Intellectual Discourse <p><strong>About the Journal</strong>: Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> International Islamic University Malaysia en-US Intellectual Discourse 0128-4878 States of Separation. Transfer, Partition, and the Making of the Modern Middle East. By Laura Robson. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2017, pp. 247. ISBN 9785229215427 <p>Reviewer: Kaoutar Guediri, Assistant Professor, Department of History<br>and Civilization, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and<br>Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia. E-mail:<br></p> Kaoutar Guediri Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 345–356 345–356 Our Constitution. By Shad Saleem Faruqi. Subang Jaya, Malaysia: Sweet & Maxwell, 2019, pp. 425. ISBN 9789672187059 (paperback). <p>Reviewer: Ramizah Wan Muhammad, Associate Professor, Department<br>of Islamic Law, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws, International<br>Islamic University Malaysia. Email:</p> Ramizah Wan Muhammad Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 349 353 Metodologi Penyelidikan Dalam Pendidikan: Amalan dan Analisis Kajian. By Ghazali Darusalam & Sufean Hussin. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya, 2019, pp. 630. ISBN: 978-967-488-009- 5. <p>Reviewer: Khairil Husaini Bin Jamil, Department of Qurʾān and<br>Sunnah Studies, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human<br>Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia. Email: husaini@<br></p> Khairil Husaini Bin Jamil Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 Front Matter Intellectual Discourse Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 Back Matter Intellectual Discourse Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 Pathways of Becoming Political Party Activists: The Experience of Malay-Muslim Grassroots Party Activists <p>Abstract: Whilst the recent electoral performance of Parti Islam seMalaysia<br>(PAS) and Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (UMNO) in Terengganu<br>has generated much interest, there are lack of studies over the involvement<br>and motivations of the most committed party players; the grassroots<br>party activists. PAS and UMNO are strongly supported by committed and<br>extraordinary party members at the grassroots level who devote their time,<br>money, effort, and energy to ensure the party they support wins elections and<br>remains relevant. Unlike other professions, they are working for the party on a<br>full-time basis yet receive no specific income from the party. Their uniqueness<br>has directed this study to examine the factors which influence them to become<br>political party activists. This study interviewed thirty-two party activists who<br>were selected using the purposive sampling technique, and the data was then<br>thematically analyzed through the content analysis method. Combining the<br>Civic Voluntarism Model and the General Incentives Model into a framework<br>to understand factors that motivate informants’ political party activism. This<br>study discovered five major factors which include the ideology of the party,<br>religious beliefs, defending ethnic supremacy, parental influence, significant<br>political events and educational institutions. This study also academically<br>defies the common perception that party activists enjoy material rewards by<br>virtue of their party activism.</p> Wan Rohila Ganti Bt. Wan Abdul Ghapar Ahmad Fauzi Abdul Hamid Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 5–33 5–33 Mediation and Interreligious Discourse: Prospects and Challenges in Resolving Interreligious Skirmishes in Malaysia <p>Abstract: This article aims to promote mediation as an alternative dispute<br>resolution mechanism to deal with interreligious skirmishes taking place in<br>Malaysia. This is in view of the increasing statistics of interreligious disputes<br>reported in the media. The reason for recommending interreligious mediation<br>is due to its constructive nature in peacebuilding initiatives and its successful<br>stories across the globe. The article discusses the potential actors of religious<br>mediators and their requirements as well as the processes and conditions for a<br>successful mediation. The article also highlights the need for certified training<br>to make a credible mediator. Using mainly textual research, the article managed<br>to gather and analyse the meaning and concept, historical background and the<br>structure of mediation. Since mediation is new in Malaysia, the article found<br>that the government’s role is crucial in its institutionalization; hence the article<br>proposes that the Ministry of National Unity leads the initiative.</p> Haslina Ibrahim Ainul Jaria bt. Maidin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 35–59 35–59 Examining the Role of ‘ulamā in the Islamization Process of the Malay World <p>Abstract: This article analyses the roles of ‘ulamā’ in propagating the message<br>of Islam in the Malay world. Islam managed to reach many corners of the Malay<br>world in the 17th century. Evidence has indicated that ‘ulamā’ were among<br>those who had participated actively in propagating the messages of Islam to<br>the local people. Classical Malay texts served as the best available records to<br>understand the roles of these ‘ulamā’ at that time. Hence, analysis are made on<br>selected classical Malay texts in order to understand the actual roles played by<br>the ‘ulamā’ in the Malay world at that time in transforming the understanding<br>of the local Malay people from the beliefs in Hindu-Buddhist and animism to<br>Islam. Three significant roles of the ‘ulamā’ at that time have been identified<br>namely propagating knowledge to the local people, religious advisors to the<br>rulers as well as engaging with the non-Muslims.