INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES <p>The International Journal of Allied Health Sciences is a peer-reviewed, English-language scholarly online journal published biannually in January and June. It is managed by the Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.</p> IIUM Press Own by Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia en-US INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2600-8491 CHILDHOOD PICKY EATING BEHAVIOUR AND ITS IMPACT ON THE GROWTH OF YOUNG CHILDREN: A SCOPING REVIEW <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malnutrition occurs due to inadequate food intake and low daily energy intake, often associated with picky eating behaviour (PEB). Picky eaters have limited food choices and poor dietary diversity, leading to malnutrition. Therefore, this article aims to explore the impact of childhood eating behaviour on a young child's growth. <strong>Method: </strong>Articles were identified through six electronic search engines using 12 keywords. Articles were included if they met the following criteria: (1) sample of study involved young children (below six years old); (2) study outcome focusing on the impact of eating behaviour on the growth of the children (3) published in English. Studies were excluded if they were review articles, qualitative studies, and involved children with clinical health problems. <strong>Result:</strong> A total of 413 articles were screened, and 8 full-text articles were evaluated. The prevalence rates of selective eaters varied greatly from 25% in India to 77% in Iraq. The screening tools used for identifying PEB varied, with the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) being the most commonly used tool. Short-term implications of PEB on children include the risk of poor diet intake and limited consumption of a variety of food groups, which can lead to adverse health outcomes. Meanwhile, long-term implications include the development of eating disorders in adulthood. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our findings reveal that PEB has had a significant impact on the growth of young children. Despite the increasing concern about the implications of PEB, there is a lack of sufficient research studies on the effects of this behaviour on the nutritional status of young children.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>eating behaviour; picky eaters; nutritional status; growth; young children</p> NURSHAZWANI AHMAD NAZRI NURUL HAZIRAH JAAFAR SURIATI ZAKARIA WAN AZDIE MOHD ABU BAKAR NURANIZA AZAHARI SYIFAK IZHAR HISHAM SITI SABARIAH BUHARI Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 8 1 2953 2961 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.805 A COMPARISON OF NONCONTACT A-SCAN AND ULTRASOUND A-SCAN IN THE MEASUREMENT OF AXIAL LENGTH IN MYOPIC SUBJECTS <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Myopia, which is also known as nearsightedness, is a common type of refractive error among the majority of the population. It is characterized by clear vision up close but blurry vision at a distance. Myopia is caused by an eyeball that is abnormally longer than normal and cornea that is too steeply curved. In both cases, images are focused in front of the retina instead of on it. With abnormal axial length of the eyeball, myopia has developed into a condition that threatens eyesight.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In this study, we compared the axial length measurements between non-contact biometry, and ultrasound A-scan among young myopic adults in UKM Kuala Lumpur campus. A total of 90 healthy myopic subjects (14 male and 76 female) with mean age of 22.03 ± 1.14 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Clinical investigations that included visual acuity, refraction and axial length measurement using optical and ultrasound biometry were carried out. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean spherical equivalent refractive error, axial length measured by optical biometry and ultrasound were found to be -3.04 ± 1.61 D, 24.74 ± 0.90 mm and 24.50 ± 0.86 mm respectively. Paired sample t-test showed that subjects’ axial length measured by ultrasound A-scan were significantly lower than optical biometry (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). Negative and strong correlations were found between degree of myopia and axial length (<em>r<sub>s</sub></em> = -0.609, <em>p </em>&lt; 0.001). Regression showed that axial length measurement accounted for a significant 33.5% of the degree of myopia, <em>R</em>² = 0.335, adjusted <em>R</em>² = 0.328, <em>F</em> = (1, 88) = 44.38, <em>p </em>&lt; 0.01.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study demonstrated a significant difference in measurements of axial length using non-contact A-scan and ultrasound A-scan in myopic subjects, which must be considered during management of myopic patients.