INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS <p>International Journal of Allied Health Sciences, is a peer-reviewed, English-language scholarly online journal, published biannually by the Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.</p> en-US muzaffar@iium.edu.my (Dr. Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak) arshadsideek@iium.edu.my (Dr. Mohamed Arshad Bin Mohamed Sideek) Fri, 03 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 THE TREND OF NOTIFIED OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND POISONING IN PAHANG: ACHIEVEMENT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/529 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The notification requirements on occupational diseases and poisoning are stated clearly in the Occupational Safety and Health (Notification of Accident, Dangerous Occurrence, Occupational Poisoning and Occupational Disease) Regulation 2004 [NADOPOD] (OSHA, 1994). Nevertheless, the number of notifications remain low compared to the number reported in developed countries. In view of occupational disease and poisoning under-reporting issues, the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Pahang has implemented few intervention programmes for notification improvement in line with the Occupational Safety and Health Master Plan (OSHMP 2020) strategies. The intervention programmes include firm punitive actions against non-compliance to the NADOPOD regulations 2004, standard settings and promotional activities. The aim of this study is to discuss the trend of occupational disease and poisoning notification in Pahang post-intervention programmes. <strong>Methods:</strong> Secondary data on occupational disease and poisoning based on DOSH Pahang’s database from 2016-2019 was collected and descriptively analysed. The total cases of reported occupational disease and poisoning was 1867 cases. <strong>Results: </strong>There was an increasing trend of the occupational diseases and poisoning notification within the study period. In 2019, DOSH Pahang has successfully responded to OSHMP 2020 targets where there has been an increased in notifications of more than 30 percent as compared to 2016. Firm legislative enforcement, standard settings and promotional activities are the main reasons of the increased in the notifications. Among the notified cases, the highest is occupational noise related hearing disorders (1776, 95.1%). Nevertheless, the notification of other occupational diseases was scanty. It is believed that comprehensive and clear guidelines for both work environment and worker’s surveillance for noise exposure bound by legislative requirements are the major reasons of the highest notifications for occupational noise related hearing disorders. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study suggests for using a similar approach to increase the notification of other occupational diseases and poisoning to improve notification. </p> KESAVAN GOVINDASAMY, NIZA SAMSUDDIN Copyright (c) 2022 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/529 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 THE PREVALENCE OF LOW BACK PAIN AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AMONGST UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL IMAGING STUDENTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA (IIUM) KUANTAN https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/629 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>:</strong> University students are at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) because of the curriculum task load that lead them to practice a sedentary lifestyle. This study aims to determine the prevalence of LBP and its associated risk factors among the Medical Imaging undergraduate students at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuantan. <strong>Method</strong><strong>s</strong><strong>:</strong> Ninety-two respondents were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using a self-constructed questionnaire with content and reliability validation. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 26 was used to analyze the data. <strong>Results:</strong> The findings showed that 72% of the respondents have LBP once in their lifetime. Fatigue and body posture were found to be the most associated risk factors of LBP (<em>p</em>=0.001 and <em>p=</em>0.02) respectively. A significant difference between the respondents’ year of study and the prevalence of LBP (<em>p</em>=0.037) was also indicated. <strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> The prevalence of LBP among the university student was relatively high, possibly due to the curriculum task load that resulted in long study hours and a sedentary lifestyle that could lead them to be fatigue and possess poor body postures. Furthermore, it could indirectly pose increased risk of developing LBP. A significant difference between the respondent’s year of study and the prevalence of LBP could be due to the increased task load, stress and clinical posting accumulated throughout the years of studying. As such, higher learning institutions should create awareness to reduce the prevalence of LBP and its effect on the well-being their students.</p> NUR FAKHIRA ZAINUDDIN, MOEY SOO FOON, NUR EMELIYA NATASHA MOHD NOOR Copyright (c) 2022 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/629 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 THE ACUTE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRETCHING ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY AND SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY ACTIVITY ON STUDENTS OF INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA KUANTAN CAMPUS (IIUMK) https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/729 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Stretching is known for its benefits in preventing sports injury due to hamstring tightness. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of passive and active stretching on International Islamic University Malaysia Kuantan Campus (IIUMK) students with hamstring tightness by hamstring flexibility through active knee extension (AKE) and hamstring activation through surface electromyography (EMG) evaluation<strong>. Methods:</strong> Subsequent analyses on correlation of range of motion (ROM) through AKE and EMG were performed. 