The English School and Order: The Case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)


  • Ferhat Durmaz
  • Ishtiaq Hossain


The English School (ES) analytical framework concerning the
formation of order in international relations posits that states establish order
through rules and institutions within the framework of common interests and
values to protect against anarchy. State-centred orders with limited civil society
cooperation are pluralistic, while their converse (with a larger role for non-state
actors) are solidarist. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
was established in 1967 by Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore,
and Indonesia based on common interests, such as strengthening sovereignty
and creating stable relations in the face of anarchic problems like communism
and internal instability. In numerous conventions ASEAN has adopted various
norms, such as respect for the sovereignty of the states, the rule of law, non-use
of power, peaceful resolution of disputes, and non-interference in other states.
All these norms showed that the primary purpose of ASEAN is to protect state
sovereignty and interests and to establish peaceful regional relations. The fact
that state sovereignty is at the forefront, with limited cooperation of non-state
actors, shows that the ASEAN regional order is pluralist. This article analyses
the emergence and appearance of the ASEAN regional order (the unit of
analysis) in the context of the ES (the theoretical framework).


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How to Cite

Ferhat Durmaz, & Ishtiaq Hossain. (2019). The English School and Order: The Case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Intellectual Discourse, 27(1), 285–321. Retrieved from