Intellectual Discourse https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id <p><strong>About the Journal</strong>: Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> International Islamic University Malaysia en-US Intellectual Discourse 0128-4878 Post-Terrorism, Rehabilitation and Deradicalisation of Female Ex-Detainees of Daesh in Malaysia: A Round Table Discussion with Royal Malaysia Police (PDRM) https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1766 <p>This study explores women’s engagement in post-terrorism activities<br>in Malaysia. Because they are hard-to-reach subjects, the initial<br>collaboration with the Royal Police Malaysia E8 Unit (Polis DiRaja<br>Malaysia or PDRM) is fundamental to pave the way to gaining<br>access to former female detainees involved in terrorism. Based on the<br>PDRM’s report, 43 former female detainees are associated with Daesh<br>or Islamic State (IS) and Abu Sayaff.</p> Kartini Aboo Talib @ Khalid Mohd Irwan Syazli Saidin Ahmad Munawar Ismail Salasiah Hanin Hamjah Fatimah Wati Halim Zaireeni Azmi Helmy Abd. Gapar Teo Lee Ken Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 231–243 231–243 Osman Bakar, Ahmad Murad Merican and Wan Ali Wan Mamat (Eds.). Colonialism in The Malay Archipelago: Civilisational Encounters. Kuala Lumpur: Istac & Persatuan Sejarah Malaysia, 2021. 360 pp. ISBN: 9789839379709. Price: RM 69. https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1767 Datuk Halimah Mohd Said Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 245–255 245–255 Mohammad Rashiduzzaman. Identity of A Muslim Family in Colonial Bengal: Between Memories and History (New York: Peter Lang, 2021). ISBN: 978-1-4331-8321-8 https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1768 Syed Serajul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 Feisal Khan. 2019. Islamic Banking in Pakistan: Shariah-compliant finance and the quest to make Pakistan more Islamic. New York: Routledge, 185 pp. ISBN: 978-0-415-77975-3 (hbk), 978-1-315- 67024-9 (ebk). https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1769 Md Saidul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 Note from the Editor https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1771 Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 1 4 Text Inside Cover https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1772 Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 Table of Contents https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1773 Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 Front Matter https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1774 Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 Back Matter https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1775 Ishtiaq Hossain Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 ‘Travelers of Unknown Path’: On the Aim of Islamic Education https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1756 <p>The battle over how to defend the Muslim Ummah and especially<br>youth from modern science and its philosophy has ended up in a dilemma of<br>unsolved misery. On the one hand the rational spirit of the west was blamed<br>as having adulterated Muslim society. However, on the other hand, the longestablished<br>way of Muslim education was called in the court of ‘reason’. The<br>allegations of the west became the vehicle for Muslims to criticize their own<br>educational philosophy and re-evaluate it in order to defend it against these<br>onslaughts. It would be biased to call the same reasoning as good for one<br>philosophy but bad for another, the secret paradox. As a result of the above,<br>there was a flood of literature to define what should be the Islamic concept of<br>education which was more as defensive stance than an exercise of pure reason.<br>It is claimed that till now, there is no final answer to the `product’ of Islamic<br>education which can be presented as an alternative to the secular product of<br>`good citizen’. Neither in the name of philosophy nor in terms of a practical<br>framework, have Islamic scholars envisioned a clear product. Thus, until<br>present, the reasoning to define the `aim’ of Islamic education is incoherent<br>and varies in degrees. This article therefore will address these incoherencies in<br>three stages. Firstly, it sketches a cursory view of the initial centuries of Islam<br>where a strange combination of reason and revelation lead to a variant product<br>of Islamic education which was used to establish a premise. Secondly, based<br>on the previous premise, the 19-20th century was analysed by considering<br>three well-known philosophers in order to see the degree of achievements both</p> <p>philosophically and practically. The results from this stage produced once again<br>broad variations in the concept of education. Thirdly, based on the outcomes of<br>the first two stages contrast analysis was done in order to discuss the reasons<br>for lack of and future work to consequently define a true product of Islamic<br>education.