https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/issue/feed INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES 2020-02-06T11:10:44+08:00 Dr. Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak muzaffar@iium.edu.my Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Allied Health Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic university Malaysia</p> https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/155 THE COMPARISON OF SHAPE FACTOR AND MEAN TORIC KERATOMETRY BETWEEN PTERYGIUM AND NORMALS 2020-01-06T12:44:54+08:00 MARDHIAH SYAZWANI NASIR marsyadhiani_2210@yahoo.com MOHD RADZI HILMI mohdradzihilmi@iium.edu.my KHAIRIDZAN MOHD KAMAL khairidzan@gmail.com MOHD ZULFAEZAL CHE AZEMIN zulfaezal@iium.edu.my NUR NABILAH MARUZIKI nsolehah94@gmail.com NUR HIDAYAH MUSA nurhidayah_musa@ymail.com Nur Ain NORAZMAR ainazmariium@gmail.com <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The aim of this paper is to determine the changes in overall anterior corneal curvature between unilateral primary pterygium and normal adults utilizing shape factor and mean toric keratometry. <strong>Methods:</strong> Total of 60 participants comprises of 30 unilateral primary pterygium eyes from 30 pterygium patients and 30 normal adults were recruited in this study. Diagnosis and classification of primary pterygium were done by a consultant ophthalmologist (KMK). Standard optometric examinations were performed in all participants. Shape factor (SF) and toric mean keratometry (TKM) were objectively measured using a corneal topographer. Three measurements based on best image quality for SF and TKM were taken by single operator in a same visit. Difference for both SimK and CIM parameters between primary pterygium and normal groups were determined via independent T-test. <strong>Results:</strong> Overall mean and standard deviation (n = 60) of SF and TKM were found higher in primary pterygium group (0.79 ± 0.09 and 49.09 ± 5.42 D) compared to normal (0.37 ± 0.09 and 44.73 ± 2.02 D) respectively. Independent T-test results showed significance difference in SF and TKM values between primary pterygium groups and normal (both <em>P</em> &lt; 0.001). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Both SF and TKM can be used as a tool in describing early changes of pterygium on the anterior corneal surface. Advance pterygium could induce significant increment in both SF and TKM.</p> 2019-12-31T19:44:59+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/191 A TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENTS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY OF Clitoria ternatea (BUNGA TELANG) EXTRACT 2020-01-06T12:45:30+08:00 NORMAH HARON normahh@iium.edu.my HANAPI MAT JUSOH hanapi@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Most parts of <em>Clitoria ternatea</em> have been investigated for their medicinal purposes such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, treatment for skin disease, sore throat, and memory enhancement. The present study aimed to investigate the total phenolic contents in free and bound forms (soluble and insoluble bound) and their radical antioxidant scavenging capacity. <strong>Methods: </strong>Free phenolic extract was acquired through direct methanol extraction while acidic and alkaline hydrolyses were adopted to release the bound phenolic. The total phenolic content (TPC)s were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay and expressed in gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity using DPPH assay. <strong>Results: </strong>The highest phenolic content was found in insoluble bound extract&nbsp; followed by soluble bound and free extracts (1.87 ± 0.05, 1.63 ± 0.05, 1.05 ± 0.11 mg GAE/ g DW, respectively). At the highest concentration of 50 mg/ml, soluble bound extract demonstrated the highest radical scavenging capacity compared to insoluble bound and free extracts (84.24 ± 1.96 %, 83.49 ± 1.03 %, and 63.37 ± 5.33 %). &nbsp;<strong>Conclusions: </strong>The insignificant differences between all the extracts and antioxidant inhibition in this present study suggested that different forms of extracts did not influence the radical scavenging capacity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> <em>Clitoria ternatea</em>, TPC, antioxidant, DPPH assay</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-31T19:46:52+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/186 PROTEASE ENZYME FROM CUCUMBER AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT 2020-01-06T12:46:06+08:00 NOOR HASNIZA BINTI MD ZIN hasnizamz@iium.edu.my WIDYA BINTI ABDUL WAHAB widya@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The following study was conducted to characterize the protease enzyme present in peel and flesh of cucumber; <em>Cucumis sativus</em>, which can be found easily in Malaysia. Method: The extracts