</p> Mohd Noh Abdul Jalil Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 61–76 61–76 Role of Judaism, Christianity and Islam in Promoting Human Values in the Strife-Torn World <p>Abstract: The modern era may be deemed as that of scientific and technological<br>development but peace and harmony among the people remain elusive. The<br>two world wars, Palestinian problem, bombing of world twin towers, invasion<br>of Muslim countries by Americans and allied forces, and the continuous blood<br>shedding of humanity in one form or another in different parts of the world, all<br>these horrifying phenomena prove lack of political will on the part of United<br>Nations. Had religions in the strife-torn regions played their crucial role, there<br>would never have occurred bloodshed of the humanity. Judaism, Christianity,<br>and Islam account for the big majority in the world today and have so many<br>things in common, especially essential human values guided by two universal<br>principles, unity of God and unity of man. The Ten Commandments in the<br>Torah, confirmation of the Mosaic Law in the Bible, and reconfirmation of the<br>Mosaic and Biblical instructions in the Qur’an still hold the significance for<br>creating peace and harmony among people of the three creeds.</p> Israr Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 77–98 77–98 Mathematics Anxiety and Performance among College Students: Effectiveness of Systematic Desensitization Treatment <p>Abstract: This study examines the effectiveness of systematic desensitization<br>treatment on mathematics anxiety and performance among year one college<br>students. This study employs a quasi-experimental research design. The sample<br>for this study is drawn based on convenience sampling. The sample consists<br>of 65 year one students of which 32 are under the experimental group and<br>another 33 are under to control group. The instruments used in collecting<br>data are The Adopt and Adapt Fennama-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scale<br>(MAS), Neo-Five-Factory Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI), Mathematics<br>Performance Test (MPTs), and The Systematic Desensitization (SD)<br>Module. The study postulates: (1) mathematics anxious students who receive<br>systematic desensitization treatment would report a reduction in the level of<br>mathematics anxiety as compared to those mathematics anxious students who<br>do not receive any treatment; (2) mathematics anxious students who receive<br>systematic desensitization treatment would perform better as compared<br>to those mathematics anxious students who do not receive any treatment.<br>Quantitative data is analysed using ANOVAs.</p> Najihah Akeb-urai Nor Ba’ Yah Abdul Kadir Rohany Nasir Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 99–127 99–127 Faith and Practice: Islamic Perspectives on Robert Browning <p>Abstract: One of the greatest poets of the Victorian period, Robert Browning<br>is taught universally from school through university levels. Given such<br>magnitude, the multifaceted poet deserves research attention from various<br>perspectives. A fascinating aspect of his poetry is that, in spite of his refusal to<br>be labelled as a Christian, he displays strong faith in God and the afterlife. His<br>poetry is steeped in religious connotations that derive heavily from the Bible.<br>There are striking similarities between many concepts preached by Islam and<br>Christianity. It will be interesting to view his poetry from the perspective<br>of the former. Islam emphasises its own unique concepts and values to help<br>its adherents achieve their vision of success. Browning, though accepting<br>the central ideas of Christianity, deviates from it conceptually. Given this<br>background, this article attempts to evaluate his notion of faith and its practice<br>from Islamic perspectives and discover where the poet’s ideas converge with<br>those of Islam and where they differ.</p> Rehnuma Bint Anis Md. Mahmudul Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 129–148 129–148 Sharīʿah Criminal Law Enforcement in Hisbah Framework: Practice In Malaysia <p>Abstract: Hisbah is the most important institution in a society and nation.<br>Enforcement parties are those who are directly involved in executing this. In<br>carrying out their duties, they bear heavy responsibility because it involves<br>the rights of Allah (SWT) and the rights of human. Hisbah implies the<br>implementation of al-amr bi-l-maʿrūf (command the good) when it is clear that<br>it is abandoned, and wa-n-nahy ʿani-l-munkar (prevention of the bad) when it<br>is clear that it is done. This study is based on the concept of Hisbah in Sharīʿah<br>Law which is of a general and widespread aspect of enjoining good and<br>preventing evil. Literature reviews and library searches have been conducted<br>intensively to clarify the principles of hisbah. Additionally, descriptive<br>and content analysis of textual content was done on the provisions of laws<br>and regulations as well as guidelines on the prevention of sharīʿah crime<br>parameters in Malaysia. In general, our country has implemented the concept<br>of hisbah in its own form without the branding of an institution specifically as<br>“the institution of hisbah”. The roles and functions of hisbah are given to the<br>Sharīʿah Enforcement Division, Islamic Religious Department in the states.