</p> Rahmah Binti Ahmad H.Osman Naseeb Ahmed Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 5–34 5–34 Da’wah and Politics Among Muslim Preachers in Contemporary Indonesia https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1757 <p>This paper discusses how politics shapes the landscape of Islamic<br>da’wah in Indonesia. In this context, Muslim preachers use da’wah as an<br>instrument of politics. One of the tools used by Muslim preachers to roll<br>political influence into da’wah is through preaching on digital media. Through<br>qualitative studies based on library data, websites and social media, this paper<br>shows that Muslim preachers in contemporary Indonesia can be seen from<br>the critical preaching to the existing secular government. They attempt at<br>Islamizing the state by criticizing the secular state. This article finds that the<br>discourse of globalization has allowed them to get information about Islamic<br>movements in other countries. Second, the rise of Muslim political preachers is<br>influenced by government policies towards the political, social and economic<br>fields. Third, their preaching for political Islam is not focused on normative<br>goals such as the formation of an Islamic state. Instead, they focus on pragmatic<br>goals. Politicians also support their popularity. On the one hand, it provides<br>the diversity of da’wah in Indonesia, but on the other hand, it challenges the<br>established political Islam model.</p> Imron Rosidi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 35–52 35–52 Social Constructs Halalan Thayyiban Food Law: A Social Scientific Study into the Insight of Muslim and Non-Muslim in Banten Indonesia https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1758 <p>The halal thayyib food law is a unified terminology, which is based<br>on the Qur’an. The level of understanding based on the opinions of Muslims<br>and non-Muslims should be mapped out to define the halal thayyib food law<br>as a social construct. It is important to determine the definition of halalan<br>thayyiban food law according to ideas, opinions, and experiences of the leaders<br>of Muslims and non-Muslims. This is not a theological study, and this study<br>is based on the sociological methodology of an abductive study. This study<br>adopted the qualitative data analysis using an in-depth interview to examine the<br>perception of Muslims and non-Muslims leaders in Banten province, Indonesia<br>on the halalan thayyiban food law. The result revealed that Muslims and non-<br>Muslims have different definitions of ḥalāl food. However, their understanding<br>of thayyib food has the same basic constructs related to goodness in preprocessing,<br>during, and post-processing of food.</p> Ikomatussuniah Mohammad Reevany bin Bustami Abdul Rahman Abdul Latip Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 53–70 53–70 New Paradigm in Addressing Islamophobia: An Analytical Study Based on the Life of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1759 <p>A vast number of studies have acknowledged the existence of<br>Islamophobia, but few have attempted to deconstruct the concept. This study<br>deconstructs Islamophobia into its constituent elements: hatred, hostility, and<br>racism against Islam and Muslims. The study seeks to shed light on some<br>methods applied by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in dealing with the roots of<br>hatred, racism, and stereotypes. This can lead members of society to practice<br>different forms of animosity between people based on religion, race, color, etc.<br>In this context, the study confirms the depth of the prophetic biography and its<br>ability to provide the modern world with systematic methods in dealing with its<br>growing problems and challenges. Based on this biography, the study proposes<br>solutions to the matter of Islamophobia, including the need for Muslims to<br>interact with the regional and international societies from a standpoint of<br>collaboration and engagement. This would be for the universal benefit of all<br>societies and humanity in general.