INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS <p>International Journal of Allied Health Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic university Malaysia</p> Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia en-US INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2600-8491 BINOCULAR VISION PROBLEM AND AMBLYOPIA CASES IN IIUM OPTOMETRY CLINIC: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/413 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To analyze the prevalence of binocular vision (BV) problem and amblyopic cases in the International Islamic University Malaysia Optometry Clinic (IIUM-OC), Kuantan Pahang, Malaysia.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The present clinical-based retrospective study was conducted, and 1229 patient files from IIUM-OC presented from January 2017 to September 2018 were evaluated. All new cases files with diagnosis of BV problem and amblyopia were recorded and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of BV problem and amblyopia are respectively, 13.59% (167 patients) and 3.42% (42 patients). From the BV problem cases, the highest prevalence is accommodation insufficiency (AI) 26.3% (44 patients), followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) 23.4% (39 patients), accommodation excess (AE) 18.0% (30 patients), accommodation infacility (AF) 7.8% (13 patients), divergence excess (DE) 3.6% (6 patients), basic exophoria 3.6% (6 patients), convergence excess (CE) 3.0% (5 patients), basic esophoria 3.0% (5 patients), ill-sustained accommodation (ISA) 1.2% (2 patients), and divergence insufficiency (DI) 0.6% (1 patient); while the remaining are the combination of various BV problems at 9.6% (16 patients). For amblyopia cases, the unilateral refractive amblyopia recorded as the major type at 50.0% (21 patients). Other causes of amblyopia include strabismus with 16.7% (7 patients), and bilateral refractive with 2.4% (1 patient); while the remaining cases are the combination causes with 31.0% (13 patients).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> BV problem and amblyopia are prevalent in IIUM-OC which warrant proper management to provide a better care for the patients.</p> NADIA NABILA SAMSIMON FIRDAUS YUSOF@ALIAS SITI NURSYAHIRAH KAMARUDIN MOHD SYAFIQ HAKIMI OTHMAN SHAHIRAH ABDULLAH MOHD RADZI HILMI NORSHAM AHMAD MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 988 999 THE PREVALENCE OF PTERYGIUM AND PINGUECULA IN A CLINIC POPULATION https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/414 <p><strong>Purpose :</strong> This study aimed to measure the prevalence of pinguecula and pterygium from patients pool attending the International Islamic University Malaysia Optometry Clinic (IIUM-OC). This study also aimed to study the differences of pterygium and pinguecula between sexes and ocular surface zones, and their relationship to tear break up time (TBUT) and ocular surface zones. The management of pterygium and pinguecula in IIUM-OC is also reviewed.</p> <p><strong>Method :</strong> This is a clinical-record-based retrospective study which the data were retrieved from clinic record of patients that attended the IIUM-OC from January 2017 to September 2018. Pterygium and pinguecula cases were identified from the clinic records. Data retreived from the record includes sexes, affected ocular surface zones, TBUT, and the management given to the patients.</p> <p><strong>Results :</strong> The total number of clinic records considered in this study were 1229. There were 30 patients diagnosed with pinguecula, and 48 patients with pterygium, giving rise to a prevalence of 2.4% and 3.9%, respectively. There were 21 cases reported in males, for pterygium and pinguecula, respectively. The prevalence of pterygium was significantly higher in female (chi-square test; p=0.02) while the prevalence of of pinguecula was significantly higher in male (chi-square test; p=0.02). The mean age of male patient diagnosed with pterygium was 54.24±11.89 years while female was 48.48±14.57 years. The mean age of male patient diagnosed with pinguecula was 44.24±13.80 years while female was 42.33±14.32 years. There was no association of TBUT with the ocular surface zones in eyes affected with pinguecula and pterygium. The most &nbsp;common management for patient with pinguecula and pterygium was by monitoring through series of follow up.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion :</strong> Pterygium and pinguecula is prevalent among patients attended in IIUM-OC. The optometric management of pinguecula and pterygium should be improved for for a better patient care.</p> SITI NURSYAHIRAH KAMARUDIN FIRDAUS YUSOF @ ALIAS NADIA NABILA SAMSIMON MOHD SYAFIQ HAKIMI OTHMAN SHAHIRAH ABDULLAH MOHD RADZI HILMI NORSHAM AHMAD MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1000 1010 THE EFFECT OF 6 PRISM BASE-OUT DURING SMARTPHONE USE ON NEAR VERGENCE AND ACCOMMODATION SYSTEMS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/415 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Prism is used in binocular vision assessment and visual therapy. The short-term use of prism, particularly base-out prism on vergence and accommodation system, was not well-explained in the previous investigations. <strong>Aim: </strong>This current study aimed to assess the effect of 6 prism base-out­ for 15 minutes on vergence and accommodation system during the utilization of smartphone. <strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty normal participants were recruited in this quasi-experimental study. All participants wore 6 prism-base out for 15 minutes while using smartphone at 40cm. Near positive fusional vergence (PFV) and amplitude of accommodation (AA) were measured before and after 15 minutes of 6 prism base-out wear during smartphone usage. <strong>Results: </strong>The results showed no significant difference for both parameters measured when comparison was made between before and after prism base-out inducement in front of eye.