Intellectual Discourse <p><strong>About the Journal</strong>: Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Danial Mohd Yusof) (Danial Mohd Yusof) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 16:44:48 +0800 OJS 60 Note from The Editor Tunku Mohar Mokhtar Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Understanding Malaysian youth’s social media practices and their attitude towards violent extremism <p>The internet is an effective tool for learning, dissemination of information, communication, social networking and electronic commerce, among others. However, the internet, particularly through social media, has also been the source of disinformation, hate speech and the spreading of violent extremist propaganda. The use of social media to spread such information is also apparent in Malaysia. A significant number of those arrested for terror-related activities have been found to use social media to communicate, spread propaganda and recruit supporters and sympathizers. Hence, this study attempted to examine youth’s social media practices and factors that influence their support towards violent extremism on social media. This is particularly important for policy makers and practitioners to develop a more robust strategy in countering the use of social media by violent extremists and terrorists to target youth. To achieve the study aim, an online survey involving 400 respondents was conducted. The findings revealed that, youth liked video content the most, this was followed by written content, infographic and images. Information seeking continues to be an important purpose for using social media. While youth’s attitude towards violent extremism was moderate, this study found that, information or argument quality, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were factors that could influence attitude. Considering that social media technology that is constantly changing, it was proposed that, future studies in countering violent extremism to continually look into youth’s social media usage, particularly in understanding different social media platforms, types of content and the message design aspect.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nurzali Ismail, Jasmine Jawhar, Danial Mohd Yusof, Anis Izzati Ismail, Raja Muhammad Khairul Akhtar Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Should heterogeneity matter? Evaluating public service motivation in a non-homogenous society. <p>Drawing works on Publis Service Motivation(PSM), heterogeneity and institutions, this article suggests that in assessing an individual’s PSM and chances of joining the public service, ethnic heterogeneity matters. It matters because while personal attributes – like education, personal values and identity, political beliefs, socialisation - are important in determining one’s public service motivation, an ethnically heterogeneous environment with the potential of producing numerous types of exclusive institutions can influence one’s perception of the public service, alter one’s motivation to serve in the public service or even determine one’s chances of joining the civil service.</p> Nadia Hezlin Yashaiya, Abdillah Noh Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 The Issue of the Elderly Homeless in Kuala Lumpur City: Family Neglect of the Elderly <p>Issues concerning elderly neglect and depression among the elderly have been often discussed. These issues include leaving the elderly alone after their children migrate to the city, sending elderly parents to welfare centres, leaving elderly parents in hospitals and disposing of parents without mercy. However, it is rare to read about senior citizens who choose to live as homeless after being dumped by their family members, which includes their spouses (husband/ wife), children or siblings. This qualitative study involved ten elderly homeless in Kuala Lumpur City who were subjected to in-depth interviews to determine the reason(s) why they choose to live as a homeless in Kuala Lumpur City. The main reason they became homeless was because they were dumped by their family members, especially their spouses (husband/ wife) and/or children. Although they had become homeless but deep in their hearts, they still expect their family members, especially their children, to take care of their welfare and let them stay with the family until the end of their lives. It is hoped that this study will help curb the increase of the elderly becoming homeless and ensure that they receive loving support from family members, especially their children.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: <em>elderly, homeless, Kuala Lumpur, children, family support</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> NIK NORLIATI FITRI MD NOR Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Muslim Inventors of Reading and Writing Methods for the Blind: Predecessors of Braille <p>Over the past few centuries, there have been numerous attempts to find suitable methods that would help blind people read and write, thus improving their quality of life. At present, Louis Braille (1809-1852 A.D.) is probably the best-known inventor creating a writing system known as “The Braille Language” that aids the blind read and write. Although several historians recorded other western inventors who developed methods for the same purpose before Braille, little is known about Muslim pioneers in this area. This is a very interesting fact, especially when Braille completed his system of writing in around 1837 A.D., almost seven centuries after the first attempt done by a Muslim scholar recorded in this paper. This study aims to present three inventions for three Muslim scholars creating methods for the blind to read and write that date back to the 5th century A.H. (1009-1106 A.D.). Like Braille, all three used the sense of touch to achieve this goal. For example, Muhammad bin Abdul-Warith (d. fifth century A.H.) created embossed figures from pitch similar to the Arabic alphabet to teach his blind son read and write. Zein-Eddine Al-Amidy, (d. 712 A.H. / 1312 A.D.) a blind Muslim scholar, fashioned paper made letters to read, write, and remember the prices of his books. Wazir Al-Sarraj (d. 1149 A.H. / 1736 A. D.), another Muslim scholar, created wax letters for his blind teacher to help him read and write.&nbsp;</p> Awad Al-Khalaf, Kassem Saad, Adam Abdullah, Mona Shehade, Najla Aljarwan Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 In the Name of Covid-19 <p>In late February 2020, the democratically-elected Pakatan Harapan’s coalition government was toppled, arguably through a self-inflicted coup, by its component party Bersatu which brokered a deal with its allies from within and outside of the coalition. Based on a synthesis from Bridget Welsh’ ideas on political mandate and Andreas Schedler’s new institutionalism, this article explores how the royal mandate was taken advantage of by the newly formed coalition government, the Perikatan Nasional (PN), in confronting challenges for its survival by resorting to authoritarianism, blanketed by its policies to tackle the Covid-19 pandemic. It is argued that, however, the pandemic brought an adverse effect to PN’s regime integrity in a way that it had both became the source of regime sustainability and regime subversion. While the democratic reversal is clearly apparent, the Muhyiddin’s administration failure to effectively deal with the challenges of good governance during the pandemic had eventually led to its own demise.