26 subjects were recruited among IIUMK students following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. <strong>Results</strong>: The results demonstrated that passive stretching improves hamstring activation with mean EMG signal amplitude value of 793.85±335.37 MVIC while active stretching improves hamstring flexibility with mean AKE measurement value of 158.85±11.60 degree. The result of AKE and EMG reported no significant difference between passive and active stretching in terms of hamstring flexibility and hamstring activation. In terms of correlation, it is proven no significant correlation between AKE and EMG either in passive or active stretching. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is hope that this study is able to bring useful insight on potential treatment for hamstring tightness in the future.</p> SITI SARAH NORMAN, MOHD YUSOF MOHAMAD Copyright (c) 2022 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/729 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE CAREER OPTIONS AMONG BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/736 <p>Biomedical Science covers a wide range of fields of research that focuses on healthcare-relevant fields of biology and chemistry. The rate of biomedical science IIUM graduate employability in 2020 which was 70.7% (GE, 2014). This cross-sectional study aims to determine the level of knowledge and attitude towards biomedical science career options among Biomedical Science undergraduate students in IIUM Kuantan. This study involved 89 respondents randomly chosen based on specific criteria and data was collected through the distribution of questionnaires online and data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 to analyze the data. The Biomedical Science undergraduate students in International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Kuantan have a good level of knowledge and moderate attitude towards biomedical science career options. Significant relationships were found between knowledge and attitude towards career options among the respondents. It can be concluded that adequate attitude led to the good knowledge of the respondents.</p> MUHAMMAD ALIF AMIRUL MOHAMAD AZMADI, MOHD ARIFIN KADERI, Norafiza Zainuddin Copyright (c) 2022 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/736 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 FACTORS AFFECTING THE COMMUNICATION SKILLS AMONGST THE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL IMAGING STUDENTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA (IIUM) KUANTAN, PAHANG https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/626 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Communication skills are skills that students should equip themselves for the job market and creating positive effects on patients leading to better patient care. As such, this study was conducted to ascertain the communication skills and factors that affect the communication skills amongst undergraduates Medical Imaging IIUM Kuantan. <strong>Methodology: </strong>One hundred undergraduate Medical Imaging students from the first year to the fourth year at IIUM Kuantan were randomly selected as respondents for the study. Data was collected using a self-developed questionnaire that had undergone content and reliability validation. <strong>Results: </strong>The results revealed that the communication skills level amongst respondents was high. The Kruskal Wallis test indicated insignificant differences between years of study of the respondents and communication skills level (p&gt;0.05). The Chi-Square test indicated anxiety, lack of confidence, speech impairment, poor language command and lack of practice are the associated factors that affect communication skills amongst the respondents.<strong> Discussion:</strong> The respondents’ communication skills were influenced by anxiety and confidence especially during job interview which then affect their ability to communicate effectively and assertively. Poor language command was also found to influence the individual to be an effective communicator. Additionally, lack of practice in communication skills can introduce conflicts due to usage of inappropriate conversation in different situations. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> University students should continuously improve their communication skills to prepare them for the job market.</p> NUR EMELIYA NATASHA MOHD NOOR, MOEY SOO FOON Copyright (c) 2022 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/626 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800 EFFECTS OF CRYOTHERAPY AFTER SOFT TISSUE INJURY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/690 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cryotherapy or ice therapy is used worldwide among medical professionals and layman to treat soft tissue injuries (STI). Despite its vast usage, disputing reports, on the effectiveness of cryotherapy existed in treating STI. Therefore, this study aims to review the effects of cryotherapy on pain reduction and time taken to return to normal activity after soft tissue injury. <strong>Methods</strong>: The review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The risk of bias was assessed according to the handbook of Revised Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool for Randomized Trials (RoB 2). All the articles published in English-language within the year 2016 to 2021 were selected using databases namely, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane library. Only 3 articles out of 178 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and included for the systematic review. Only one article has some concerns of bias while the rest were low risk. <strong>Results</strong>: Significant difference can be seen in terms of pain measured in VAS score when cryotherapy is applied either alone or together with manual therapy (p&lt;0.05). 161 patients who received cryotherapy out of 179 patients from three articles reported an average of 2.3 VAS score reduction from their initial score. However, there were no study that specifically include time taken to return to normal activity as an outcome measure. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Cryotherapy is practical in treating soft tissue injuries, but it is recommended to incorporate manual treatments and exercises to achieve normal functional ability.</p> AHMAD AFIF AIMAN MOHD RADZI, MOHD YUSOF MOHAMAD Copyright (c) 2022 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/690 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0800