Intellectual Discourse <p><strong>About the Journal</strong>: Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Danial Mohd Yusof) (Danial Mohd Yusof) Thu, 28 Dec 2023 14:23:19 +0800 OJS 60 The Philosophical Sufism of Harun Nasution: A Phenomenological-Historical Investigation of The Influence of Neo-Mu’tazilism <p>Sufism is the mystical form of Islam that emphasises spirituality which is commonly seen as irrational. Conversely, rationalism (mu’tazilism) stresses the rational dimension of Islam. Is philosophical or rational sufism then an oxymoron? Surprisingly, Harun Nasution manages to reconcile the two seemingly opposite dimensions in Indonesian Muslims’ way of thinking and weltanschauung. Genealogically, his thought emerged in four stages: firstly, his religious upbringing during childhood; secondly, the impact of Muhammad Abduh's rationalism on his progressive thought which challenged the Ash’arite school of theology in Indonesia; thirdly, his sufistic spiritual practices (<em>riyāḍah</em>) as he engaged in <em>dhikr </em>(remembrance of Allah) and embraced a simple lifestyle; and finally, the influence of his much-criticised rational approach similar to the Mu’tazilites on Indonesian Islamic thought. This study uses the historical-phenomenological theory to investigate the influence of neo-Mu’tazilism on Nasution’s thought and its impact on the struggle for Islamic reformation.</p> Ahmad Farouk Musa, Piet Hizbullah Khaidir Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Students’ Awareness and Participation in the Education for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina <p>This research explores the education for peace (EFP) in a multicultural and post-conflict state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of this study is to determine <em>EFP awareness and participation among high school and college graduates</em>. This research used the survey method to analyse students’ awareness and participation in the EFP in their high schools and colleges. The same method was used to analyse students’ perceptions of the EFP and the culture of peace among the students. The results indicated very low awareness and participation of students in the EFP. Regarding the student’s perception of EFP and the culture of peace among the students, the results indicated that there is insufficient implementation of EFP in high schools and colleges in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This indicates that with an introduction of the EFP in the schools, curricula, seminars, programmes, and textbooks the culture of peace would increase among the students, which is one of the main assumptions of this study. These findings led to our main recommendation that an introduction of EFP in high schools and colleges and active involvement of students through the learning process may lead to greater multicultural understanding within the culture of peace, tolerance, and understanding in Bosnian multicultural society. </p> Almasa Mulalic Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Objectivity Threats: Would it Jeopardise Malaysian Internal Auditors’ Risk Judgment Quality? <p> In the realm of internal auditing, the rise of Risk-Based Internal Auditing has heightened the demand for auditors to excel in risk assessment. Failing in this role not only endangers audits but also exposes companies to significant losses and reputational harm. Internal auditors entrusted with critical decisions grapple with objectivity challenges that impede their ability to assess a company's risks accurately. This study investigates objectivity challenges in Malaysian internal auditing and their impact on risk assessment. Employing experimental tasks of varying complexity, it reveals that all nine objectivity threats outlined in the "International Standards for Professional Practices of Internal Auditing (IPPF): Practice Guide on Independence and Objectivity" are prevalent in Malaysia. These threats negatively affect risk assessment, regardless of task complexity. Prominent objectivity threats include social pressure, familiarity, and intimidation. Crucially, these threats have a more significant impact on risk assessment during simpler tasks, especially when auditors assess familiar, less intricate areas. These highlight the urgent need for internal auditors to manage objectivity effectively, strengthening their role as impartial, dependable risk assessors.</p> Fazlida Mohd Razali, Jamaliah Said, Razana Juhaida Johari, Norizelini Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Shifting Tides: Malaysia's 2023 State Assembly Elections <p>Six states in Malaysia concluded their elections on August 12, 2023, fiercely contested by major party coalitions. Major changes have taken place in seat composition for the respective state assemblies. How did the respective coalitions campaign and fare at the six state elections? The coalitions issued manifestos as part of the campaign but the content of the manifestos had not been adequately discussed during the campaign, and hence did not have much bearing on the voting public. Based on the documentary analysis backed by informal interviews with voters, this study analyses the state assembly elections that showed a status quo in all six states. Anwar Ibrahim-led progressive, multi-ethnic alliance, Pakatan Harapan and Barisan Nasional (PH-BN), had been re-elected in three of the states it had held prior to the election. Perikatan Nasional (PN), the opposition bloc led by former Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin and backed by a conservative Islamist party, also held the three states under its control but it managed to wrest several seats in the states held by PH-BN. PN took 60 percent of the 245 state assembly seats contested, relying on the contention that Anwar and his multi-ethnic coalition would not protect Malays and Islam. These elections have no direct impact on the political stability of the country. The unity government has four years to unite an increasingly polarised country as it appeared during the election, and needs to improve its social and economic performance.