Intellectual Discourse 2019-12-28T09:00:29+08:00 Ishtiaq Hossain Open Journal Systems <p><strong>About the Journal</strong>: Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Guest Editor’s Note 2019-12-28T08:54:26+08:00 Aida Mokhtar <p>This Special Issue of Intellectual Discourse contains seven articles<br>on the theme of disability studies. The goal of the Special Issue is<br>to create awareness of research studies on the area of disability.<br>The inclusion of persons with disabilities in various areas such as<br>education, healthcare, access to buildings and information meets the<br>United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are<br>fundamental to the focus of the articles. The scope of the theme is wide<br>as it encompasses several perspectives namely the extra costs of having<br>a disability, advertisements and their depiction of inclusion and persons<br>with disabilities, the inclusiveness of Malaysian urban cities, parenting<br>children with hearing impairment, an examination of stress in parents of<br>children with autism, the costs of different types of caregivers and the<br>design of a speech delay screening mobile application for Malaysian<br>parents.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) Table of Contents 2019-12-28T08:58:46+08:00 Intellectual Discourse <p>Intellectual&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) Text Inside Cover 2019-12-28T08:59:58+08:00 Intellectual Discourse 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) The Extra Costs of Having a Disability: The Case of IIUM 2019-12-28T08:40:12+08:00 Ruzita Mohd Amin Nur Syuhada Md Adros <p>The information on extra costs of disability among developing<br>countries, including Malaysia, is lacking and the issue seems neglected. As a<br>result, an appropriate amount of monetary assistance that should be provided<br>to the disabled community in Malaysia could not be determined. This paper<br>undertakes a preliminary analysis of the extra costs of having a disability,<br>by taking the staff of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) as<br>the sample as to calculate the extra costs of having a disability. The standard<br>of living approach is adopted, and the extra costs are calculated by dividing<br>the estimated coefficient of disability variables by the estimated coefficient<br>of income. This paper analyses the extra costs among households containing<br>one person with disabilities, and also across different severity levels, types of<br>disability, according to gender, and residential area (i.e. urban or rural). Overall,<br>a household containing one person with disabilities accounted 27.5 per cent out<br>of their monthly income to fulfil disability-related needs.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) Advertisements Shape Our Social Reality: A Study of Apple Advertisements on Promoting PWDs and Inclusion 2019-12-28T08:42:14+08:00 Aida Mokhtar Souhaila Ahmed Elyass Hussain <p>There are persons with disabilities (PWDs) in each society. The<br>inclusion of PWDs by society, as supported by the United Nation’s sustainable<br>development goals (SDGs), could be encouraged by advertising. Advertising’s<br>influence on one’s worldview is obvious with cultivation theory espousing the<br>phenomenon that prolonged viewing of television could fashion audiences’<br>worldview by making them believe that the images projected are accurate<br>depictions of reality. PWDs not only nurture compassion within us but provide<br>us with a wealth of opportunities by coming up with inventions that improve<br>their quality of life. These inventions could empower PWDs by giving them<br>greater independence. The global brand, Apple, through its technological<br>devices, gives PWDs jobs, a platform for expression and dignity. Apple has<br>created a series of video advertisements that depict its embrace of inclusion<br>through its technological innovations. The study examines selected Apple’s<br>video advertisements using critical discourse analysis (CDA). The outcome<br>of the study is a framework for brands to use as a guide when incorporating<br>advertising images on the inclusion of PWDs.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) The Anticipation of Malaysian Urban Cities to be Inclusive and Accessible by 2030 2019-12-28T08:43:59+08:00 Nur Amirah Abd Samad Asiah Abdul Rahim <p>Malaysia, in the Malaysia Urban Forum (MUF) 2019 aims to<br>realize the vision of the World Urban Forum (WUF) 2018 theme of ‘Cities<br>2030, Cities for All: Implementing the New Urban Agenda’ that is in line with<br>Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The introduction of the Malaysian<br>Standard started in 1990 but not acknowledged until the establishment of the<br>Persons with Disabilities Act in 2008 and gazetted in the Uniform Building By-<br>Laws (UBBL) amendments despite the slow pace of accessibility awareness<br>in urban development and implementation. The methodology compares the<br>establishment of notable Inclusive and Accessible Cities with their planning<br>strategies of implementing Universal Design. Findings and results will<br>determine inclusive city’s strategies from each case study documented and<br>device a framework of projection for cities’ inclusivity. Conclusively, this study<br>would determine the anticipation of Malaysian urban cities to be Inclusive and<br>Accessible in 2030 by strategising action plans and a framework for ten (10)<br>year planning.