</p> NUR SYAKIRAH MARDHIAH SAMSUL BAHARI BARIAH MOHD-ALI MIZHANIM MOHAMAD SHAHIMIN NORLAILI ARIF Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 8 1 2962 2967 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.810 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BOBATH TECHNIQUE IN TREATING CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW <p><strong>ABSTRACT: </strong></p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To assess how Bobath therapy affects motor function and functional independence. <strong>Method: </strong>This systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. All randomized trials that recruited cerebral palsy children and applied Bobath approach as intervention were collected through a comprehensive online database search. For quality assessment, the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trial (RoB 2) was used. <strong>Results: </strong>Six eligible articles including five RCTs and one quasi-experimental study were retrieved from PEDro, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EBSCO and PubMed since 2010, and all studies had low risk of bias. Bobath therapy had shown positive effects on gross motor function, balance, upper extremity function and functional independence but no significant effects on gait parameters and disability involvement. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Bobath technique would not be effective on its own, instead might be effective as adjunct to other conventional physiotherapy treatments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong></p> <p>Neurodevelopmental therapy, Bobath, cerebral palsy, Randomized control trials</p> SHAHID MOHD DAR NUR ATIQAH JOHARI Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 8 1 2968 2974 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.802 ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EATING BEHAVIOUR, STRESS LEVEL AND BODY MASS INDEX OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS <p>Stress among university students is rising and affects eating behaviour and body mass index. This study aims to determine the relationship between stress and eating behaviour and its association with body mass index among undergraduate students in Universiti Sains Malaysia. A total of 107 subjects were recruited using convenience sampling method. Questionnaire on sociodemographic data, anthropometry, validated stress scale (Cohen’s Perceived stress scale questionnaire) and eating behaviour (Three-factor eating questionnaire R21) were given to participants. Analysis indicated that more than half of the subject had moderate stress level (69.2 %). However, there was no significant difference between stress and gender (p=0.55). The eating behaviour analysis showed no significant difference between gender and all the domains of eating behaviour (Cognitive restrain, Uncontrolled eating and emotional eating). As for body mass index, majority of participant recorded normal BMI where male students had significantly higher median BMI (22.68 ± 6.91 kg/m2) than female students (20.68 ± 4.07 kg/m2) (p=0.001). The emotional eating was associated with lower BMI (p=0.02). High perceived stress was significantly associated with median BMI tested using Kruskal Wallis test (p=0.001). There was a significant association between uncontrolled eating domain (p=0.041) and emotional eating domain (p=0.013) with perceived stress level.</p> JANAGAR MANOHARAN DIVYA VANOH Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 8 1 2975 2981 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.797 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS ON THE YIELD AND IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, WITH GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE EXTRACTS FROM VERNONIA AMYGDALINA LEAVES <p><em>Vernonia amygdalina</em>, commonly known as ‘Bitter leaf’, is a small perennial shrub with various medicinal properties including the treatment of stomach disorders, fever symptoms, diabetes, hypertension, and coughs. <em>V. amygdalina</em> is a potent source of antibacterial properties that may be beneficial in preventing bacterial infections and associated diseases such as fever and diarrhea. <em>V. amygdalina</em> also has been extensively studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anticancer and antidiabetic properties. The present study aims to determine the most efficient solvent for extracting antibacterial-rich <em>V. amygdalina</em> extracts. Dried leaves of <em>V. amygdalina</em> were extracted using several solvents (methanol, ethanol, and dichloromethane) to assess the extraction yield. The antibacterial potential of all extracts against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> was evaluated using the agar disc diffusion assay. The profiling of the active extract was accomplished using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the solvents tested, ethanol exhibited the highest extraction productivity, with a percentage yield of 49.20%. The dichloromethane extract displayed the highest inhibition zones against all bacteria strains ranging from 16.67 ± 1.20 mm to 21.33 ± 0.5 mm at 200 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis of dichloromethane extract identified compounds such as phytol, flavonoids, vitamin E, and squalene. The findings of this study revealed that the choice of the extraction solvent is greatly affecting the antibacterial efficacy of <em>V. amygdalina</em>. In conclusion, the efficacy of <em>V. amygdalina</em> against pathogenic bacteria strains could be explored for further pharmaceutical application and should be encouraged in the development and production of new antibiotics.