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>The vergence and accommodation systems presented in this study were almost identical among normal subjects after inducement of 6 prism base-out for 15 minutes during watching smartphone.</p> MARYAM ALIYA WAN HARUN MOHD HAFIDZ ITHNIN Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1011 1016 THE EFFECT OF 6-PRISM BASE-OUT AT 6-METRE FIXATION ON VERGENCE AND ACCOMMODATION SYSTEMS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/416 <p><strong>Introduction:&nbsp; </strong>Prisms is used for binocularity diagnosis and vision therapy in optometry particularly in treating symptomatic vision anomalies such as divergence excess, convergence insufficiency, nystagmus and concomitant as well as incomitant strabismus. This utilization of base-out prism in the alteration of vergence and accommodation system is not well explored especially on normal binocular vision. This study aimed to assess the effect of prism base-out inducement on vergence and accommodation among normal binocular vision system. <strong>Aim: </strong>To compare the value of positive fusional vergence (PFV) and amplitude of accommodation (AA) before and after introduction of 6 prism base-out (BO) at fixation distance of 6m for 15 minutes<strong>. Methodology: </strong>Thirty participants were recruited in this quasi-experimental study and all of the participants wore the 6 prism BO for 15 minutes while watching movie at 6m. AA and PFV at 6m and 40cm were measured pre- and post-watching movie at 6m with 6 prism BO inducement. <strong>Results: </strong>The AA and PFV before and after intervention were then being compared and the results showed that there were insignificant changes (p&gt;0.05) in AA and PFV of both eyes. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results suggested that the utilization of 6 prism BO in 15 minutes did insignificantly alter accommodation and vergence system.</p> NUR MUNIRAH ABU BAKAR MOHD HAFIDZ ITHNIN Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1017 1022 THE EFFECT OF OVERMINUS PRESCRIPTION ON POSITIVE FUSIONAL VERGENCE VALUE AND ACCOMMODATION AMPLITUDE AFTER WATCHING VIDEO AT 6 METRE https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/417 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The study aimed to investigate the effect -1.00 DS overminus prescription on positive fusional vergence (PFV) and accommodation amplitude (AA) after watching video at 6m. <strong>Method</strong>: Thirty normal participants without binocular vision anomalies (23.50 ± 1.50 years) were involved in this quasi-experimental study. All subjects wore additional -1.00 DS on the spectacle prescription for 15 minutes while watching video at 6m. The distance (6m) and near (40cm) PFV and AA were measured before and after 15 minutes watching video at 6m with the overminus prescription. <strong>Results</strong>: The result demonstrated the right eye (RE) AA reduced significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) while the reduction on the left side was insignificant (<em>p</em>&gt; 0.05).&nbsp; The changes of near and distance PFV was found insignificant (<em>p</em>&gt; 0.05) after 15 minutes watching video at 6m with overminus prescription. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Overminus prescription of -1.00DS for 15 minutes at distance fixation that presented in this study reduced the ability of accommodation. There were no changes in vergence system after intervention of -1.00 DS overminus prescription for 15 minutes at 6m.</p> NUR SHAZLIYANA AMER HAMZAH MOHD HAFIDZ ITHNIN Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1023 1027 CORRELATION OF VISUAL RECOVERY TIME AFTER LASER REFRACTIVE SURGERY WITH PREOPERATIVE KERATOMETRY AND ASTIGMATISM AMONG MYOPIC ASTIGMATISM PATIENTS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/418 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Photorefractive keratometry (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are among the many types of laser refractive surgery available for the correction of myopic astigmatism. The outcome of the procedure can be affected by several parameters which include patient’s age, optical zone diameter, epithelial hyperplasia, preoperative keratometry as well as astigmatism.<strong> Aim:</strong> This study aimed to determine the relationship between preoperative keratometry and astigmatism with visual recovery time after laser refractive surgery. <strong>Methods:</strong> Records of 174 eyes (174 patients) with myopic astigmatism who had been treated with either LASIK (71 eyes) or PRK (103 eyes) at IIUM Eye Specialist Clinic from January 2015 to June 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. &nbsp;Main outcome measure was the time taken for patients to achieve visual acuity (VA) 6/6 (equivalent to 0.00 LogMAR) postoperatively. Value for keratometry parameter was taken from corneal topography while astigmatism magnitude was taken from manifest refraction. Their correlation with visual recovery time was analyzed using&nbsp;Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). P &lt;0.05 was considered as statistically significant. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean preoperative astigmatism and mean keratometry was 0.9 ±0.76D and 43.65 ±1.23D respectively. A significant but weak positive correlation between preoperative astigmatism and visual recovery time was observed (P-value = 0.013; R = 0.188), while no correlation observed for mean keratometry (P-value = 0.305; R = 0.078). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Preoperative astigmatism influenced the visual recovery time post laser refractive surgery in myopic astigmatism patients, but not keratometry.</p> AHMAD NURFAHMI AKHTAR ALI MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA FADZILAH HANIM RAHIM Nadhirah Ahmad Fauzi KHAIRIDZAN MOHD KAMAL MOHD RADZI HILMI Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1028 1041 ASSOCIATION OF NET PTERYGIUM TISSUE MASS (DRY-WEIGHT) IN DETERMINING CHANGES IN OCULOVISUAL FUNCTIONS AND ANTERIOR CORNEAL CURVATURE RELA-TIVE TO PTERYGIUM TYPES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/419 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Dryweight in pterygium is more towards the fleshy appearance of the fibrous tissue. <strong>Aim: </strong>The goal of this study was to determine the predictive ability of net pterygium tissue mass (dryweight) on predicting changes in anterior corneal curvature and oculovisual functions relative to pterygium types. <strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 93 primary pterygium patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic were selected as participants. The net pterygium tissue mass were obtained via freeze dry method subsequent to pterygium excision using fibrin glue adhesive method. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and contrast sensitivity function (CSF) were measured by using M&amp;S Smart System II as measurement for oculovisual function, while the changes of anterior corneal curvature was measured using corneal topography. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean and standard deviation for BCVA, CSF and SimK were 0.44 ± 0.30 LogMAR, 24.28 ± 17.66 % and 4.64 ± 4.18 D respectively. This study found that the predictive ability of pterygium dryweight with BCVA were strong in Type I and Type III while moderate in Type II with 13.10% (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.131, <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) in Type I. Slight increase trend were noted in both Type II with 53% (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.530, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) and Type III, with 21.60% (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.216, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). For CSF, the predictive ability of pterygium dryweight were strong in all types with Type I, Type II and III reported 21.6% (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.216, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), 31.8% (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.318, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), 28.9% (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.289, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) respectively. The predictive ability of pterygium dryweight for SimK were strong in all types with contribution of 44.7% (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.447, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), 47.7% (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.477, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05), 39.1% (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.391, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) respectively. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Net pterygium tissue mass (dryweight) is a strong factor in predicting changes of oculovisual functions and anterior corneal curvature in relation to pterygium types.</p> NOOR SYAHIRA CHE ROSLI MOHD RADZI HILMI KHAIRIDZAN MOHD KAMAL MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1042 1048 ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF SEAWEEDS AGAINST ORAL-BORNE PATHOGENS: A REVIEW https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/421 <p>Dental caries is known as the most common and preventable dental disease. This multifactorial disease has been found to be a major concern worldwide. This dental caries has been proved to be caused by the presence of oral pathogen. Seaweeds show many health-promoting effects, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-cancer properties. The versatility of the seaweed has attracted many researchers to use seaweed extracts as alternative treatment against multiple diseases. However, little attention has been paid to the application of antimicrobial properties of seaweed against oral pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from red, brown and green seaweeds showing potent antimicrobial activity are polysaccharides, phlorotannins, pigments, fatty acids, lectins, terpenoids, alkaloids and halogenated compounds. Current research is shifting into fully grasping the antimicrobial potential of seaweeds against oral microbes that cause dental caries or periodontal disease. Hence, this mini-review will highlight the antimicrobial properties of three types of seaweed species (red, brown, and green) against selected oral pathogenic microorganisms.