INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES <p>International Journal of Allied Health Sciences, is a peer-reviewed, English-language scholarly online journal, published biannually by the Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.</p> Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia en-US INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2600-8491 Regulatory Challenges in Uplifting Traditional Malay Medicine in Malaysia <p>Throughout the world, there is an increased level of awareness and acceptance of traditional and complementary medicine (T&amp;CM) in enhancing health and general well-being. T&amp;CM has become increasingly popular in Malaysia, with its rich and bountiful heritage of multi-ethnicity, multiculturalism, biodiversity and range of T&amp;CM practices. The integration of T&amp;CM including traditional Malay medicine (TMM) into the national health care system is geared for the future and it is our vision to see its co-existence and harmonisation with conventional medicine. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has taken a proactive approach to ensure safe and good quality T&amp;CM practices are being rendered to the public in order to facilitate its integration into the national health care system. The governance of T&amp;CM industry covers the regulation of practices and practitioners, education and training as well as products and research. The gazettement of the T&amp;CM Act 2016 [Act 775] on 1 August 2016 is one of the biggest catalysts for the development and professionalism of T&amp;CM.&nbsp; Since then, MOH persevered in facing various issues and challenges to uplift T&amp;CM including the TMM. In this paper, I shared the challenges we are facing&nbsp; as we implement the T&amp;CM Act 2016 which include lack of education and training, inadequate qualified academic staff, lack of research data, and lack of understanding and prejudice towards the T&amp;CM profession. In particular, my paper discussed how we could overcome the challenges in regulating TMM.&nbsp; In conclusion,&nbsp; I suggested various approaches that we should take to ensure safe and effective use of T&amp;CM through feasible regulations of products, practices and practitioners.&nbsp; With continuous and consistent efforts from all stakeholders, we hope to strengthen the delivery of national health care, by harmonizing T&amp;CM with the conventional medical practice.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Goh Cheng Soon Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2312 2321 THE NATURE AND INTERNATIONAL STANDING OF JAWI-MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS BEFORE 1900 <p>There has been a staggering interest in the study of indigenous knowledge or products of local geniuses within this millennium. This includes Jawi-Malay manuscripts in the field of medicine.&nbsp; The main focus of this study is to number of Malay medicines recorded in manuscripts. Thus far, the most comprehensive report on this matter is found in Harun (2019). It was noted that there are two categories of manuscripts in which the subject can be found - the <em>tibs</em> and the <em>mujarobats.</em> Interestingly, the subject matter was also found in manuscripts that are categorised as <em>Ramalan</em> (Prediction) by Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia (PNM). As such, it can be assumed that the majority of Jawi-Malay manuscripts are made up of Jawi-Malay Medical manuscripts (JMMM). Thus far, there are no comparative studies on the nature and international standing of the JMMM before 1900, as well as the knowledge and practice of Malay medicine. The existence of Malay medical manuscripts has been traced back to a hundred years earlier than the English medical manuscripts. Naturally, many basic medical terms and diseases are in Malay.&nbsp; Findings also show that Malay or more general Malayonesian medical knowledge was internationally known between the 15<sup>th</sup> and early 20<sup>th</sup> centuries. There are many potential research areas in the study of the JMMM which have yet to be explored, one of which is the knowledge of medicinal floras and faunas. Three research fields have been identified. Firstly, to identify the scientific reasons behind successful treatments using flora and fauna as stated in the manuscripts.&nbsp; It could also be extended to some, if not all, spiritual treatments.