</p> NUR FARID AMIRUL MUSTAFA MOHD SYAHMI SALLEH NOOR HASLINDA NOOR HASHIM Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 8 1 2982 2989 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.801 THE HERBS TO TREAT FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION (MATI PUTIK) IN MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Lack of libido is one of the most common symptoms of female sexual dysfunction among women in the global community. In Malaysia, low levels of libido have been demonstrated in women experiencing <em>mati putik</em> or female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Due to the lack of awareness about FSD, people commonly misunderstand that the signs and symptoms are due to the aging process. The most common signs of <em>mati putik</em> or FSD are fatigue and no desire or interest in engaging in sexual activity. To date, there has been no comprehensive review of the practice of Malay ancestors regarding FSD. Thus, the aim of this study was to document the formulations and practices recorded in Malay medical manuscripts for enhancing female sexual libido. <strong>Methods:</strong> The secondary texts of Malay medical manuscripts were reviewed to discover the ingredients used as aphrodisiac agents in the Malay Archipelago. The Malay term <em>shahwat</em> was the keyword used to describe sexual libido in the Malay community. A comparative analysis was then conducted to evaluate the materia medica found in the academic literature. <strong>Results:</strong> Four formulations were found that comprised four different aphrodisiac ingredients, including cabbage, fenugreek, kati, and honey. From all the ingredients, only fenugreek has found clinical evidence in the academic literature. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, it is suggested that the materia medica found in the study be further explored to demonstrate its relationship with libido. This study is important as a part of preserving Malay medical knowledge and heritage, as well as providing insight into information on aphrodisiac plants for enhancing women’s libido that can be applied in conventional medicine.</p> RADIAH ABDUL GHANI AIN ILMIAH ANHAR MOHD. AFFENDI MOHD. SHAFRI Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 8 1 2990 2996 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.803 DIETARY ADHERENCE COMPONENT OF END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE ADHERENCE QUESTIONNAIRE (ESRD-AQ): TRANSLATION AND VALIDATION <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Introduction: </strong>A nutritionally balanced diet is crucial among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients to maintain their health status. An appropriate instrument is needed to assess ESRD patients’ adherence towards dietary recommendations. Several questionnaires to measure adherence behaviours of ESRD patients are available but none has ever been translated into the Malay language. Therefore, this study aimed to translate the End-stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire (ESRD-AQ), focusing on the dietary adherence component, from English to Malay.<strong> Methodology: </strong>Forward and backward translations of the questionnaire were done involving experts in dietetics and linguistics to produce a pre-harmonized Malay translation and two backward English translations according to established guidelines. An expert committee reviewed these translated questionnaires to produce a harmonized version. This then underwent a pre-test and cognitive interview, as well as face validity assessment, involving 15 hemodialysis patients. The Cronbach’s alpha was also analyzed to assess the internal consistency of the questionnaire. <strong>Results: &nbsp;</strong>Minor amendments were made to several phrases during the expert committee review to ensure the translated questionnaire was contextually appropriate and culturally adapted in Malay language. All questions in the Malay version of ESRD-AQ achieved a Face Validity Index (FVI) value of 1.00, indicating high validity. Additionally, the questionnaire produced a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.84, which is within the acceptable range. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The Malay version of ESRD-AQ (Dietary Adherence Component) underwent translation and validation protocols, the findings of which indicate that it is clear, comprehensible, and reliable for use in assessing dietary adherence among ESRD patients in Malaysia.</p> SARAH MUNEERA KARAMI WAN AZDIE MOHD ABU BAKAR ROSELAWATI MAT YA NORHASMAH SULAIMAN NOR AZWANI MOHD SHUKRI Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-02-14 2024-02-14 8 1 2997 3004 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.889 Editorial Wan Azdie Mohd Abu Bakar Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 8 1 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.900 Regular Issue Volume 8, Number 1 (2024) Wan Azdie Mohd Abu Bakar Copyright (c) 2024 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 8 1 10.31436/ijahs.v8i1.901