INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES <p>International Journal of Allied Health Sciences, is a peer-reviewed, English-language scholarly online journal, published biannually by the Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.</p> en-US (Dr. Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak) (Dr. Mohamed Arshad Bin Mohamed Sideek) Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 An Assessment on the Radiation Dose Received by the Eyes and Thyroid using Panaromic View (OPG): A Phantom Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The purpose of this paper is to assess on the radiation dose received by the eyes and thyroid on the panoramic view (OPG), using the phantom with the selected exposure setting based on the patient’s body habitus/size. <strong>Methods:</strong> OSL dosimeters were placed on the three critical organs; right eyes, left eyes and thyroid and were exposed to the OPG machine at the Kulliyyah of Dentistry (KOD), International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM), Kuantan Campus. The Entrance Surface Doses (ESD) for each critical organ was measured at the Diagnostic Imaging Laboratory, Kulliyah of Allied Health Sciences (KAHS), IIUM using the OSL reader (Landaeur. Inc). The mean for each organ were recorded using Microsoft Excel 2010. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruskal-Wallis test to get the significant value for comparing these three organs/groups with selected exposure factor. <strong>Results:</strong> The overall means ± standard deviation (SD) for right eyes, left eyes and thyroid using the selected tube potentials of 62, 64, 66, 68 and 70 kVp were -3.62 ± 0.0058 µGy, -2.10 ± 0.0043 µGy and -3.09 ± 0.0042 µGy. The results were compared to other studies and the reference value or exposure limits from radiation protection organizations/boards. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study showed no statistical differences between the ESD for the critical organs when using different tube potentials (kVp) with <em>p</em>-value &gt; 0.05. This indicated that the OPG exposure value was relatively lower in dose and produce almost negligible results in this experiment. When comparing this study from the results of other researches, the dose measurement in this study using the OPG equipment was the lowest and also below the exposure limits in the radiation protection guidelines. However, further studies should be done using different OPG devices so that various significant and relevant results can be obtained and compared to the other studies. Therefore, this study might be the stepping stone for other studies to further for large scale extension study on radiation dose assessment of the critical organs in dentistry. It is hoped that through this attempt, our country might be able to produce and establish our own Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) in the dental radiography for the future.</p> NORHANNA SOHAIMI, KHALIDAH MAAROF Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Noise levels in malaysia primary schools: are we meeting the international standards? <p>Noise is increasingly becoming a problem in schools and affects the audibility of speech. The effects of noise hamper learning opportunities for students. Noisy classrooms affect students’ academic performance and wellbeing. Studies have shown that children perform more poorly in noisy situations compared to adults. The current study was done to measure noise levels in classrooms in primary schools in Kuantan. A total of 31 classrooms from eight residential primary schools were selected as the place of study. The noise levels were measured using a sound level meter (SLM) in occupied and unoccupied conditions. On-site observations and checking were done and documented in each school and classroom. The results showed that the noise levels of occupied and unoccupied classrooms were higher than the values recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) which are 35 dB(A) and 55 dB(A) respectively. The findings showed that the measured noise levels in the classrooms were high enough that it might interfere the effectiveness of teaching and learning among students and teachers. The source of noise was mainly from the students’ activities in the classes. The current study discusses a few possible suggestions to improve the classroom acoustics.</p> Noraidah Binti Ismail, Karim, K, Othman, NA Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 The thermal bioeffects of prenatal ultrasound on rabbit newborns <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The Doppler mode is associated with higher acoustic output which leads to a greater conversion of energy into heat. This is due to the fact that the Doppler ultrasound beam is focused and localized at a particular area of interest. The energy in an area is converted to heat which accumulates and increase the tissue temperature at the localized area. Since heat is considered as a teratogen in pregnancy, any thermal bioeffects can be fatal to fetuses. <strong>Aim:</strong> This study is set out to investigate the thermal bioeffects of using the Doppler ultrasound on the weight of newborn rabbits. <strong>Method: </strong>Twelve pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were exposed once at three gestational stages using three different exposure durations. After delivery, the mean weights of the newborns were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). <strong>Results:</strong> This study found that a longer period of fetal exposure to the Doppler ultrasound results in thermal bioeffects in which a decrease in newborn body weight can be seen in the early (1<sup>st </sup>and 2<sup>nd</sup>) gestational stages (GS) prolonged Doppler exposure. Longer periods of exposure to the Doppler ultrasound increase the potential of thermal bioeffects. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, it is recommended for practitioner to limit the fetal exposure to Doppler ultrasound in minimising the potential bioeffect risks.</p> Umi Nadrah Amran, Farah Wahida Ahmad Zaiki Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 The therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in the inhibition of advanced glycation end product (age) formation: a systematic review <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the therapeutic potential of <em>Nigella sativa </em>in the inhibition of AGE formation and its properties that regulate AGE level. <strong>Methods: </strong>The selected studies consist of interventions towards in vitro samples from blood origin and compared AGE inhibition between treated and untreated control groups. Six databases were searched for related articles using keywords derived using PICO format. Six articles were accepted as meeting the inclusion criterion and were reviewed for the effectiveness of <em>Nigella sativa </em>in AGE inhibition. <strong>Results: </strong>All studies showed positive results. These studies demonstrated significant and dose dependent activity of <em>Nigella sativa </em>in inhibiting AGE formation, presenting significant results even at lower concentrations. Thymoquinone was consistently identified as the component associated with the antiglycating effect of <em>Nigella sativa</em>. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>This review provides evidence for the decreased formation of AGEs in the presence of <em>Nigella sativa</em> proposing its use as a natural antiglycating drug and its effectiveness in the treatment of diabetes, its complications and other AGE-related diseases.</p> Yasmina Ahmad Uzhir, Dr Ahmad Aidil Arafat Dzulkarnain, Dr Muhamad Ashraf Rostam Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Molecular docking and dynamic simulation of astragalin reveals inhibitory potential against pancreatic lipase <p>Obesity has been classified as a disease that affects many people around the globe. The prevalence continues to rise each year, thus finding an effective and safe treatment as an anti-obesity drug is a major issue for researchers. At present, the only anti-obesity that gained approval for long-term treatment by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is orlistat. It acts by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity. Unfortunately, it is a synthetic drug and comes with unpleasant side-effects. Hence, there is a need to search for pancreatic lipase inhibitor from natural resources. Several studies have revealed that flavonoids from <em>Nelumbo nucifera</em> leave extract showed pancreatic lipase-inhibitory activity. In this study, flavonoids from <em>N. nucifera</em> namely leucoanthocyadin, rutin and astragalin were chosen to undergo molecular docking analysis using AutoDock 4.2. Astragalin displayed the best affinity towards pancreatic lipase as compared to the other two flavonoids. Astragalin produced more hydrogen bonds and had lower free binding energy compared to orlistat. Moreover, astragalin formed a strong hydrogen bond with key amino acid Ser152 in the catalytic triad and showed good ligand recognition as it also had a strong hydrogen bond with His151, Phe215, and Arg256. Pancreatic lipase-astragalin complex underwent molecular dynamic (MD) simulation using GROMACS ver. 4. Docking simulation revealed that this complex was more stable compared to the pancreatic lipase-orlistat complex. This preliminary <em>in silico</em> result proposed that astragalin might act as an anti-obesity agent through pancreatic lipase inhibition action.</p> NORSYUHADA ALIAS, SITI NUR AKMAL GHAZALI, AZZMER AZZAR ABDUL HAMID Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Detection of Background Radiation Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Dosimeter in Public Schools in Kuantan <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The objective of this paper is to measure the background radiation using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter in various public schools in Kuantan, Pahang and to compare the results with recommended value provided by regulatory bodies. Few researches relating to background radiation monitoring is done using OSL as the main dosimeter. <strong>Methods:</strong> Monitoring of background radiation level is obtained using NanoDot OSL dosimeters. Eight schools in Kuantan were randomly selected and chosen for the location of study. Post guard and assembly areas were chosen as location of OSLD placement. Data was collected within five cycles of data collection in which each cycle took about 48 hours of exposure.&nbsp; Data obtained is then analysed using Landauer microStar computer system. Amount of background radiation level is then compared with annual effective dose limit provided by regulatory bodies such as AELB, IAEA and ICRP. <strong>Results:</strong> The accumulated background radiation level in both post guard area and assembly area showed increasing pattern during period of data sampling. The highest annual dose in post guard area is found in SK Cenderawasih with the value of 1.3283 mSv per year while the lowest annual dose is found in SMK Alor Akar with 0.5459 mSv per year. The highest annual dose in assembly area is noted in SK Semambu with a value of 1.1980 mSv per year while the lowest reading is noted in SMK Tengku Panglima Perang Tengku Muhammad with 0.5100 mSv per year. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Several factors can influence the reading of background radiation level which include geographical factors, building materials and surrounding environments. The background radiation levels in majority of schools do not exceed the recommended limit. The researchers suggested this study should be continued and involve all schools in Malaysia in order to monitor the background radiation level as well as to provide safe environment to our future generation.</p> NORHANNA SOHAIMI, Aizuddin Faiz, Laila Kalidah Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Fabrication of PLGA nanoparticle using double emulsion solvent evaporation technique as shRNA yb1 carrier <p>Colorectal cancer was reported to be the second cause of death among cancer patients for over 500,000 mortalities annually, as described by World Health Organization in 2018. This intense statistic was resulted from the unavailable treatment that specifically targeting a molecule that comprehensively dysregulate cancer cell growth, survival and metastasis. A multitasking protein namely Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1) was found to be upregulated and directly contributed in nine of the Hanahan and Weinberg ‘Hallmark of cancer’. Silencing this YB1 protein by any means including the use of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) could embrace positive therapeutic consequences towards colorectal cancer patient. Despite the discovery of the YB1 multifunctional effect two years ago, limited research article was found to evaluate the effect of using nanoparticle delivery with shRNA YB1 encapsulated towards colorectal cancer cell. Therefore, an <em>in-vitro</em> investigation was conducted to explore the anti-proliferative effect of shRNA YB1 towards colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) by using double emulsion solvent evaporation technique to fabricate PLGA nanoparticle as the shRNA carrier agent. In this study, the amplification of the shRNA YB1 was done in JM109 <em>E.coli</em> before it was extracted and encapsulated into PLGA nanoparticle. The validation of the anti-YB1 plasmid presence was validated through 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The nanoparticle embedded with shRNA YB1 plasmid was fabricated through double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The resulted size, charge and morphology were observed and recorded. The effect of the YB1 gene silencing towards HT-29 cell proliferation was analyzed using MTT assay. The result reveals the presence of the shRNA YB1 plasmid by resulting approximately 2900 base pair of the shRNA. The size of the shRNA YB1 encapsulated nanoparticle was 345 nm with -26.1 mV charge. As for the HT29 treatment, it was indicated that the usage of shRNA YB1 loaded nanoparticle for 48 hours could reduce the cell viability (<em>p</em><u>&lt;</u>0.05) of the HT29.</p> Ahmad Fahmi Harun Ismail, Siti ‘Aisyah Che Ariffin, Nur Khairunisa Mohd Affandi Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800