</p> Ruqaia Taha Alalwani Arshad Islam Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 71–88 71–88 Sharīʿah Framework for Pricing Family Takāful Products https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1760 <p>This research investigates the Sharīʿah compliance of the pricing<br>elements used in family takāful products. The reviewed literature has revealed<br>a great deal of emphasis on the Sharīʿah aspects of the takāful contract,<br>distribution of surplus, models used, incorporating waqf in takāful, and the<br>relationship among the parties. Other research has focused on the operational<br>and technical aspects of takāful such as underwriting, pricing, reserving and<br>risk management. None of these studies has addressed the Sharīʿah compliance<br>of the pricing elements of family takāful products. Through qualitative<br>research using open-ended interviews as well as content analysis, this research<br>analyses the conformity of family takāful pricing mechanism with the Sharīʿah<br>principles of price-setting (tasʿīr). The research findings indicate that the<br>assumptions of mortality and morbidity are Sharīʿah compliant based on<br>the principles of ibāḥah (permissibility), maṣlaḥah (public interest), istiqrāʾ<br>(induction) and ʿurf (custom). However, the investment returns assumption is<br>not quite fair to the shareholders should there be a loss in the investment. The<br>research also indicates that the concept of time value of money is a Sharīʿahcompliant<br>element that can be used to price family takāful products. Further,<br>the findings highlight that the pricing elements such as health condition are<br>deemed unfair by some practitioners. Similarly, adding an extra loading to the<br>contribution because of family medical history should not be taken for granted.</p> Younes Soualhi Fares Djafri Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 89–116 89–116 Banks’ Gifts in Islamic Financial Institutions https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1761 <p>This paper is a discussion about prizes in Islamic financial<br>institutions, highlighting the different advantages and disadvantages of current<br>account. The paper consists of prizes offered by Islamic banks to clients, which<br>can be divided according to their type into: a) the rewards and material benefits,<br>b) Intangible rewards and benefits. The paper discusses ruling on prizes and<br>gifts for current accounts. The ruling on the bank offering prizes and gifts to<br>current account holders. The ruling on offering prizes and benefits that are not<br>required and do not take into account the amounts deposited in the current<br>account. The ruling on offering rewards and benefits to the bank’s clients<br>without being specific to current account holders. To fulfil the objective of this<br>paper, qualitative approach is used. The paper is organized into the following<br>issues with three sections. First section is related to the discussion on truth<br>about prize giving by Islamic banks, which consist on rulings on prizes and<br>gifts in current accounts and jurisprudential conceptualisation for the current<br>account. The second section is rulings on prize giving in current accounts<br>and rulings regarding prices and gifts. The third section is research on rulings<br>regarding prize giving in investment accounts.</p> Abdulrahman Abdullah Alssadi Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 117–130 117–130 Investigating Abū ‘Īsā al-Warrāq’s Methodology in the Study of Christian Doctrine of Trinity Based on His al-Radd ‘Alā al-Tathlīth (The Response to Trinity) https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1762 <p>This paper seeks to investigate the methodology of Abū ‘Īsā al-<br>Warrāq, the classical Muslim scholar, in the study of Christian doctrine of trinity<br>with special reference to his master piece al-Radd ‘Alā al-Tathlīth: Al-Juz’ al-<br>Awwal Min Kitāb al-Radd ‘Alā al-Thalāth Firaq Min al-Naṣārā (The Response<br>to Trinity: The First Part from the Book in Response to the three Christian Sects).<br>The aim of this research is to investigate al-Warrāq’s polemical discourse<br>consisting of arguments, disputes and refutation, while responding to the claims<br>of three Christian sects, Malkiyyah (Melkites), Nasṭūriyyah (Nestorians)<br>and Yaʿqūbiyyah (Jacobites) in relation to the concept of trinity. The significance<br>of this research stands on its suggesting of new insights for young scholars and<br>students of comparative religion in dealing with Christian doctrine of trinity,<br>as addressed by the content of al-Warrāq’s original script. This study starts<br>with an introduction, which is followed by a discussion on: (1) Abū ‘Īsā al-<br>Warrāq’s brief chronology, (2) his selected work(s) on the study of religion,<br>and (3) his methodology in the study of Christian doctrine of trinity through<br>selected statements from his original work. Descriptive and analytical methods<br>are employed in the entire research. This study concludes that Abū ‘Īsā al-<br>Warrāq’s methodology, which is of a polemical-critical-refutative nature<br>based on pure human reasoning, is relevant to the contemporary scholarship<br>of comparative religion, through which sound responses can be provided to<br>issues related to God, cosmology, man, eschatology, ethics, rights, freedom,<br>tolerance, leadership, etc.