</p> NURUL NAJWA ZAMIMI NOORHAZAYTI AB. HALIM MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA DENY SUSANTI DARNIS MUHD FIRDAUS CHE MUSA FIRDAUS YUSOF @ALIAS Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1049 1056 EFFECTIVENESS OF PTechSIA QUESTIONNAIRE IN QUANTIFYING PHACOEMULSIFICATION SURGICAL TECHNIQUE VARIATIONS: A PILOT STUDY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/422 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Detailed<strong>-</strong>documentation of phacoemulsification surgical techniques in operative note is not a routine in clinical practice. However, this information is crucial in order to quantify the variations in surgeon’s surgical technique and to further evaluate the surgeon’s surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) predictability. <strong>Aim: </strong>To assess the effectiveness of Phacoemulsification Technique Related to Surgically Induced Astigmatism (PTechSIA) questionnaire in quantifying the phacoemulsification surgical technique variations. <strong>Methods: </strong>Four ophthalmic surgeons (Surgeons A, B, C and D<strong>) </strong>at IIUM Eye Specialist Clinic were involved in this study<strong>.</strong> A validated self-administered questionnaire with 9 items (PTechSIA, patency number: LY2018002935) was employed to assess the surgeons’ surgical techniques during phacoemulsification. All the responds were scored for each item using Variation Score (VS). Score ‘0’ was given, when a surgeon ticked only one option of the surgical techniques, Score ‘1’ when a surgeon ticked two options, and so on for each item. VSs of all 9 items were summed up to obtain Total Variation Score (TVS). A higher TVS indicated a higher variation in surgical techniques. <strong>Results:</strong> PTechSIA showed that all surgeons had different TVS. Surgeons A and B had TVS of 1, whereas Surgeons C and D had TVS of 0 and 3, respectively. TVS of each surgeon indicated that all surgeons had variations in phacoemulsification surgical techniques. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> PTechSIA is an effective tool to evaluate and quantify the variation of surgeons’ surgical techniques in phacoemulsification. Hence, PTechSIA is suggested to be used extensively for a larger scale of surgeons in future research related to phacoemulsification surgical technique and SIA.</p> NAZARYNA MARZUKI MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA NOORHAZAYTI AB. HALIM KHAIRIDZAN MOHD KAMAL FIRDAUS YUSOF @ ALIAS MOHD RADZI HILMI NORSHAM AHMAD MOHD HARIMI ABD RAHMAN AHMAD NURFAHMI AKHTAR ALI Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1057 1062 PREVALENCE OF CONTACT LENS RELATED DRY EYE (CLRDE) AMONG CONTACT LENS WEARER IN MALAYSIA https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/423 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the prevalence of contact lens related dry eyes among contact lens wearer in Malaysia, to identify the association between age and the dry eye symptoms and to study the association between duration of contact lens wear and the dry eye symptoms. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> An online survey of Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ-8) was distributed through media socials. Information on participants’ age, gender, type of contact lens wear, and duration of wearing contact lens were included. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 140 contact lens wearer completed the online survey with 94.3% of female participants. The type of contact lens used by the participants were mostly soft contact lens (98.6%) with monthly disposable modality (75.0%) followed by daily disposable modality (15.7%). Most of the participants reported eye discomfort “sometimes” (48.6%) for the last 2 weeks with the intensity level of discomfort on scale “3” (31.4%), followed by dryness “sometimes” (39.3%) with intensity of “2” (29.3%) at the end of the wearing time. There are significant correlation between age and the dry eyes symptoms which are the frequency of eyes discomfort and having to remove lenses (p &lt; 0.05). However, there is no association between the duration of contact lens wear and the dry eyes symptoms (p &gt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Eye dryness is the most reported symptom which is more frequent and intense at the end of wearing time.