INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES <p>International Journal of Allied Health Sciences, is a peer-reviewed, English-language scholarly online journal, published biannually by the Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.</p> en-US (Dr. Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak) (Dr. Mohamed Arshad Bin Mohamed Sideek) Sat, 01 Jan 2022 06:12:53 +0800 OJS 60 PREVALENCE OF ABDOMINAL OBESITY AMONG MALAYSIAN WORKERS IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA <p>Abdominal obesity increases the risk of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension due to fat accumulation in the intra-abdominal area. This study used the Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) cut-off for the Asian population to test 683 male and 603 female Malaysian workers who volunteered for this study. The participants’ age is between 18 – 64-year-old. Based on the WC, 54.3% of males and 60.9% of females are categorized as having abdominal obesity. Meanwhile, the WHR recorded a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity among females at 65.0%. On the other hand, the percentage is lower among males by 16.1%. Several associations with abdominal obesity were found with gender, ethnicity, age, marital status, and job position. Therefore, new strategies are needed to increase awareness of abdominal obesity among the Malaysian workforces. </p> MOHD NUR IKHWAN SHAFIEE, SITI ZAHARAH ABD RAHMAN, SITI NUR SARAH ZUBIR, HAZWAN ADLI HAMADAN, NOR SAHIRA SALIM, EVELYN TAN, MOHD ESA BARUJI, RAEMY MD ZEIN Copyright (c) 2022 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Sat, 01 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0800 KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE ON INFECTION CONTROL AMONGST STUDENTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA (IIUM) DURING CLINICAL ATTACHMENT <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Hospital acquired infection (HAIs) has been indicated as the major barrier to patient care as it is contributory to increase morbidity, mortality and financial strain. In the Medical Imaging department due to frequent visits from patients daily, high interactions of patient-Medical Imaging department staff including students exist. As such, students can possibly spread HAI through poor knowledge and practices which can then affect the healthcare quality. <strong>Objective/aim: </strong>This study aims in ascertaining the knowledge and practice level of Infection Control Precaution (ICP) amongst undergraduate Medical Imaging students at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). <strong>Materials and methods: </strong>The survey was carried out on 63 randomized selected second, third and fourth-year students. The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and Kruskal Wallis test. <strong>Results:</strong> Poor knowledge and practices of ICP were indicated amongst the respondents. The Kruskal Wallis test indicated no significant difference of ICP practices between the second, third and fourth-year students. The overall knowledge and practice scores of ICP amongst respondents were found to be poor despite it has been taught in the Patient Care course. This could probably due to the method of delivery of the subject matter, workload, forgetfulness and myth of skin allergy that can be combatted with education. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The insignificance between the practice of ICP and the year of study of the respondents can be addressed by providing the necessary training, monitoring on ICP including the evaluation of ICP to improve the effectiveness of adherence to ICP. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> NUR AFIFAH ROSLI, SOO FOON MOEY , NORFARIHA CHE MOHAMED Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Sat, 01 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0800 THE PREVALENCE OF LOW BACK PAIN AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG STAFF NURSES AT SULTAN AHMAD SHAH MEDICAL CENTRE@IIUM, KUANTAN PAHANG <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Low back pain (LBP) is the most common complaint among health care workers such as nurses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and the associated factors of LBP among staff nurses at Sultan Ahmad Shah Medical Center@IIUM (SASMEC@IIUM), Kuantan Pahang. <strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study recruited 102 nurses working at the SASMEC through convenient sampling method. Data was collected via questionnaire and was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0.1 for Windows. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the prevalence of LBP and to describe the demographic data of the staff nurses. Chi-square test was used to find the association between the factors and LBP. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the prevalence of LBP was 58.8% among staff nurse. Pre-nursing LBP was the personal factor found to be significantly associated with LBP (X<sup>2</sup> = 13.442,<em> p</em> &lt; 0.001). Meanwhile, the work-related factor which related to LBP were total patients in one shift (X<sup>2</sup> = 9.409, <em>p</em> = 0.009). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of LBP among staff nurse is quite high. Hence, preventive measure such as ergonomic awareness programme can be done to promote awareness on proper ergonomic technique in reducing the risk of LBP among staff nurses at SASMEC@IIUM.