from peel and flesh have been partial purified by undergoing ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis in order to obtain protease enzyme. The protease enzyme was tested for its concentration and enzyme activity. <strong>Results:</strong> The specific activity of the enzyme was found to be almost the same between peels and flesh which was 3.08 units/µg of protein in peels and 2.90 units/µg of protein flesh. The crude extracts and protease enzyme were then further tested for their antimicrobial activities against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Bacillus cereus</em>, <em>Salmonella thyphi</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Bacillus subitlis</em>, <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> and <em>Candida albicans. </em>The crude extracts showed positive inhibition against <em>S.thyphi</em> with zone of inhibition of 7.33±0.58 mm and 7.17±0.29 mm for flesh and peels respectively, while the zone of inhibition against <em>P.aeruginosa</em> was 7.33±0.29 mm and 7.33±0.58 mm for flesh and peels respectively. However, no inhibition zone was observed for partial purified protease tested on selected pathogenic microbes. <strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;The findings shows that the ability of protease enzyme as antimicrobial agents varies based on the stage in partial purification.</p> 2019-12-31T19:49:10+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/184 THE TOTAL PHENOLICS CONTENTS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY IN FREE AND BOUND EXTRACTS OF PIPER SARMENTOSUM (PUCUK KADUK) 2020-01-06T12:46:41+08:00 HANAPI MAT JUSOH hanapi@iium.edu.my NORMAH HARON normahh@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>Piper sarmentosum</em> is one of the herbaceous plants that has been used as natural antioxidant to treat diseases. This study was conducted to determine the total phenolic content (TPC) and free radical scavenging capacity in free and bound (soluble and insoluble) of <em>P. sarmentosum. </em><strong>Methods: </strong>The TPC was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay and is expressed as Gallic Acid equivalent (GAE) in miligrams per gram extracts. The antioxidant scavenging capacity was determined by using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. <strong>Results:</strong> Insoluble bound phenolic extract of <em>P. sarmentosum</em> showed the highest TPC value (1.54 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g DW) followed by soluble phenolic extract and free extract (1.13 ± 0.10 and 0.57 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g DW, respectively). The soluble phenolic fraction has expressed the highest radical scavenging capacity (76.57± 4.12%) followed by insoluble (69.79± 2.33 %) and free extracts (58.15± 4.44 %). The IC<sub>50</sub> values for free, soluble and insoluble bound phenolic were 24.05 ± 3.81, 16.17 ± 1.84 and 18.49 ± 1.92 mg/ml, respectively. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>It can be concluded that different extracts of phenolic give different TPC value and antioxidant activity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS</strong>: TPC, radical scavenging, DPPH assay.</p> 2019-12-31T19:53:07+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/189 TREND IN DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE AMONG ELDERLY IN KUANTAN, PAHANG 2020-01-06T12:47:20+08:00 MAISALIHAH ZAMZURI maisalihahzamzuri@gmail.com ALIZA HASLINDA HAMIRUDIN aliza@iium.edu.my NORAIN ZAINUDIN norainzainudin91@gmail.com SURIATI SIDEK suriatisidek@iium.edu.my NOR AZLINA A. RAHMAN nazara@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dietary calcium intake is important in body system regulation. Inadequate intake among elderly may lead to various health issues such as osteoporosis and hip fracture. In order to encounter the problem, this study was done to identify dietary calcium intake among elderly in Kuantan, Pahang. <strong>Methods:</strong> A face to face session was done individually with seventy-nine elderly people aged ≥60 years to collect data on sociodemographic background, health status and dietary intake. Diet history method was used to obtain information related to dietary intake and analyzed using Nutritionist Pro Software. <em>P</em>-value was set at <em>p</em>&lt;0.05 as statistically significant. <strong>Results:</strong> Almost all elderly subjects had dietary calcium intake lower than recommendation, which was 92.4%, and only 7.6% of total elderly met the recommended intake. This study found that the mean dietary calcium intake was 421.65 <u>+</u> 344.32 mg/day which is lower than Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) for Malaysian. Mean calcium intake was significantly lower than RNI in both gender (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001). The difference of calcium intake between male and female elderly was not significant; with mean dietary calcium intake for male and female were 414.16 <u>+</u> 344.31 mg/day and 426.00 <u>+</u> 347.75 mg/day, respectively. From the analysis, dietary calcium intake in elderly from non-dairy sources (228.36 <u>+</u> 149.30 mg) is higher than dairy sources (187.94 <u>+</u> 323.49 mg). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>In conclusion, inadequate dietary calcium is an issue among elderly people in Kuantan which may lead to several health problems. Hence, appropriate strategies need to be taken in order to ensure optimum nutritional status among this at risk population.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong>&nbsp; &nbsp;Elderly, Calcium intake, Nutrient, Dietary intake</p> 2019-12-31T19:55:27+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/187 EXTRACTION OF COLLAGEN AND GELATIN FROM THE SCALES OF DIFFERENT FRESHWATER FISH 2020-01-06T12:47:58+08:00 NOOR HASNIZA BINTI MD ZIN hasnizamz@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Collagen and gelatin are essential protein in vertebrates and extensively used in various industries. <strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, acid-solubilized collagen and gelatin was extracted from the scales of three different species of freshwater fish namely Kelah (<em>Tombroides</em>), Tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) and Snakehead fish (<em>Channidae</em>) and then further quantified using Bradford assay and separated by molecular weight using SDS-PAGE. <strong>Results:</strong> The extracted collagen in Tilapia fish scale was found to be the highest with 0.018 of protein absorbance among the other three fish; Kelah fish (0.017) and Snakehead fish (0.011). For gelatin, Snakehead fish scales shows the highest amount of total protein concentration followed by Tilapia and Kelah fish with 0.467, 0.144 and 0.037 µg/µL per g respectively. Based on the SDS-PAGE results, collagen from all the three freshwater fish was identified as type 1 (molecular weight approximately from 95 to 130 kDa) collagen. As for gelatin, only gelatin type from Snakehead fish scale was identified to be type 1(molecular weight approximately from 95 to 130 kDa) while the other two freshwater fish showed no clear band due to high viscosity of the gelatin produced. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, it can be said that the fishes investigated in this study have a potential to be the alternative source of collagen and gelatin.</p> 2019-12-31T19:59:14+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/193 A TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS EXTRACT 2020-01-06T12:48:40+08:00 HANAPI MAT JUSOH hanapi@iium.edu.my NORMAH HARON normahh@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> <em>Clinacanthus nutans </em>Is used as natural nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine the total phenolic content and antioxidant scavenging capacities of <em>C. nutans</em> in free and bound phenolic acid as well as study the relationship between TPC and antioxidant scavenging capacities of <em>C. nutans</em>. <strong>Methods: </strong>The total phenolic contents were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Free and bound phenolic were examined by using spectrophotometer while antioxidant capacity were evaluated using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity assay. <strong>Results: </strong>Insoluble phenolic acids showed the highest amount of total phenolic content in <em>C. nutans</em> extracts (6.09<u>+</u> 0.45 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/ g DW) and exhibited highest antioxidant activity (73.3<u>+</u>0.82 %) as compared to free and soluble phenolic extracts. The IC<sub>50</sub> values for free phenolic, soluble bound and insoluble bound phenolic extracts were 0.69<u>+</u>0.02 mg/mL, 0.64<u>+</u>0.04 and 0.60<u>+</u>0.006 mg/mL, respectively. There were positive correlation between insoluble bound phenolic content of <em>C. nutans</em> extracts with antioxidant radical scavenging capacity (R² = 0.893). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>These results indicate that different phenolic acids form affect the total phenolic content and antioxidant properties. Natural compounds such as phenolics from <em>C. nutans</em> could be a good source of antioxidant.