</p> SYAHIRAH AMERAH MOHAMAD DAUD NOOR EZAILINA BADARUDIN Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1063 1073 THE PRIVATE OPTOMETRY PRACTICES IN MALAYSIA: THE PROFESSIONAL SERVICES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/424 <p>The prevalence of private optometry practices that achieve the minimum standard operation procedure (SOP) in eye examination by Ministry of Health Malaysia and number of referral cases by private practices to the hospitals are identified in order to ensure the eye care services from optometrists in Malaysia can be optimized. An online survey has been distributed to all private optometrists with Annual Practicing Certificate (APC) of 2017 through their private email address;&nbsp; through alumni WhatsApp groups of all Optometry schools in Malaysia; and to the members of the Association of Malaysian Optometrists (AMO).The survey included questions on their demographics, available equipment, ophthalmic procedures routinely conducted in practice, barriers to provide routine procedures, special optometric clinic provided and the number of referral cases to hospitals. Respondents answered the questions given within the time frame of 1<sup>st</sup> September 2018 until 28<sup>th</sup> February 2019. Seventy-one (N=71) optometrists had responded the survey. Most practices had basic optometric instruments to conduct visual testing and refraction; equipments such as illuminated or projected Snellen chart (95.8%), retinoscopy (88.7%) and complete trial set (100.0%); but not the other essential equipments:&nbsp; direct ophthalmoscopes (78.9%), slit lamp biomicroscopy (67.6%), keratometry (46.5%) and RAF rules (46.5%). The lack of such essential equipment corresponds to the low number of practices conducting the respective procedures routinely. Most of respondents stated the reason for not providing full eye check-up in practices were due to unavailability of equipment (79.1%), lack of time (59.7%) and requested by the customers (34.3%). For the referral cases, private optometry practice only referred 0-20 cases per month. This study brings forward several suggestions to improve the present situation of eye care services in Malaysia. The data elicited in this study may be used as a basis to fulfill the demanding eye-care needs and determining the training and support guidelines for the efficient optometric services in Malaysia.</p> RAIHANA IZZATI ABD AZIZ FATIN ARYANI AHMAD MAFAKHIR NOOR EZAILINA BADARUDIN NAJIHAH MUHAMMAD SHARIF Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1074 1091 THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ASTIGMATIC ANISOMETROPIA WITH VISUAL ACUITY AND STEREOPSIS https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/425 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To study the association between astigmatic anisometropia with visual acuity (VA) and stereopsis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Twenty emmetropic adults with normal binocularity in age of 18 to 34 years old, were recruited. Unilateral against-the-rule astigmatism anisometropia was induced in each participant by using -1DC, -2DC, -3DC and -4DC toric soft contact lenses. Distance VA is measured using logMAR chart, near VA is measured using Roman Test types chart, and stereopsis using TNO plates were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All participants showed a reduction in VA at distance and near, and stereopsis with the increasing values of astigmatic anisometropia by using correlation analysis. The correlation of induced astigmatic anisometropia with distance VA was a weak positive correlation, (<em>r</em> = 0.589, <em>p</em> = &lt;0.05), and moderate positive correlation (<em>r</em> = 0.602, <em>p</em> = &lt;0.05) with near VA. Stereopsis was similarly degraded and showed weak positive correlation (<em>r</em> = 0.589,<em> p</em> = &lt;0.05). Both acuities showed significant reduction in each 1D increment of astigmatic anisometropia by 1 line, meanwhile stereopsis showed significant reduction by 2 lines. Stereopsis is affected the most. All parameters reduction can be predicted by using linear regression equation obtained, at any degree of astigmatic anisometropia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Increment in induced astigmatic anisometropia shown linear reduction in distance VA, near VA and stereopsis.</p> NUR HANANI MOHAMAD BASIR NURUL HASMIZA RUSLIM SYUHAIRAH NABILAH SOPIAN NURA SYAHIERA IBRAHIM NORSHAM AHMAD FIRDAUS YUSOF @ ALIAS MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1092 1098 VISUAL FUNCTIONS IN PEDIATRICS, ADULTS AND ELDERLY IN BANDAR INDERA MAHKOTA, KUANTAN, PAHANG: A COMPARISON STUDY https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/426 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The purpose of this paper is to investigate the comparison of visual acuity, color discrimination ability, stereopsis and pupil responses in pediatrics, adults and elderly.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Fifteen pediatrics (mean age: 7.40 ± 1.99 years old), fifteen adults (22.67 ± 1.03) and fifteen elderly (64.20 ± 3.35) that live in Bandar Indera Mahkota, Kuantan were enrolled in this study. Their visual acuity, color discrimination and stereopsis were assessed using logMAR chart, Farnsworth D-15 (percentage of correct caps arrangement) and TNO stereo test respectively. Their pupil reflexes (mm) in both photopic and scotopic condition, and rates of pupil responses which are velocity from mydriasis to miosis (mm/s) were measured using Oculus Keratograph 5M.