&nbsp; Secondly, to identify scientific names or even local names for many unidentifiable medicinal flora and fauna; and lastly, to resolve a few unknown diseases mentioned in the manuscripts. The study shows that, unlike previous studies on the philosophy of Malay medical knowledge, the philosophy of knowledge concerned is neither fully Hindu-Buddhism nor fully Islamic philosophy of knowledge. This is because Islamisation, ethnicisation, indigenisation or generically self-moulding medical knowledge before 1900 were not entirely successful or completed.</p> Shaharir Mohamad Zain Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2322 2350 SAKTI INDEX: TOWARDS SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS <p>Malay medical manuscripts have become new objects of study in recent years. Our research at IIUM has departed from common manuscript study by emphasising on the historical, philosophical and most importantly the practical and contemporaneous use of the manuscripts’ content. In order to accelerate scientific study on these manuscripts, a scientific index called <em>Indeks Analisa Saintifik Kitab Tibb Melayu</em> or the Scientific Analysis of Kitab Tib Index (SAKTI), has been developed to analyse Malay medical manuscript data. Four integral subindices of SAKTI include (i) index of manuscript selection (iMS), (ii) index of comparison with published contemporary scientific evidence (iComPSE), (iii) index of pharmaceutical prospectivity (iPharmaprospect), and (iv) index of consensus with other manuscripts (iConText). Manuscripts and their contents would be graded according to these indices and a priority list can be generated to help a researcher in identifying the formulation with the strongest overall value to undergo development into drug therapy. The recent outbreaks of diseases including COVID-19 pandemic reiterates the value of having such an index in quickly identifying possible new cure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Malay medical manuscripts, Kitab Tib, Malay medicine, traditional medicine, index</p> Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2351 2363 MEDICAL AHADITH IN OF AL-RANIRI’S BUSTAN AL-SALATIN CHAPTER 7 FASL 3 <p> The incorporation of <em>h</em><em>ad</em><em>i</em><em>th</em> in Islamic medical literature is a common phenomenon. In the Malay world, <em>Bustan al-Salatin</em> in its Chapter 7 <em>Fa</em><em>s</em><em>l</em> 3 (BSVII-III) contains the greatest number of these medical <em>a</em><em>h</em><em>a</em><em>d</em><em>i</em><em>th</em> among Malay medical manuscripts. This paper presented a preliminary study on the <em>a</em><em>h</em><em>a</em><em>d</em><em>i</em><em>th</em> typology and sources and their use pattern in BSVII-III. <em>A</em><em>h</em><em>a</em><em>d</em><em>i</em><em>th</em> in two extant manuscripts of BSVII-III from Aceh were extracted, listed and compared. Then, these medical a<em>hadith</em> were checked using <em>al-Maktabah al-Waqfiyyah</em> online resource and <em>al-Maktabah al-Shamilah</em> <em>hadith</em> search software to find their sources. The methodology employed by al-R?n?r? in incorporating these medical a<em>hadith</em> were also analysed. It was found that there are 40 narrations referenced as <em>?</em><em>ad</em><em>?</em><em>th</em> in this <em>fa</em><em>?</em><em>l</em>, distributed on four topics on anatomy (n=3), the principles of medicine (n=14), <em>materia medica</em> (n=28) and medical <em>hikayat</em> (medical marvels) (n=2). 70% of them are confirmed as <em>hadith</em>, five are confirmed as the sayings of other figures, whereas seven narrations have unconfirmed origins. These a<em>hadith</em> were mostly narrated without providing the source or the full <em>matn</em> or sanad of narrators. Hence, it is a challenge in tracing the reliability and status of the unconfirmed a<em>hadith</em>. al-R?n?r?’s liberal use of a<em>hadith </em>in BSVII-III may be attributed to the fact that this text is not meant to be a <em>?</em><em>ad</em><em>?</em><em>th</em> text and the use of a<em>hadith </em>are primarily to provide support to the known medical management of health and disease. BSVII-III remains an exciting text to be explored, given its importance in integrating medical and religious sciences, Islamisation of knowledge and the study of <em>hadith</em> in the Malay Archipelago.