</p> Alias Azhar Muhammad Hafiz Badarulzaman Fidlizan Muhammad Siti Zamarina Mat Zaib Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 149–170 149–170 Imperialism, Colonialism and their Contribution to the Formation of Malay and Chinese Ethnicity: An Historical Analysis <p>Abstract: Ethnicity is a complex concept which is easily taken as a primordial<br>notion inherited from previous generations. This primordial understanding of<br>ethnicity continues to dominate post-independence Malaysian authority and<br>everyday actors based on two factors. First, the lack of any critical historical<br>analysis for understanding the present situation. Second, there are social,<br>economic and political needs for maintaining the separation of ethnicities<br>which consequently maintain the imperial and colonial epistemological<br>understanding of ‘race’ in the present State ethnic bureaucratic system. The<br>main objective of this article is to present a sociological review of the longterm<br>effects of imperialism and colonialism on the formation and development<br>of the two principal Malaysian ethnic groups – Malays and Chinese – through<br>selected major phases in Malaysia’s history. The outcomes suggest that the<br>ethnic boundaries of Malaysian Malays and Chinese were gradually built,<br>institutionalized and intensified over time rather than being primordially<br>inherited from their ancestors.</p> Khauthar Ismail Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 171–193 171–193 Removal of Despotic Political Regime: The Abū Dharr’s Legacy and Its Legitimacy <p>Abstract: This article is a humble attempt at highlighting the controversies<br>regarding the legitimacy of popular resistance or revolutionary movement to<br>bring down Muslim political regime that claimed to be despotic, unjust and<br>even un-Islamic. Having the fact on the existence of another view by majority<br>scholars that more inclined towards pacifist ideology which stressed on<br>political stability as a prerequisite to prosperity, the article emphasizes more<br>on the revolutionary school, while the second shall be highlighted when it is<br>necessary for comparison. Employing qualitative method of study, the article<br>seeks to examine the arguments provided by both movements. This will be<br>done by analyzing their textual and rational grounds of evidences used by<br>the two schools to legitimize their political stance. Associating with what is<br>happening in Muslims nation nowadays, current study compelled to review the<br>radical revolutionary movement from the perspective of moderate Islam school<br>of thought.</p> Mohd. Shah Jani Raudlotul Firdaus binti Fatah Yasin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 195–213 195–213 Nigeria’s Foreign Policy Goals in Peacekeeping Operations in Africa <p>Abstract: In line with its foreign policy objectives, Nigeria, since its<br>independence, has been participating in Peacekeeping Operations (PKOs)<br>in Africa. It was in recognition of the country’s commitment to the United<br>Nations’ (UN) objectives of maintaining peace and security that made it<br>contribute troops to the UN Operation in the Congo (ONUC) for the first time<br>in 1960. For more than fifty years, Nigeria has continued to make giant strides<br>and commitment in this regard. This paper examines the benefits it derives<br>from participating in PKOs in Africa under the UN, OAU (now AU) and the<br>ECOMOG. Using both primary and secondary data, the paper argues that a<br>normative anxiety was the primary motivating factor for Nigeria’s involvement<br>in PKOs in Africa. This is driven by the idiosyncrasies of the country’s leaders<br>since its independence in 1960. Nigeria’s decision-makers are confident that its<br>participation in PKOs serves a number of foreign policy goals and provides for<br>the nation’s interests. The effort promotes the country’s prestige and influence<br>in the comity of nations and in Intergovernmental Organisations (the UN, AU<br>and ECOWAS).</p> Sani Safiyanu Roy Anthony Rogers Wan Sharina Ramlah Wan Ahmad Amin Jaffri Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 215–240 215–240 Ecological Modernization: in Malaysia: A Review of Pakatan Harapan’s Manifesto Manifesto During the 14th General Election Within the Context of Ecological Modernization Framework <p>Abstract: Ecological Modernization theory emerged during the 1980s in<br>response to other environmental sociology theories that mostly denunciate<br>industrialization and modernization as culprits of environmental degradation.<br>The basic view of Ecological Modernization is to find a balance between<br>development of society and nation as well as environmental protection.<br>Some scholars believe that this is the best module to develop a country, while<br>others criticize it as a pro-capitalist concept. As Malaysia is now pushing<br>its status towards becoming a developed and high-income nation, people’s<br>wellbeing as well as environmental protection needs to be highly considered.