</p> Fatmir Shehu Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 131–148 131–148 Dignity and Political Expectation of the Malay Electorate in Malaysia https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1763 <p><br>Malays as an ethnic group makes up the majority of Malaysia’s 32<br>million population. However, the Malays continue to feel economically and<br>socially insecure with their position vis-à-vis other ethnicities such as the<br>Chinese, which have led to the continued support for conservative political<br>figures and parties. This study proposes that the Malays fear the loss of their<br>dignity in a multicultural world more than the fear of being left behind. Previous<br>studies have shown that the Malays are seeing the improvement of their<br>physical and psychological well-being, and thus can be said to be living a life<br>with dignity. Despite better conditions, the Malays are still reluctant to embrace<br>inter-ethnic equality as it is perceived to threaten the community mindset of<br>the Malays. Using a survey that was distributed to 458 respondents of adult<br>Malays, this study seeks to discover the relationship between respondents’ view<br>on felt dignity and their political expectation. Based on a number of bivariate<br>correlation analysis, it is found that while most of the Malay respondents expect<br>it to be the government’s duty to empower and protect the Malay community,<br>there is a modest relationship between those who feel dignified and secure to be<br>more liberal in their political expectation. The implication is that government<br>policies should continue in uplifting the Malays as a pre-condition for a more<br>egalitarian Malaysia.</p> Syaza Farhana Binti Mohammad Shukri Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 149–174 149–174 Social Media and Islamic Ethics: An Insight to Instagram Use by Muslim University Students in Malaysia https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1764 <p>Instagram is one of the more popular social media platforms in<br>Malaysia and was the focus of the study. Muslims ought to use Instagram<br>according to Islamic ethics, as Islam is a way of life that permeates their<br>lifestyle. The study’s purpose was to examine the usage of Instagram by<br>Muslim students of an Islamic university in Malaysia. Using Social Cognitive<br>Theory, the study adopted a phenomenological research design involving<br>interviews of 24 students. The findings depicted that Instagram was used in<br>an Islamic manner by most Muslim students interviewed and that most were<br>dissatisfied with Instagram features and hence, gave recommendations. The<br>Islamic orientation in their university helped with. The study is important as<br>it provides recommendations to Instagram and marketing communicators on<br>the ideal ambience of a social media platform for Muslim university students.</p> Aida Mokhtar Che Amnah Bahari Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 175–206 175–206 Ethnic Boundaries and Class Consciousness within Malaysian Employment Sector https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/id/article/view/1765 <p>This article seeks to investigate the importance of ethnicity in<br>the Malaysian employment sector and its intersection with social class. This<br>emphasis is important due to the changes in Malaysia’s post-independence<br>economic structures and the ‘unchangeable’ nature of ethnic concentration<br>in the country’s new employment sectors. The study is based on fifty-five indepth<br>interviews conducted among the Malay and Chinese Malaysian ethnic<br>groups residing in Penang, Malaysia and Glasgow, United Kingdom. Data<br>were analysed using thematic analysis and discussions were based on the<br>post-colonialism theory and constructivism. The results suggested that there<br>was a dialectical relationship between ethnicity and class awareness in the<br>respondents’ understanding of the present-day Malaysian ethnic segregations<br>of labour. Top-down ethnic bureaucratisation and everyday cultural boundaries<br>emphasise the significance of ethnicity and inter-ethnic group relations in the<br>Malaysian employment sector. On the other hand, social capital was found to<br>address individual and intra-ethnic class relations in this sector.</p> Khauthar Ismail Copyright (c) 2021 2021-06-17 2021-06-17 29 1 207–229 207–229