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) Parenting Children with Hearing Impairment: The Milieu of Parents’ Practices and Experiences 2019-12-28T08:46:19+08:00 Mastura Badzis Rabiu Garba Idris <p>The birth of a child with hearing impairment imposes more parental<br>demands than having a child without a disability. Parents have little concern<br>about the holistic growth and development of their children with hearing<br>disability. This study aspires to delineate the parental practice and experience in<br>dealing with behavioural problems of their children with hearing-impairments<br>in a Special School in Kano State, Nigeria. This study employed a qualitative<br>case study design in which interviews and observation were used to collect<br>the data. Purposeful sampling was utilised in selecting three fathers and three<br>mothers of children with hearing impairment. Data was recorded, transcribed<br>and thematically analysed in which categories were identified and generated.<br>The findings accentuated several major themes and categories of parental<br>practice and their experiences, which have to do with counselling the children<br>with hearing impairment. Parental experience includes the judgment of others<br>in the family and based on the findings, the researchers provide discernments to<br>parents, their children with hearing impairment, and the immediate community<br>where such children live.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) Stress in Parents of Children with Autism: A Malaysian Experience 2019-12-28T08:48:08+08:00 Nadzirah Ahmad Basri Nik Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim <p>This study examines differences in parental stress between parents<br>of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children (n=21) and Typically Developed<br>(TD) children (n=41) in Malaysia. This study also compares the ages of parents<br>of ASD children with parents of TD children with stress as a variable in these<br>parents. Parents completed the Parental Stress Index (brief Malay version) and<br>a socio-demographic questionnaire. Parents with ASD children were found to<br>be significantly more stressed compared to parents of TD children (p&lt;0.001).<br>Significant scores were also found in the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction<br>(P-CDI) sub-scale (p&lt;0.001) as well as Difficult Child (DC) and Parental<br>Distress (PD) sub-scales with lower significance (p&lt;0.05). Results also indicate<br>that the 30-35-year-old age group among ASD parents was significantly found<br>to be more stressed compared with parents of TD children of the same ages.<br>Implications of the findings regarding support and intervention for families<br>with ASD are also discussed.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) The Costs of Caregivers for Children with Disabilities that Participate in Centre-Based and Home-Based Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) Programmes in the East Coast of Malaysia 2019-12-28T08:50:26+08:00 Haliza Hasan Syed Mohamed Aljunid Amrizal MN <p>Rehabilitation for disabled children requires long-term programmes<br>which are expensive to the family. This study aimed to estimate the cost<br>incurred by caregivers’ children with disabilities from Pahang, Terengganu and<br>Kelantan participating in Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) (Centre-<br>Based and Home-Based) and cost of seeking alternative rehabilitation. Cost<br>analysis using the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) method was used to estimate<br>twelve-months’ expenditure in 2014 institutional year on 297 caregivers of<br>children with disability, aged 0 to 18 years who attended CBR. Data were<br>collected using a self-administered costing questionnaire and presented<br>in median (IQR). Results showed that the median direct and indirect costs,<br>excluding medications and alternative care were nearly four times as high<br>in Home-Based compared to Centre-Based (RM2, 376 (11,228) vs. RM608 (739) (p = &lt;0.001). Both groups of caregivers spent a significant amount of<br>resources on alternative rehabilitation. The high costs incurred for alternative<br>rehabilitation is a major economic burden to the family.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) The Design of A Speech Delay Screening Mobile Application for Malaysian Parents 2019-12-28T08:52:40+08:00 Siti Asma Mohammed Nur Faizah Azahari Wan Nur Shahirah W.A Sayuti <p>Some children may face some developmental problems in one or<br>more areas of their developmental milestones. One of them is speech delay. To<br>date, a screening tool for speech delay early detection among children is still<br>lacking, especially in Malaysia. Parents do not know where to refer and which<br>organisation can help them especially for first-time parents. The objective of<br>this paper is twofold. First, this paper analyses existing screening system or<br>application for speech delay in children. Second, this paper proposes a mobile<br>application designed for Malaysian parents to help them detect speech delay<br>in their children. A qualitative expert review was used to design and build the<br>application. The screening application proposed is for early detection and to<br>urge parents to seek for early intervention through appropriate assessments. In<br>conclusion, early detection in speech delay is critically important to increase<br>the chances for improving speech and communication skills. Thus, a speech<br>delay screening tool is needed for parents to seek proper treatment for their<br>children</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) Front Matter 2019-12-28T08:57:10+08:00 Intellectual Discourse 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) Back Matter 2019-12-28T08:57:59+08:00 Intellectual Discourse 2019-12-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c)