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Clinacanthus nutans </em>, TPC, DPPH scavenging activity assay</p> Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/266 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIFE-TIME NOISE EXPOSURE AND EXPERIENCE OF TINNITUS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN IIUM KUANTAN 2020-01-06T12:49:19+08:00 WAN ASLYNN SALWANI WAN AHMAD wanaslynn@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Clinical studies have shown that people suffering from tinnitus are at a high risk of developing serious psychological disturbances or serious psychological distress (Erlandsson &amp; Widen, 2004 quoted from Hiller and Goebel, 1998), thus the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between life-time noise exposure and tinnitus experience among young adults in IIUM Kuantan. <strong>Methods:</strong> Cross sectional study was used to determine whether there is any association between tinnitus experience and life-time noise exposure among 11 young adults in IIUM Kuantan from age of 18 to 35 years old who are exposed to the noise. Hearing assessment was done using otoscopy, tympanometry and pure tone audiometry. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire on tinnitus experience, and were fitted with a noise dosimeter that measured their noise exposure during waking hours. Values collected from dosimeter were then converted into cumulated life-time noise exposure which refers to the equivalent noise exposure per year (Jokitulppo, Tolvenen &amp; Bjork, 2005). <strong>Results:</strong> Average cumulative life-time noise exposure of the participants is 72.54 dBA ± 6.9459. Fifty five percent (55%) reported of sometimes having tinnitus. No correlation was found between cumulative life-time noise exposure and tinnitus experience. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The cumulative life-time noise exposure among young adults in IIUM Kuantan was found to be lower than the level considered as hazardous. Despite reports of tinnitus experience, there was no evidence that the tinnitus was due to noise exposure.</p> 2019-12-31T20:03:29+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/264 PREVENTION OF ORAL HEALTH DISEASE: KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN KUANTAN, MALAYSIA 2020-01-06T12:49:54+08:00 NURJASMINE AIDA JAMANI minaida@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oral disease in association of pregnancy outcome has been long researched. Most pregnant women perceived that oral disease in pregnancy are expected and considered to be normal.&nbsp;<strong>Objective</strong>: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women and &nbsp;their practices&nbsp; towards oral disease.&nbsp;<strong>Methods</strong>:&nbsp; 296 pregnant mothers were recruited from government clinics in Kuantan, Malaysia. A validated and self -administered questionnaire assessing knowledge, attitudes and practices towards oral health was used. Results were analysed by descriptive analysis, chi square test and multiple logistic regression.&nbsp;<strong>Results</strong>: Most respondents showed poor knowledge on oral health problem with its pregnancy outcome (66.6%) and poor attitude about dental health during pregnancy (53.4%).&nbsp; Half of them had good practice on oral health. Tooth cavity (46.3%) and gum bleeding (29.4%) were the commonest problem reported by them. Only one third of the mothers utilize dental service. Higher level of education was associated with better oral health practice [OR:0.02 CI (1.12,3.92)].&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions</strong>: Knowledge on the relationship between oral health and pregnancy outcome is still low among antenatal mothers. Utilization of dental service was also low. High level of education is proven to better oral health care.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Knowledge, practice, oral health, pregnant, Malaysia</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2019-12-31T20:06:08+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/267 THE SATISFACTION WITH AMPLIFICATION IN DAILY LIFE (SADL) IN DIFFERENT TYPES AND DEGREES OF HEARING LOSS 2020-01-06T12:50:26+08:00 WAN ASLYNN SALWANI WAN AHMAD wanaslynn@iium.edu.my <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The aim of this study is to determine the satisfaction level of hearing aids users in different types and degrees of hearing loss using the satisfaction with amplification in daily life (SADL) questionnaire. <strong>Methods:</strong> 35 hearing aid users with different types of hearing loss who sought help from the International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM) Hearing and Speech Clinic at Jalan Hospital Campus, Kuantan, IIUM Medical Specialist Centre and private hearing aid centres were involved in this study. The data was collected from the participants who filled in the Malay SADL questionnaires.