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Bustan al-Salatin</em>, al-Raniri, medicine, <em>hadith</em>, manuscript</p> Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri Muhammad Amir Ashraf Rosdin Hasbullah Mohamad Hermansyah Yahya Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2364 2385 MALAY MEDICINAL KNOWLEDGE ON A NIPAH-LEAF (Nypa fruiticans) MANUSCRIPT: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY <p>Numerous Malay medical manuscripts have been discovered in the collections of libraries such as national libraries, institutions such as museums, and personal collection of old texts. These valuable resources have brought new light to the study of science and literature of the Malays particularly in the field of medicine. Amongst these collections, one medical text which belongs to the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur is considered a remarkably unique text as it is written on a <em>nipah</em>-leaf (<em>Nypa fruticans</em>) material. A case as such is unusual considering the common material used in other discovered Malay medical manuscripts is paper. We present here a descriptive study of the manuscript, coded IAMM 1998.1.3370. This is a complete text that ends with a colophon supplying the name of the author, and date of writing. The manuscript contained interventions and prescriptions for numerous health problems (n=79) such as diabetes, malaria, and others. It was prepared as a book form by stitching several <em>nipah</em> leaves together to form several cut square pages bound with a cloth. <em>Nasakh</em> calligraphy was used and the text was written using black and red inks with the latter used to indicate a shift to a new topic. The manuscript is in a dilapidated condition due to several factors such as age, and material used. Considering the valuable information in the manuscript, there is a necessity for the preservation and conservation of this manuscript before the content is lost forever.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Malay medical manuscript, palm-leaf, <em>Nypa fruticans</em>, nipah, Malay medicine</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri Ainaaul Mardhiyah Jamil Zaitunnatakhin Zamli Mardhiah Mohammad Izzuddin A Nadzirin Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2386 2395 THE MEDICAL USE OF GERMINATING PARTS OF PLANTS; MATA KUNYIT, SUNTI HALIA AND LEMUKUT IN MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Germinating parts of plants are the beginning of the growth of a plant that can be seed, spore, or bud and it is usually used in the Malay community as a spice and traditional medicine. Correspondingly, this study reviews the utilisation of germinating parts of three materia medica locally known as <em>‘mata kunyit’ (Curcuma longa – Zingiberaceae), ‘sunti halia’ (Zingiber officinale – Zingiberaceae) </em>and <em>‘lemukut’</em> <em>(Oryza sativa – Poaceae)</em> that are commonly used in the disease cure formulation recipes to treat certain diseases by traditional Malay practitioners. Their medical importance has been emphasized in certain manuscripts and has proven its potential as an enhancer in disease cures. Therefore, this study intended to outline germinating parts of the materia medica and the type of disease cures with their medicinal properties.&nbsp; <strong>Methods: </strong>Their medical use of these germinating parts was searched in six different published transliterated Malay medical manuscripts namely MSS2999 Kitab Tib, Sari Segala Ubat, Al-Rahmah Fi Al-Tibb Wa Al-Hikmah, Tayyib Al-Ihsan Fi Tibb Al-Insan, Khazinat Al-Insan, and Rumah Ubat di Pulau Penyengat. <strong>Results: </strong>Collectively, <em>mata kunyit</em>, <em>lemukut,</em> and <em>sunti halia </em>were mentioned 13, 10 and 3 times respectively in these six manuscripts. The review found that <em>mata kunyit</em> and <em>lemukut</em> are repeatedly used in combination to treat diseases such as dysmenorrhoea, parturition, orthostatic hypotension, cough of bronchial asthma, backache, constipation, lethargy, leprosy, ulcers and oedema. Whereas <em>sunti halia</em> and <em>mata kunyit</em> was used interchangeably as the adding factors in formulations to treat diseases such as dysmenorrhoea and cough. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This finding summarises the type of diseases that often utilises <em>mata kunyit, sunti halia </em>and <em>lemukut</em> in the ‘disease cure formulation recipes. Besides, this review deduced that future exploratory study concerning this germinating tip is highly beneficial.