</p> Abdul Rashid Moten Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Legitimacy of Smart Contracts Written in Encrypted Code on Blockchain Technology Under Current Contract Law: A Comparative Study <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Using smart contracts as a new technology for online contracting has become the best option today when working in non-trustworthy environments to execute automated irreversible agreements. However, such contracts have issues relating to the language used for expressing the obligations of the involved parties. Additionally, smart contracts have no legal recognition of blockchain as a means of record-keeping for smart contract transactions. Parties engaged in smart contracts face difficulties in terms of incompatibilities with current legal frameworks. The objective of this article is to evaluate the legality of smart contract language and the validity of blockchain as an electronic medium from the perspectives of current laws. This article adopts a qualitative doctrinal legal research approach. The findings indicate that there is a need to enact laws that recognise the language used for smart contracts and the transactions recorded on the blockchain.</p> Ghassan Adhab Atiyah, Nazura Abdul Manap, Saidatul Nadia Abd Aziz Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 The The Main Tendencies of Discourse Representation of Immigrant Workers: A Critical Discourse Analysis in Malaysian Online News Portals <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-GB">Being one of the most industrialised nations in Southeast Asia, Malaysia has been receiving many immigrant workers from neighbouring countries to provide labour for economic expansion. The government was heavily criticised following its announcement on the intake of 1.5 million Bangladeshi workers into the country. The local media have profoundly reported on the issues of immigrant workers in Malaysia. This study focuses on the main tendencies of discourse representation of immigrant workers in Malaysia, specifically in The Star and Malaysiakini online news portals. A total of 20 news articles, 10 from each news portal concerning the above-mentioned issues are analysed according to Fairclough’s (1995) Discourse Representation in Media Discourse framework. Each phrase undergoes a five-level parameter analysis to investigate the language and the strategies employed. As a whole, both online news portals maintained the ideational meaning of the primary discourse in their news reports. </span></p> Ainul Azmin Md Zamin, Farida Filza Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Examining the Relationship between Prophetic Leadership and Cultural Intelligence (CQ): Lessons from the Cultural Diplomacy of Anṣār and Muhājirūn <p>The Muslim world is at a crossroads in that genuine leadership is almost obliterated. Research has shown that there were leaders who lacked values-based competencies which are paramount in any leadership style. Although a handful of Muslim worlds/nations are making progress in nurturing and managing leaders, the over-arching picture is incredibly worrying and depressing. Undoubtedly, understanding Cultural Intelligence (CQ) can benefit leadership, and cognisance of others’ cultural practices is pertinent. The greatest leadership practices that we could strive to follow is the leadership of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and how the Caliphates learned from the Prophet (PBUH) to build not only human civilisation but also the personalities that form a unique culture for a sustainable society, especially during the time of Sayyidina Umar Al-Khattab. A dearth of studies on the relationship among CQ, Values-Based Competencies (VBR) and Prophetic Leadership is apparent. Thus, the main purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between prophetic leadership and Cultural Intelligence and most importantly to unveil how leaders can grasp and learn from the diplomacy shown by the <em>Anṣār</em> and <em>Muhājirūn</em>; in that, the prophetic leadership qualities were aptly applied. Additionally, there is an urgent need for education, cultivation, and coaching of current and emerging leaders at all levels, from socio-political to organisational leaders, on how to be quality, judicious, and diplomatic leaders, if we are to build better organisations, societies, and a better world. Prophetic leadership qualities are authentic, timeless, and universal. It genuinely involved the social, economic, and political realities of the communities they serve. </p> Faizah Idrus, Zurina Abd. Ghani Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Management Strategy and Challenges for Religious Radio Stations in Malaysia <p>The landscape of radio transmission has changed as a result of the advent of digital technologies. It has indirectly affected how people listen to the radio. This study seeks to understand how religious radio stations stay relevant in radio industry when commercial radio rules. Hence, this research aims to determine the factors contributing to religious radio sustainability and its challenges in the digital age. This research used a qualitative approach by interviewing religious radio station managers. The findings reveal that management strategy is the core factor influencing community response to religious radio. Even though commercial radio dominates the radio business in the country, there is no competition between religious and commercial radio. Nevertheless, the commercial radio seeks to emulate religious radio strategy, unexpectedly. By defining the target listeners and using a good scheduling structure, management has proven to be the cornerstone of religious radio stations' success.