</p> ATIKAH MOKHTAR, ROZLIN ABD RAHMAN Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Sat, 01 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0800 CYTOTOXICITY EFFECT OF SMOKELESS TOBACCO EXTRACT ON FIBROBLAST CELL LINE <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The use of smokeless tobacco is prevalent among Asians. Nicotine, a constituent of tobacco, is known as carcinogenic and a risk factor for oral cancer. The effect of smokeless tobacco extract is not much studied in Malaysia. <strong>Objectives:</strong> This study's aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity effects of locally produced smokeless tobacco aqueous extract and investigate the cytotoxicity level of different concentrations of aqueous tobacco extract on mouse fibroblast cell line, L929. <strong>Methodology: </strong>The tobacco purchased from the local market was blended with deionised water (1:2;w:v) followed by freeze-drying. The freeze-dried powder was dissolved in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) followed by dilution in seven concentrations of aqueous tobacco extract (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125% and 1.56%). The mouse fibroblast cell line, L929, was incubated with different concentrations of the prepared aqueous tobacco extract. Cytotoxicity of the treated cell line was assessed using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium] assay, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation. Data were collected analysed by one-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). <strong>Results:</strong> Increasing concentrations of aqueous tobacco extract (1.56%, 3.125%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100%) resulted in decreasing viability of mouse fibroblast cell L929 for all incubation times compared to the control. The IC<sub>50</sub> value of areca nut extract on L929 was 52%, 34% and 28% at 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study portrayed that tobacco is cytotoxic to L929 with increasing concentrations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> smokeless tobacco, mouse fibroblast cell line, cytotoxicity, MTT assay, oral cancer.</p> MUHAMMAD KHAIRUZAFEQ MOHD JAMRI, AZLINA AHMAD, MASITAH HAYATI HARUN, BADR ABDULLAH AL-TAYAR, MOHAMAD EZANY YUSOFF, NOOR KHAIRIENA MOHAMAD, SITI FADILAH ABDULLAH, SARAH FATIMAH MOHD IKHSAN, SITI AISYAH ZAINAL Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Sat, 01 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0800 VERBAL INPUT OF PARENTS WITH YOUNG CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: A SCOPING REVIEW <table width="739"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="54"> <table width="739"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="739"> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The aim of this study was to identify and synthesize research evidence on the verbal inputs displayed by parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) during naturalistic play interaction. <strong>Methods:</strong> A scoping review of peer-reviewed studies published from 2008 until 2019 was performed across several electronic databases with hand searching of reference lists based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Specific search terms were created for identification of eligible and related articles. <strong>Results:</strong> From 925 identified articles, 10 articles were included in the final step of the review. Within the continuum of parental interactional style, there are two types of parent verbal input; responsiveness and directiveness, that are associated with the child’s language and social outcomes. Parents of ASD children need to practice compensatory strategies to provide significant impact towards children’s communication skills as well as their cognitive skills. In addition, these findings have implications for interventions intended to target responsiveness of parents and child communication. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Knowledge derived from this review provides preliminary understanding of and justifies greater knowledge towards the concept of verbal input of parents with young children with ASD.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> NUR BAITI INAYAH ZULKIFLI, NOR AZRITA MOHAMED ZAIN, NURLIN ALI HANAFIAH, NUR HANISAH TUKIRAN Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Sat, 01 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0800 PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHILDREN WITH ERB’S PALSY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Early physical therapy intervention has a significant impact on improving the impairments and disabilities of Erb’s palsy patients. Proper assessments and management by physical therapists can reduce physical complications and mental health problems, thus enhancing the child’s opportunities to return to their maximal activity daily living.&nbsp; <strong>Aim:</strong> This review aims to identify the physical rehabilitation treatments available for children with Erb’s palsy. <strong>Method:</strong> This objective is fulfilled using systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. <strong>Results:</strong> The search from Web of Sciences (WoS), PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, PEDro, Google Scholar and Clinical Trials databases yielded 245 records. 29 full-text articles were assessed and 6 eligible articles were further reviewed. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study summarised that physical therapy treatments should be started as early as the condition being diagnosed. Treatment is more effective when conventional physical therapy treatments are combined with advanced exercise consisting of plyometric, modified constrained induced movement therapy (MCIMT) or virtual reality (VR). This review enables physical therapists in Malaysia to plan proper and suitable treatments for Erb’s palsy patients according to the injury level and severity.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Erb’s palsy, physical therapy, conventional treatment, advanced exercise</p> NURUL HAFIZAH DZULKIFLI, AZLIYANA AZIZAN, ROZLIN ABDUL RAHMAN Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Sat, 01 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0800