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: </strong><em>Curcuma longa,</em> germinating tip, Malay medical manuscript, <em>Oryza sativa<strong>, </strong>Zingiber officinale </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Intan Shahhira Noorain Mardhiah Mohammad Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2396 2406 ANALYSIS OF MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPT MSS 3136 AND REMEDIES FOR EYE-RELATED DISEASES <p>Malay medical manuscripts (MMM) are ancient writings from the Malay civilisation depicting traditional remedies to treat various diseases. Unfortunately, the manuscripts are not well studied by scientists, perhaps because of scepticism with traditional medicine. To date, only 12 MMM have been transliterated and published despite the initial work that had been started since more than 10 years ago. One of the diseases frequently mentioned in MMM is eye diseases. Some eye diseases may be treated with invasive procedures such as operations, e.g. cataracts. By referring to MMM, there might be remedies to those kinds of eye problems. Hence, this study aims to transliterate MSS 3136, a manuscript kept in the Pusat Kebangsaan Manuskrip Melayu, to enhance the collection of transliterated MMM for future data mining, as well as to extract medicinal information regarding eye diseases. This was achieved by transliterating the text from <em>Jawi</em> to Roman alphabets using standard edition transliteration. The diseases and formulations were extracted, tabulated and numbered. The ingredients related to eye problems were analysed by comparing the findings against contemporary studies. Overall, there were 13 diseases found in the manuscript with 45 formulations. Three diseases are related to the eyes with six formulations. Eleven ingredients were identified from the formulations and five were found to have pharmacological activities related to eyes, namely <em>Curcuma</em> spp, <em>Acorus calamus</em>, <em>Anethum graveolens</em>, <em>Eclipta alba </em>and<em> Aloe vera</em>, which were indicated for conjunctivitis, cataract, age-related macular degeneration, conjunctivitis and cataract, respectively. The manuscript was successfully transliterated despite some obscured and indecipherable words. The diseases and formulations were effectively extracted, and comparative analysis of eye disease formulations showed that some ingredients used are supported by contemporary studies. Nevertheless, some plants have not been tested in modern studies, which warrants further research in the future. The findings of the current study also serve as the basis for natural product experiments in the pharmaceutical field.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Malay medical manuscript, traditional medicine, complementary, herbal medicine, natural product.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Izzuddin Ahmad Nadzirin Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2407 2415 TREATMENT FORMULATIONS FOR ‘RESDUNG’ IN MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPT, MS 699 <p><em>Resdung,</em> a commonly used term among Malaysians, can be referred to as either allergic rhinitis or sinusitis. Allergic rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa, whereas sinusitis is an inflammation of the nasal sinuses. These diseases affect worldwide population and the prevalence of this disorder is increasing. The use of conventional medical treatment for allergic rhinitis has been used widely. Despite the clinical effects, the adverse reaction causes concerns and by combining the conventional and alternative treatment, it can improve clinical effects and eventually reduce adverse effects. Thus, this study is aimed at presenting the treatment formulation of allergic rhinitis in MS 699 by transliterating <em>resdung </em>related content from <em>Jawi </em>to Roman writing. The MS 699 was selected from the National Library of Malaysia based on its inclusion and exclusion criteria. The method of transliteration used was the standard transliteration. The transliterated words were referred to an online dictionary, <em>Pusat Persuratan Rujukan Melayu </em>before the therapeutic information such as treatment formulations, signs and symptoms of diseases were analysed and discussed with the available scientific study. All <em>Jawi </em>words from the formulations were transliterated to Roman script except<strong>. </strong>The study discovered two multiple compounded formulations for treatment of <em>resdung</em>. The materia medica of the formulation is mostly locally available vegetative, such as <em>jintan hitam </em>and<em> limau nipis. </em>Though information regarding signs of the disease in the manuscript was limited compared to current studies, the description was sufficient to imply inflammation. To conclude, the manuscript MS 699 provided two formulations to treat rhinitis and ingredients used consist of natural resources that can be easily obtained among Malaysians.