</p> Muhamad Nadzri Mohamed Noor Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Confirmation Bias among Adherents of Red and Yellow Politics in Thailand <p>Thai politics has long been polarised between red and yellow ideologies. This study aims to explore bias among adherents of each political ideology. The study recruited 392 participants for an experiment. The participants were divided into 4 treatment groups based on the type of information that they were assigned to read. Principal component analysis was employed to identify the participants’ original political ideology and verify whether their original political beliefs changed or were maintained after exposure to the experimental information. The results of the <em>RED+</em> treatment (exposure to positive information about red politics) revealed that participants on the red spectrum tended to confirm their original beliefs</p> <p>after information exposure. However, participants on the yellow spectrum switched to the green spectrum (espousing neither red nor yellow ideologies). The results of the <em>RED-</em> treatment (exposure to negative information about red politics) demonstrated confirmation bias among the participants. The participants who held red and yellow ideologies intensified their political beliefs. The results of the <em>YELLOW+</em> treatment (exposure to positive information about yellow politics) suggested that the political conviction of participants on the red spectrum decreased, and some participants on the yellow spectrum switched to the red spectrum. The results of <em>YELLOW-</em> treatment (exposure to negative information about yellow politics) revealed that the number of participants on the red spectrum decreased, even though the information supported their beliefs. These results implied that confirmation bias in politics still exists. However, the decrease in political convictions after some treatments suggested that participants still held some sympathy for political opposition groups.</p> Norachit Jirasatthumb, Phumsith Mahasuweerachai, Atchara Sorasing Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Secularization of Muslim Students: A Freirean Perspective on Biological Evolution Teaching in Islamic Schools <p>The teaching of evolution has long been debated in the fields of science, education, and theology. This controversy raises many problems, especially when the national curriculum includes it as the material to be taught in madrasas or Islamic schools. This study aims to examine Paulo Freire’s critical education paradigm and its significance and relevance for criticizing the teaching of evolution in religious (Islamic) schools in particular, and in a broader context of a religious Indonesian society. This study used a qualitative-descriptive approach, with a library research. The data were obtained from Freire’s books as primary sources and from scientific articles and other related books as secondary sources. The study found 6 key ideas of Freire that are relevant to critique on the teaching of evolution, namely: (1) the inseparability of education from political content, (2) the displacement of the values and culture of the oppressed through education, (3) the neutrality of science, (4) three categories of human consciousness, (5) the concept of alienation, and (6) critical literacy programs.</p> Ahmad Naharuddin Ramadhan, Marzuki, Heru Nurcahyo, Bustami Subhan Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 The Role of Mass Media as a Channel to Learn about Islam among Muslims in Gombak <p><em>Mass media’s evolution today requires the preacher (dāÑiy) to equip themselves with communication skills as it is an integral part of da’wah. Without the participation of learned preachers on this medium, young people who are the primary consumer of mass media can easily be swayed into following fake preachers, extremist, and deviant ideologies that freely promote themselves. This study will focus on mass media’s role and analyse it regarding its favourability as a tool for Islamic learning. This study aims to broaden the scope of understanding on the utilisation of traditional and new mass media; its usage patterns among Muslims with different backgrounds in Gombak. This study utilised a quantitative study to examine the phenomena, questionnaires and descriptive analysis tests as well as present the data. The results will be examined in the light of practicality, and the output indicates that there are importance and advantage of new media that can propagate a better understanding of Islam as a whole.</em></p> KAMARUZZAMAN ABDUL MANAN Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 The Best Solution for Pandemic Prevention of Covid-19: Important Notes in Light of the Quranic Perspectives <p>This article analytically discusses how the Quran commands Muslims to be prudent in the face of a pandemic crisis. The Quran is the holy book of Islam and is considered by Muslims to be the word of God and is a valid source of guidance alongside science advisories from government authorities. Using a qualitative method, this study investigates the Quranic assertion that in the face of a pandemic crisis, Muslims are required to do charitable deeds and keep striving with the hope that the solution to problems people face can be actively found, rather than just fatalistically surrendering to fate and Allah’s power alone. In this regard, the Quran commands Muslims to be prudent and to take precautions against the spread of disease, practice charity, endure, not be fooled by false gossip and to place trust in the religious and health authorities during times of crisis.</p> Abur Hamdi Usman, Muhd. Najib Abdul Kadir, Mohd Farid Ravi Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Alternative Solution for Indonesian Political and Ideological Problems <p>This article aims to elaborate on the narrative of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Indonesia on addressing Indonesian problems. This group has existed for over twenty years in Indonesia. As part of a global movement, HT has a single mission to call Muslim people to implement Islam and shariah as the state ideology and law. On the other hand, Muslims should leave the secular ideology adopted in the Muslim world today. This article will discuss HT`s perspective on Islam and secular thought like democracy, nationalism, and liberalism in the Indonesian context. This issue will be explained through framing theory in social movement study that will help to understand how a movement perceives the root of the social problem, offers the solution, and invite people to join the movement. this article argues that Hizb ut-Tahrir has used framing approach to disseminate its ideological and political mission in Indonesia.</p> <p><input id="ext" type="hidden" value="1"></p> Hasbi Aswar Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Al-Kawakibi, Abdul Rahman. The Nature of Tyranny and The Devastating Results of Oppression. Foreword by Leon T. Goldsmith. Translated by Amer Chaikhouni. Carimo Copyright (c) 2022 Intellectual Discourse Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800