<strong> Results: </strong>Among the thirty-five (31) participants, most of the hearing aid users were satisfied with their hearing aids regardless of their different types of hearing loss. However, there was no significant difference between the different types of hearing loss and their satisfaction level in the SADL global score and each of the subscales. It was found that satisfaction level with the hearing aids may depend on several factors such as cosmetic preference, cost of hearing aid and audiologist competence. Meanwhile, in terms of degrees of hearing loss, majority of the users were relatively satisfied with their hearing aids. Yet, there was no correlation between hearing aid users’ satisfaction level and their degrees of hearing loss for all subscales and SADL global score.<strong> Conclusions: </strong>This study indicates that some hearing aid users are not satisfied in terms of feedback, telephone use, cosmetic appearance and costs of hearing aid. The findings of this study can benefit the audiologists, as they would be able to use the information to help future patients understand and adapt to the use of the hearing aids better.</p> 2019-12-31T20:07:49+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/277 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR FUTURE BASIC OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES IN MALAYSIA 2020-02-02T08:43:07+08:00 NIZA SAMSUDDIN niza_shamsuddin@iium.edu.my NOR AZLINA A RAHMAN nazara@iium.edu.my AILIN RAZALI ailin@iium.edu.my MUHAMMAD ZUBIR YUSOF zubiryusof@iium.edu.my AHMAD FITRI ABDULLAH HAIR ahmadfitri@mohr.gov.my DAYANATH MANIVASAGAM dayanath@mohr.gov.my RAJINDERJIT SINGH HULLON rajinderjit@mohr.gov.my NIK MOHAMED NIZAM NIK MOHAMED drnizan@gmail.com <p>A guideline on Basic Occupational Health Services (BOHS) has been established in response to poor achievements of the Occupational Health Services (OHS), especially among workers in small and medium enterprises at the global and local levels, including Malaysia. The international guidelines describe competent and skilled human resources as an essential strategy for BOHS implementation. This commentary will discuss the challenges of current occupational health personnel providing OHS in Malaysia and will propose human resource development for future BOHS in Malaysia to ensure fair and better OHS coverage for Malaysian workers.</p> 2020-02-02T08:43:07+08:00 Copyright (c) 2020 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES https://journals.iium.edu.my/ijahs/index.php/IJAHS/article/view/263 LIFESTYLE AND ADHERENCE TO ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN SOUTHERN SENATORIAL DISTRICT OF CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA 2020-02-06T11:10:44+08:00 HUMPHREY CHINELO OKEKE okekehumphrey@yahoo.com OKORIE KALU OSONWA emekusi@yahoo.com ESTHER PATRICK ARCHIBONG estajoan@yahoo.com <p><em>Understanding patient’s adherence to their antihypertensive therapy and the factors associated with it is critical to controlling hypertension and its’ negative effects on patients. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between certain lifestyle of patients and adherence to antihypertensive therapy. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between patients’ lifestyle and adherence to antihypertensive therapy in the Southern Senatorial District of Cross River State. Specifically, the study sought to establish the relationship between smoking, alcohol taking and adherence to antihypertensive therapy. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Structured questionnaire was administered to five hundred (500) patients. Four hundred and twenty-one (421) questionnaires were properly filled and returned. Data obtained from the study was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results show</em><em> the proportion of the patients that had moderate to an optimal level of adherence were higher 148 (38.5per cent) among the non-smokers compared to 6 (16.2 percent) among the smokers. There was a significant association between smoking and adherence to antihypertensive medication (P &lt; 0.05). Also, higher proportions of those who do not take alcohol 121 (49.2 percent) had moderate to optimum level of adherence compared to the proportion 33 (18.9 percent) who had moderate to optimum adherence among those who take alcohol. The differences in levels of adherence to antihypertensive medication between those that take alcohol and those that do not take were statistically significant (P &lt; 0.05). </em><em>It was recommended that healthcare providers should be trained to understand and appreciate the influence of the lifestyle variables like smoking and alcohol taking on patients’ adherence to their antihypertensive medications. Also, both government and healthcare providers should double their efforts in educating the populace on the negative impact of lifestyle like smoking and alcohol taking in hypertension control.</em></p> <p><em>(<strong>Word count: 297</strong>)</em></p> <p><em>(<strong>Keywords</strong>: lifestyle, adherence, antihypertensive therapy, smoking, alcohol-taking)</em></p> 2020-02-06T11:10:44+08:00 Copyright (c) 2019 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ALLIED HEALTH SCIENCES