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Malay medical manuscript, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, <em>resdung</em> and herbal medicine</p> Nur Syazwani Feisal Hamdee Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri Mardhiah Mohammad Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2416 2424 ANCIENT REMEDIES FOR COUGHS AND COUGH-RELATED SYMPTOMS: ANALYSIS FROM MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS <p>Cough, a common symptom with various underlying causes, may lead to debilitating consequences in terms of loss of employment, healthcare utilisation and psychosocial morbidity. This study aims to document information on coughs and cough-related symptoms from six Malay medical manuscripts. The information is related to terminologies, symptoms, list of materials, method of preparation, method of administration and dosage. The materials were then compared with contemporary studies on their relevant therapeutic action. It was found that <em>batuk, lelah </em>and <em>esak</em> are the most common terms related to coughs and cough-related problems in the Malay manuscripts. &nbsp;Coughs can then be categorised into five types: wet cough, dry cough, cold-induced cough, asthmatic cough and physiological coughs. Asthmatic cough has the greatest number of prescriptions (n=30) than other types of coughs. In total, 62 formulations have been documented involving about 93 plant species, 6 animals and 2 minerals. Fenugreek or <em>Trigonella foenum-graecum</em> is the common material prescribed for all five types of coughs. Honey, <em>gandarukam</em> and <em>mustaki</em> are also commonly prescribed for all coughs except dry cough. &nbsp;Future study may investigate the effectiveness of these traditional formulations and their therapeutic benefits to treat coughs and cough-related problems. With proper recommendation, practice and guidelines from health practitioners, health authorities should consider the availability of local <em>materia medica</em> in treating coughs as an advantage to improve the quality of life for the community at large.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ancient manuscripts, <em>k</em><em>itab tib,</em> Malay medicine, phytomedicine, respiratory distress</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Raja Nurhanin Raja Perdaus Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri Intan Azura Shahdan Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2425 2461 BREASTFEEDING CHALLENGES: DATA MINING ON MALAY FORMULATION AND PRACTICE AS RECOMMENDED IN THE MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Breast milk confers numerous benefits to infants throughout their stages of life. Inappropriate practice and cessation of breastfeeding are also associated with several breastfeeding-associated disturbances among women. Besides, it is renowned that Malays have inherited many practices for centuries, especially practices using natural products in healing an illness, including remedies to enhance milk production and treat breastfeeding-associated problems. These practices had been documented in the written form, which is known as Malay medical manuscripts. <strong>Aim:</strong> This study sought to discover the potential natural products that the Malays employ to encounter breastfeeding mothers' problems as documented in Malay medical manuscripts. <strong>Methods:</strong> A narrative review procedure was applied for data mining on Malay medical manuscripts. Thematic analysis was adopted, which is crucial to investigate the data that are significant for this study. <strong>Results:</strong> The review's findings demonstrated the discovery of information in the derived sources that relates closely with the breastfeeding aspects: Kitab Perubatan Melayu: Tayyib al-Ihsan fi Tibb al-Insan, Seksologi: Ilmu Perkasihan Melayu and Warisan Perubatan Melayu. Altogether nine traditional remedies were found in the formulations. Thematic analysis showed two breastfeeding-associated problems mentioned in the formulations: breast engorgement and clogged ducts. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study has discovered that there is data available about breastfeeding, including its treatments, recommended in the Malay medical manuscripts. However, more transliteration of the manuscripts and review of secondary sources is proposed to overcome the limitation of breastfeeding data. This discovery of breastfeeding treatment in Malay medical manuscripts would be very much appreciated if they can contribute to the incorporation of local natural products into the current modern medicine for breastfeeding treatment.