<br>Taking Ecological Modernization as fresh perspective to view the country’s<br>development plan, this paper aims to understand whether the essence of<br>Ecological Modernization was embedded in Pakatan Harapan’s political<br>manifesto during the 14th general election. As political manifesto serves as<br>initial policy making guidelines, it is imperative to understand the Pakatan<br>Harapan future plans for the country.</p> Noor Asyhikin Binti Abd Razak Nor Azlin Binti Tajuddin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 241–259 241–259 Education for the Production and Reproduction of Docile Bodies: The Problems of Civic Education in Thailand <p>over a decade, Thai traditional elites and old-style bureaucrats have stated that<br>the problem of Thai political development derives from a lack of ‘citizenship’<br>characteristics in Thai people. In their view, the best solution has been to educate<br>the masses and to cultivate civic education by teaching both it and Thai ‘core<br>values’ as a subject to students. As a result, the students have become patriotic<br>“saviours”. They are expected to be strong citizens who can solve the political<br>development problem under the ‘Democratic Regime of the Government with<br>the King as Head of State’. This article seeks to understand the result of a<br>curriculum including the two subjects of civic education and history which have<br>been taught in Thai schools for 12 years, covering both primary and secondary<br>schools. What type of Thai citizen does this curriculum desire to produce and<br>re-produce? The author rigorously analyzed a corpus of civic education and<br>history textbooks and argues that the contents of these subjects are designed to<br>transform students into ‘docile’ bodies. They have become “objects” which are<br>ordered and imposed on by the state ideology, which produces and re-produces<br>them to be ultra-royalists and ultra-nationalists.</p> Siwach Sripokangkul Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 261–294 261–294 Revisiting Southeast Asian Civil Islam: Moderate Muslims and Indonesia’s Democracy Paradox <p>Abstract: There has been an intensive scholarly debate about the development<br>of Indonesia’s post-New Order democracy. Some scholars have lauded<br>Indonesia’s surprisingly successful transition to democratic consolidation,<br>while others have disputed such a notion, arguing that Indonesia’s democratic<br>process tends to be stagnant and even regressive. However, the absence of<br>a progressive civil society as a result of the increasingly dominant position<br>of oligarchic political elites in the structure of state power and democratic<br>institutions, are a number of important factors that encourage the decline<br>of democracy. This article investigates the conditions that drive the role of<br>moderate Islamic organizations (or what Hefner calls a civil Islam) were<br>declining rather than increasing in fighting for a democratic agenda. Referring<br>to the research data obtained through interviews, documentation and case<br>studies on Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) activism - the largest moderate Islamic<br>organization in a predominantly Muslim country (Indonesia), this article argues<br>that the decline of civil Islamic organizations is closely related to socio-political<br>fragmentation and the strengthening of the conservative wing within moderate<br>Islamic organizations. At the same time, the decline of the organization which<br>had a glorious reputation as a champion of tolerance, pluralism, and democracy<br>in the 1980-1990s had implications for the regression of Indonesian democracy<br>marked by, among other things, the exclusion of religious minority groups such<br>as Shi’a from the public sphere.</p> M. Khusna Amal Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 295–318 295–318 Conceptualizing Islamic Ethics for Contemporary Muslim Societies <p>Abstract: Contemporary Muslim societies suffer from numerous endemic<br>problems such as corruption, poverty, and gender inequality. In addressing<br>these problems, scholars tend to consider sociological models, and overlook<br>the potential of Islamic ethical perspectives. The Islamic sources, particularly<br>the Qur’an provide pertinent insights on ethics that should be foremost in the<br>minds of those seeking to alleviate social problems in Muslim communities.<br>Essential writings on ethics, particularly Tahdhib al-Akhlāq by Ibn Miskawayh,<br>The Moral World of the Qur’an by Draz, and The Ethico-Religious Concepts<br>in the Qur’an by Izutsu are major works in this field. This paper elucidates the<br>meaning of Islamic ethics, with an overview from the Qur’an and the views<br>of prominent scholars. It then analyses the current major problems in Muslimmajority<br>countries and their ethical roots to emphasize the significance of Islamic<br>ethics as a source of remedy. This is an interdisciplinary qualitative study,<br>which uses the thematic commentary on Qur’an and ḥemedy methodologies,<br>integrating the methods of sociology and ethics.</p> Fethi B. Jomaa Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 319–344 319–344 Editors Note Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 Text Inside Cover Intellectual Discourse Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1 Table of Contents Intellectual Discourse Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 28 1