<br>without any reference to Islamic law. A leading proponent of this view is<br>Joseph Schacht; a western scholar of jurisprudence who contended that Islamic<br>jurisprudence is limited to individual personality and devoid of corporate laws,<br>hence, contractual agreements between corporations has no basis in Islamic<br>law. Several scholars and researcher have responded with sufficient literature<br>on the status of an artificial person in Islamic law, but there are still issues with<br>the legal implication of corporate personality in the event of financial distress.<br>This study aims to explore Islamic threshold on fundamental principles of<br>corporate personalities and its contemporary applications in the situation of<br>financial trouble. The study will employ the analytical approach in describing<br>the essential characteristics of a corporation as inherent in Islamic law through<br>interpolation from the natural person and the possibility of adapting the existing<br>conventional bankruptcy laws. This study employs an analytical approach to Islamic literature and regular related works. The study found out that even<br>though the concept of financial distress has basis in Islamic law, it remains<br>complicated as it entails insolvency, bankruptcy and interdiction in a debtorcreditor<br>relationship. Overall, further efforts need to be done to put these<br>concepts into contemporary and applicable perspectives without violating<br>Islamic fundamental principle of justice and fair dealings.</p> Saheed Abdullahi Busari Luqman Zakariyah Amanullah Muhammad Akhtarzaite bint Abdul Aziz Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 245–268 245–268 The Interest Pattern of Ethnic Groups as Supporters: A Case Study of Pilkada of Medan City in 2015 <p>Democracy gives people the same right to vote and to be voted in a<br>political position. High citizen participation in leader election is utilized as an<br>indicator of the quality of democracy. On the other hand, citizen participation<br>in the election in some cases in some districts of Indonesia did not run smoothly<br>and peacefully but in the case of Medan city, the periodical election of regional<br>heads (pilkada) did not show the social upheaval of different options as well<br>as in the segmentation of ethnic groups as supporters of candidates competing<br>in it. This study is aimed at discovering the interest pattern of PASTI and Joko<br>Tingkir as ethnic groups and political compensation, which was gained by them<br>in Pilkada of Medan city in 2015. This study employed qualitative research with<br>case study type. The research data were obtained through in-depth interviews,<br>library study, documentation, and focus group discussion. It is found that there<br>is a similarity pattern of ethnic group involvement in constructing political<br>communication with contestant but there is difference of orientation of postelection<br>compensation expectation.</p> Humaizi Muhammad Yusuf Rudi Salam Sinaga Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 269–283 269–283 The English School and Order: The Case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) <p>The English School (ES) analytical framework concerning the<br>formation of order in international relations posits that states establish order<br>through rules and institutions within the framework of common interests and<br>values to protect against anarchy. State-centred orders with limited civil society<br>cooperation are pluralistic, while their converse (with a larger role for non-state<br>actors) are solidarist. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)<br>was established in 1967 by Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore,<br>and Indonesia based on common interests, such as strengthening sovereignty<br>and creating stable relations in the face of anarchic problems like communism<br>and internal instability. In numerous conventions ASEAN has adopted various<br>norms, such as respect for the sovereignty of the states, the rule of law, non-use<br>of power, peaceful resolution of disputes, and non-interference in other states.<br>All these norms showed that the primary purpose of ASEAN is to protect state<br>sovereignty and interests and to establish peaceful regional relations. The fact<br>that state sovereignty is at the forefront, with limited cooperation of non-state<br>actors, shows that the ASEAN regional order is pluralist. This article analyses<br>the emergence and appearance of the ASEAN regional order (the unit of<br>analysis) in the context of the ES (the theoretical framework).</p> Ferhat Durmaz Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 285–321 285–321 China’s Belt and Road Initiative: Changing the Rules of Globalization. Edited by Wenxian Zhang, Ilan Alon & Christoph Lattemann. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave MacMillan, 2018, pp. 358. Hardcover. ISBN 978-3-319-75434-5 Saleh Shahriar Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 7–45 7–45 Front Matter Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 Back Matter Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 322 322