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: </strong>breastfeeding; Malay medical manuscript; narrative review</p> Nur Alia Mohammad Rihan Radiah Abdul Ghani Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2462 2475 AN INSIGHT INTO MALAY MEDICAL MANUSCRIPT MSS 4016 AND TYPHOID FEVER REMEDIES <p>Records of traditional Malay medicine to treat various diseases, including typhoid fever, are contained in handwritten manuscripts. Typhoid, known in Malay as <em>kepialu</em>, is a bacterial infection caused by <em>Salmonella enterica </em>serovar Typhi (<em>S. </em>Typhi). The infection could be treated in the past using chloramphenicol, however chloramphenicol-resistant strain has emerged necessitating effort to find new drug candidates against typhoid fever. This study aims to extract and analyse the content of a Malay medical manuscript MSS 4016 pertaining to typhoid fever. The manuscript was first transliterated from <em>Jawi </em>to Roman alphabets using standard philological system. The formulations for typhoid fever were extracted and numbered. The ingredients were listed respective to each number. Then, comparative analysis against modern research was performed using Google Scholar journal database employing specific keywords such as the scientific names of plants and typhoid fever, combined using Boolean Operators, in any time frame. From 66 diseases and 248 differing formulations contained in the manuscript, 16 formulations were intended for typhoid fever involving the use of 63 types of plants. From the comparative analysis, 50 were reported in contemporary modern publications as having various pharmacological activities related to typhoid. Thirty-four plants possess antibacterial property and specifically 18 plants have been shown to inhibit the growth of <em>S.</em> Typhi such as <em>Allium cepa, Allium sativum and Nigella sativa</em>. MSS 4016 is indeed an ancient pharmacopoeia holding a lot of medicinal information on numerous diseases. The valuable information gathered from this study may preserve knowledge in the manuscript while at the same time help in discovering potential plants for typhoid treatments.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Malay medicine, manuscript, MSS 4016, typhoid fever, <em>kepialu</em>, traditional medicine</p> Muhammad Hakimi Ruzaidee Mohamad Adib Ismail Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri Izzuddin Ahmad Nadzirin Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 5 5 2476 2496 FINDING CURES FOR THE EMERGING YAWS: ANALYSIS OF KITAB TIB MUZIUM TERENGGANU AND MSS1292 <p>Yaws is a neglected tropical disease infecting underprivileged population living in tropical and subtropical regions. The disease has persisted in low-developed countries and now emerges in Europe due to increase in travel and economic factors. The threat of yaws is demonstrated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance strain necessitating the pursuit of new cures. In this study, we used Malay medical manuscripts Kitab Tib Muzium Terengganu and MSS1292 to identify possible treatment for yaws. Malay terms synonymous with <em>puru</em>, are listed and categorised in terms of routes of administration and methods of preparation for the remedies. Comparative analysis using modern scientific database Pubmed was performed to find support for the use of the Malay <em>materia medica</em>. The study identified 17 formulations from the manuscripts for three types of yaws.&nbsp; The most common materials mentioned in the Malay medical manuscripts are <em>terusi</em> (copper sulphate), <em>tempurung</em> (coconut shell) and <em>kunyit</em> (<em>Curcuma longa</em>); <em>belerang/belerang bang </em>(arsenic sulphide)<em>, beras </em>(rice)<em>, lada/lada sulah </em>(pepper) and<em> tuba tikus </em>(arsenous acid). Comparative analysis found that there were no reports on the use of these materials as yaws treatment which open a huge potential for medical research using manuscript data for the treatment of yaws.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> <em>Puru</em>, Malay manuscript, neglected disease, skin disease, <em>Treponema pertenue, </em>wound healing.</p> Nurul Syahirah Abdul Halim Mohd Affendi Mohd Shafri Intan Azura Shahdan Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 5 5 2497 2513 THE WISER APPROACH FOR AN INTEGRATED AND INNOVATIVE INDIGENOUS MEDICINES DZULKIFLI ABDUL RAZAK Copyright (c) 2021 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 5 5 2309 2311