Intellectual Discourse <p><strong>About the Journal</strong>: Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> International Islamic University Malaysia en-US Intellectual Discourse 0128-4878 Revisit the History of Early Settlements in Pulau Pinang: The Contributions and Legacies of Rawa People <p>It is common that the history of Pulau Pinang has often been affiliated with British as pioneers even among Malaysians, almost to the point of no return. This despite the fact that there had been Malay groups of both local and regional origin who had made Pulau Pinang as their homeland long before the coming of the British. Of the second group, Rawa people from West Sumatera were neither strangers to Pulau Pinang Island nor the mainland area that formed part of the northern state i.e. Seberang Perai. Adopting a content analysis approach via library research and qualitative methods, plus interviews involving the Rawa people of the state, the paper aims to highlight the often-dismissed fact that the Rawa people along some other Sumatran migrant groups had contributed to the early development of Pulau Pinang. Only recently that several studies came to prove the existence of Malay settlements on the Island prior to its so-called foundation by British explorer representing the British East India Company, Francis Light in 1786. This paper is to provide further proofs in that direction as the early Malay settlers deserved acknowledgement for the contributions made and recognition for the legacies left behind. Apart from assessing various reasons for the Rawa migration and their early areas of settlements, more importantly, the paper demonstrates that the Rawa migrants throughout their long years of existence in the state have contributed to the socio-economic and political developments of Pulau Pinang.</p> Suhaila Abdullah Fauziah Fathil Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2 A Framework of Good Governance in Regulating Religious Extremism in Malaysia <p>This paper presents a framework for regulating religious extremism based on principles of good governance. The first part provides a general study into the definitions of extremism and religious extremism. It asserts that religious sentiment can be utilised by terrorist organisations and radical movements to mobilise the masses. The paper further suggests that religious extremism is becoming a severe concern in Malaysia, which was for decades hailed as an oasis of moderate Islam. The second part of the paper analyses the factors contributing to the rise of religious extremism in Malaysia using a quali-quantitative method that incorporates survey data gathered in KL in 2019 by the authors, expert interviews, and secondary literature. It identifies two levels of factors, individual and socio-cultural/governance, that contribute to the spread of extremist understanding of religion. It suggests that human behaviour has become more receptive to violence and that the individual and collective understanding of religion has become more radical today due to personal grievances, social environment and global realities. Thus, the process of reducing extremism and radicalism in the Muslim world should encompass the individual, societal and transnational stratum. Extremism and radicalisation of societies are the manifestation of the absence of good governance. Thus, the last part of the paper highlights that adhering to good governance assists authorities in regulating societies’ immoderate behaviour by providing wellbeing, safety and happiness to the overwhelming majority of the population. It proposes a framework that can provide a moderate and authentic understanding of Islamic principles and serve as an instrument in creating an amicable and harmonious social and political environment in Malaysia. This framework can improve national security by promoting the basic principles of good governance such as transparency, participation, equality, justice, moderation and accountability, which are ingrained in the spirit of Islam.</p> Elmira Akhmetova Rabi'ah Aminudin Nadzrah Binti Ahmad Sharifah Syahirah Izzuddin M. Jaafar Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2 Women as Agents of Violence in Bangladesh <div class="page" title="Page 3"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Violent extremism—the definition of which is still to be agreed upon by experts—has rather opened up this debate in a much larger scale—regarding women’s ‘nature’—are women inherently ‘peaceful’? In this article, I draw upon the involvement of women as violent extremists in Bangladesh and argue that the patriarchal ideas regarding women as passive actors and peaceful in nature have driven a general lack of awareness regarding the true nature of women’s involvement in extremism in the country. Such understanding has rather discouraged wider research on the matter as well as under-exploration on the roots and causes of female extremism in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study aims to fill this lacuna that exists in understanding the nature of violent extremism in a holistic manner in the country. Additionally, understanding the nature of female extremism in Bangladesh shall contribute in greater understanding on women’s involvement in Islamist extremism—if there are any distinctive features that exist in Bangladesh that is absent in the global pattern or conforms to it.</p> </div> </div> </div> Lailufar Yasmin Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2 Understanding Community Needs for Better Corporate Social Responsibility in Pulau Pinang and its Educational Implications <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <div class="page" title="Page 5"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Despite the positivity Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) brings to the corporate table, scant attention has been paid to understanding its impact on the communities. CSR practice is relatively immature as most companies fail to understand the community needs and the method to satiate these needs effectively. It is also believed that the social work profession shares common values that CSR attempts to address. The present study is a pioneer attempt to understand the gap in CSR delivery through the lens of its recipients by investigating current practices and perceptions on CSR function and the potential involvement of social workers in this field. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight CSR recipient communities in Pulau Pinang. The finding <span style="font-size: 0.875rem; font-family: 'Noto Sans', 'Noto Kufi Arabic', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">provides fresh evidence that has broadened the understanding of how efficient CSR specialists can optimize their roles, providing a basis for establishing an appropriate curriculum.</span></p> </div> </div> </div> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Community needs, Corporate social responsibility (CSR), Malaysia, Educational implications, Curriculum</p> Fazreena Mansor Hasnizawati Hashim Siti Aishah Mohamad Ilyani Azer Muhammad Zainuddin Mohamed Azudin Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2 Waqf and Its Legal Framework in Sri Lanka: A Preliminary Study <div class="page" title="Page 5"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><em>Waqf</em> or religious endowment refers to an institution with the religious intention to do good acts for the benefit of the beneficiaries. However, the implementation and management of <em>Waqf</em> all around the world (Muslim and non-Muslim countries) have witnessed a deterioration since the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Many researchers and experts speak about the <em>Waqf</em> revival. In this relation, the Waqf institutions in Sri Lanka in particular, have gone through several reforms including the introduction of the ministry of <em>Waqf</em>. This paper examines the historical evolution as well as the status quo of Waqf governance in Sri Lanka. The study employs doctrinal analysis based on past literature as well as the laws governing <em>Waqf</em>. This study also explores the origin of the <em>Waqf</em> under Islamic law. It also discusses the application of the <em>Waqf</em> Act in Sri Lanka and identi es the current challenges and issues of the Waqf legal framework for the Muslim Mosques Charitable Trusts or <em>Waqf</em> Act (MMCTWA) in Sri Lanka. The findings reveal positive development in <em>Waqf</em> management, but overall awareness is necessary. The legal framework requires sustainable support and cooperation from the community, private sector, and the government.</p> </div> </div> </div> Muhammed Buhary Muhammed Thabith Nor Asiah Mohamad Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2 Conference Report Danial Mohd Yusof Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2 Islam and Morality: A Philosophical Introduction by Oliver Leaman Amilah Awang Abd Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2 Note from the Editor Danial Mohd Yusof Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2 Table of Contents Copyright (c) 2021 Intellectual Discourse 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 29 2