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There are significant reduction in visual acuity, color discrimination ability and stereopsis in elderly group (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05). It is also revealed that elderly had diminished pupil reflexes in scotopic condition and reduced pupil velocity compared to adults and pediatrics (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05). However, for pupil reflexes in photopic condition (miosis), there are no significant difference between pediatrics, adults and elderly (<em>p</em>&gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study indicates that visual acuity, color discrimination ability and stereopsis are inversely proportional to increase of age which might be due to physiological lenticular deterioration and changes in cortical activity which induced by changes in levels of neurotransmitters. Diminished pupil responses in old age might be caused by senile miosis which mediated by reduction in sympathetic input. These age-related physiological changes will cause reduction in quality of life of elderly and affect their mobility.</p> SITI ERNY ZULAIKA MOHD ZULKIFLY MOHD HAFIEZZUDDIN MOHD HASHIM NORSHAM AHMAD Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1099 1109 VISUAL FUNCTIONS STATUS IN GERIATRIC NURSING HOME KUANTAN https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/427 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Age related visual impairment and eye diseases are one of the real worries among the different issues that influence the geriatric population on the grounds that their visual status plays major role in the quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the visual function status and eye diseases among the old individuals in a nursing home. <strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 43 elderly (males and females) in range age from 51 to 78 years who stayed at nursing centre were examined in this study. The parameters such as visual acuity, colour vision, stereopsis and any eye disorder were collected. There were no incorporation and prohibition criteria in the study. &nbsp;The tools used to measure them were LogMAR chart (at 3 metres), Farnsworth D-15, TNO booklet, portable slit lamp and direct ophthalmoscopy respectively. <strong>Results:</strong> The outcome demonstrates some of them mostly have cataracts (Nuclear 55.8%; Cortical 4.7%; PSCC 4.7%), pterygium (16.3%), arcus senilis (4.7%) and diabetic retinopathy (2.3%). There is a noteworthy impact of cataract formation on colour vision status,<em> х<sup>2</sup></em>(9, N = 43) = 3.634, <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05. There is likewise an uncovered &nbsp;that cataract give vital impact to stereopsis value, x<sup>2</sup>(12, N = 42) = 9.837, p &lt; 0.05. Stereopsis indicated more influenced than visual acuity as a result of the pathological and physiological changes during aging process. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It seems important to realize the importance of optometric administration such as doing the screening effectively and the geriatric ought to be urged to come for formal yearly eye check-up to improvise their quality of life.</p> MOHD HAFIEZZUDDIN MOHD HASHIM NORSHAM AHMAD Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1110 1120 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SARGASSUM POLYCYSTUM AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND LACTOBACILLUS CASEI: IN VITRO https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/420 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>Sargassum polycystum </em>(brown seaweeds) has been recognized as a potential source of natural antibacterial and antimicrobial compounds. It has been used in many applications and products as they possess interesting biological activities that give benefit to the dental and medical area. <strong>Aims:</strong> The objectives of this study were to determine the growth curve of <em>Streptococcus mutans </em>and Lactobacillus casei, and also to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of <em>Sargassum polycystum </em>extract against <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> and <em>Lactobacillus casei</em>. <strong>Materials and methods: </strong>The growth of both bacteria were studied by growth curve analysis. Besides that, the antibacterial activity of <em>Sargassum polycystum </em>ethanol extracts against two oral cariogenic bacteria were examined using broth dilution method. The bioactivity of the seaweed extract was studied by finding the MIC and MBC value. <strong>Results:</strong> The time taken for the <em>Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei</em> to achieve exponential phase during growth is 4 and 5 hours respectively. MIC values of ethanol extracts of <em>Sargassum polycystum</em> in different concentration against <em>Streptococcus mutans </em>and <em>Lactobacillus casei</em> were unreliable because the presence of fungus (white-precipitate) at all 96-well plates including the positive and negative control. As there was no MIC value, partial inhibition was determined by calculating the optical density. Therefore, MBC analysis was unable to carry out because the MIC values were unreliable. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The ethanol extract of <em>Sargassum polycystum </em>used in this study show partial bacterial inhibition against pathogens used. Therefore, the same study by using different type of solvent are recommended to be carried out in the future.</p> NOORHAZAYTI AB. HALIM NURUL SYAHIDAH ZAKARIA SARAH SHAFINAZ MD HISHAM JUZAILY HUSAIN MD MUZIMAN SYAH MD MUSTAFA Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 4 1 1121 1127