</p> Juliana Abdul Wahab, Intan Soliha Ibrahim, Azlan Abas Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 The Confronts of Edutourism in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A Malaysian Perspective <p>COVID-19 triggered a crisis and sliced through every facet of humankind. People were advised to practise physical distancing, and most educational institutions have integrated different digital technologies and virtual learning environments (VLE) to limit the likelihood of pandemic pedagogy. This study sought to investigate the challenges of edutourism in Malaysia for sustaining viable education during this delicate time. Therefore, it examines the determinants of sustainable education, perceived value, risk assessment, quality service, and knowledge management in choosing institutions to resume edutourism. Based on a non-probability survey sample of 308 international students in Malaysia, the data were analysed with SPSS for fundamental analyses and SEM-AMOS for hypothesis testing. The results demonstrated that most predictors highly influenced the choice of the institution; thus, the government must acquire appropriate pedagogical knowledge to assure learning coherence. This study has presented a collection of influencing factors that impact how students adjust their objectives when choosing academic institutions in Malaysia.</p> Mohammad Moshiur Rahman, Ahasanul Haque, Fatin Husna Suib Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 'Morning Slaps' Da’wah: A Study on @taqy_malik Instagram Account Registers <p>The use of social media as a tool to convey religious thoughts has a considerable impact when carried out on/by accounts of public figures that are popular among millennials. Technological savviness and religious knowledge acquisition are not only required to be possessed by those accounts but also the creativity to engage with the audience by formulating genuine rhetorics. An example is the Instagram account of Taqiyudin Malik (@taqy_malik – hereinafter referred to as Taqy), a young Indonesian entrepreneur-preacher with around 2.4 million followers. Using sociolinguistics and netnography approaches as well as employing a descriptive qualitative method, we examined Taqy's account posts, specifically those collected in the #TamparanPagi (Morning Slaps) category. Through a register study on 12 posts, found that Taqy carried out digital <em>da’wah</em> in simple, humorous, and casual rhetorical ways filled with satirical irony. We categorized six categories of Taqy’s posts, namely remembering and preparing the afterlife, the Allah’s commands, the fruitfulness of <em>i</em><em>badah</em>, the oneness of Allah, call for marriage, and improving personalities. The finding confirms that the use of social media, specifically Instagram, can be a tool for spreading <em>da’wah</em> messages with no explicit impression of being patronizing or intimidating.</p> Rizki Amalia Sholihah, Dawam Multazamy Rohmatulloh Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Gender Issues and the Distorted Narrative in Women Leadership in China: The Case of Empress Dowager Cixi (1861-1908) <p>Throughout history, the controversial Empress Dowager Cixi has been portrayed as a cruel and ineffective leader, despite contradicting evidences. This study assesses the narratives that vilified her via library and historical research methods, and analysed using critical discourse analysis. The Qing’s social system became an instrument of prejudice and discrimination which fostered a gender-biased mindset and disparity that was used against Qing women like Cixi. This scenario paved the way for prejudiced and fabricated narratives about Cixi written by scholars and foes, and were accepted and cited in the vast majority of subsequent English historical and scholarly works, which are still regarded as accurate today. The study discovers that Cixi’s contribution can be traced through China’s political, development, and social sectors, such as in the empowerment of Qing women. This article examines Cixi under the theme of gender, and accentuated how gender has become a crucial key in creating a massive impact on her life and how Qing’s societal system itself becomes a tool of suppression, bias and discrimination towards Qing women, specifically Cixi. This article bridges a major research gap in gender and political studies by filling in the studies on historical women’s leadership. Cixi broke down gender barriers to reform China, and she should be honoured for her contributions to society.</p> Muhamad Daniel Ibrahim Yaacob, Siti Zuliha Razali, Muhammad Febriansyah Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Back Matter Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 Note from The Editor Tunku Mohar Mokhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800 The Sun Rises in the West: A Review Essay on Ismailism <p><strong>THE FATIMIDS 2. THE RULE FROM EGYPT</strong>, by Shainool Jiwa. London/New York: I. B. Tauris / The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2023, pp. VIII + 240. ISBN: 9781780769486.</p> <p><strong>COMMAND AND CREATION. A SHI‘I COSMOLOGICAL TREATISE</strong>. A Persian edition and English translation of Muḥammad al-Shahrastānī’s <em>Majlis-i maktūb</em>. Edited and Translated by Daryoush Mohammad Poor. London/New York: I. B. Tauris / The Institute of Ismaili Studies (Ismaili Texts and Translation Series, 25), 2021, pp. XVI + 138 + LXXXIV. ISBN: 9780755602971.</p> <p><strong>FAITH AND ETHICS: THE VISION OF THE ISMAILI IMAMAT</strong>, by M. Ali Lakhani. London/New York: I. B. Tauris / The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2018, pp. 1 colour illustration + XXIV + 248. ISBN: 9781788312486.</p> Carimo Mohomed Copyright (c) 2023 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 28 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0800