Elections in the Muslim World, 1990-2002

  • Ahmed Abdul Wahid A. Al-Zandani


Abstract: Aggregate data analysis of elections held between 1990 and 2002 in the Muslim world show that most of these elections belong to the non-democratic category and these elections were mostly non-competitive. Approximately, 98% of the Muslim world people do not enjoy full political liberty. About 96% of the people in the Muslim world enjoy the right to vote, but their votes hardly result in transfer of power. However, there are four countries in the Muslim world, Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia and Mali, where elections are relatively free and fair.


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How to Cite
Al-Zandani, A. A. W. A. (2005). Elections in the Muslim World, 1990-2002. Intellectual Discourse, 13(2). Retrieved from https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/islam/article/view/107