Detecting the Framing of Islamic Bank Press Releases: Are They CSR Focused?


  • Tahreem Noor Khan University of Hail, Saudi Arabia
  • Dalia Mohammed Alzubeir Diab University of Hail, Saudi Arabia


Corporate Social Responsibility, Website visibility, Framing, Disclosure, Communication


Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a widely known concept in the Islamic banking sector. Because of the lack of disclosure and less visibility of CSR activities, criticism and a lack of trust among stakeholders exist. Trust can be built through CSR, by actively taking part in local communities, health, education, volunteerism, ethical, legal responsibility, and environmental efforts. Positive social contribution and engagement actively improve the organizational image.  Framing is a potentially useful paradigm for examining the strategic creation of public relations messages and audience responses. It helps in understanding “what is happening?” in any activity. This research investigates the focus of ten leading Islamic banks’ press releases from corporate websites. The findings of this research show that framing effectiveness can be viewed as a process and an outcome to resolve challenges. Process framing focuses on “how” organizations use particular processes to achieve objectives, while outcome framing focuses on explaining “what” an organization does to achieve specific results. This study makes an important contribution in addressing enhanced CSR communication and CSR initiatives in Islamic banks. The existing knowledge gap indicates future research directions such as a greater focus on the environment, and CSR initiatives.


Abdul Kaium M., and M.K. Humayun. “Corporate Social Responsibility Evaluation by Different Levels of Management of Islamic Banks and Traditional Banks: Evidence from Banking Sector of Bangladesh.” Problems and Perspectives in Management 14, no. 3 (2016): 194–202.

Adapa, S. “The Extent of Corporate Social Responsibility Engagement in Malaysian Banks Offering Islamic Banking Services.” Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce 20, no. 2 (2015): 1-31.

Ahmad, Khurshid, Nature, and Significance of Islamic Economics, in Ausaf Ahmad and Awan (Ed.) Lectures on Islamic Economics, IRTI, Jeddah. 1992, 19-48.

Alhur, S., and S.E. Hidayat. “A Survey of Depositors’ Awareness Towards Corporate Social Responsibilities: Practices of Islamic Banks in Saudi Arabia.” Journal of Islamic Economics Banking and Finance 12, no. 1 (2016): 172–93.

Ali Aribi, Z., and T. Arun. “Corporate Social Responsibility and Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs): Management Perceptions from IFIs in Bahrain.” Journal of Business Ethics 129, no. 4 (2014): 785–94.

Anas, E., and M. Ben Arab. “Ethical Investment and the Social Responsibilities of the Islamic Banks.” International Business Research 2, no. 2 (2009).

Arif, M. “Toward a Definition of Islamic Economics: Some Scientific Considerations.” Journal Research Islamic Economic 2, no. 2 (1985): 79-93.

Assiouras, I., O. Ozgen, and S. George. “The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Consumers’ Emotional Reactions in Product-Harm Crises.” Paper Presented at AMA Winter Marketing Educators’ Conference, Austin, USA, 17-9 Febuary, 2011.

Babatunde, J.H., and A.A. Adeyemi. “The Effectiveness of Islamic Banks' Corporate Social Responsibility as Perceived by Gender in Malaysia: An Exploratory Research.” Journal of Creative Writing 1, no. 2 (2015): 1-18.

Baghallab, S.M. and A.M. Chaar. “Corporate Social Responsibility in Islamic Commercial Banks in Saudi Arabia.” PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology 18, no. 13 (2021): 1373-82.

Bartikowski, B., and G. Berens. “Attribute Framing on CSR Communication: Doing Good and Spreading the Word – But How?” Journal of Business Research 131 (2021): 700–8.

Bennett, M.S., and Z. Iqbal. “How Socially Responsible Investing Can Help Bridge the Gap Between Islamic and Conventional Financial Markets.” International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management 6, no. 3 (2013): 211–25.

Bravo, R., J. Matute, and M.P. José. “Corporate Social Responsibility as a Vehicle to Reveal the Corporate Identity: A Study Focused on the Websites of Spanish Financial Entities.” Journal of Business Ethics 107, no. 2 (2011): 129–46.

Caldiero, Christopher, Maureen Taylor., and Lia Ungureanu. “Organizational and Media Use of Technology during Fraud Crises.” In The Handbook of Crisis Communication, edited by W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holaday, 396–409. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Carroll, A.B. “Corporate Social Responsibility Evolution of a Definitional Construct.” Business and Society 38, no. 3 (1999): 268-95.

______. “A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance.” Academy of Management Review 4, no. 4 (1979): 497-505.

Dahlsrud, A. “How Corporate Social Responsibility is Defined: An Analysis of 37 Definitions.” Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 15, no. 1 (2008): 1–13.

Darus, F., F. Hasan., P. Yadi., Y.A. Haslinda., M.Z. Azlan., M. Mustaffa., M. Dayang., and N. Mehran. “Social Responsibility Reporting of Islamic Banks: Evidence from Indonesia.” International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 9, no. 4 (2014): 356-80.

del Mar Garcia de los Salmones, M., A. Perez., and I. Rodriguez del Bosque. “The Social Role of Financial Companies as a Determinant of Consumer Behaviour.” International Journal of Bank Marketing 27, no. 6 (2009): 467–85.

Dinar Standard. “Social Responsibility Trends at Islamic Financial Institutions: Based on 2009 Social Responsibility Survey.” Dinar Standard and Dar Al Istithmar (2010).

Du, S., C.B. Bhattacharya., and S. Sen. “Reaping Relational Rewards from Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Competitive Positioning.” International Journal of Research in Marketing 24, no. 3 (2007): 224–41.

Dusuki, A.W. “Understanding the Objectives of Islamic banking: a Survey of Stakeholders' perspectives.” International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management 1, no. 2 (2008): 132–48.

______, and I.A. Nurdianawati. “Maqasid al-Shari`ah, Maslahah, and Corporate Social Responsibility.” American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 24, no. 1 (2007): 25–45.

Entman, R.M. “Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm.” Journal of Communication 43, no. 4 (1993): 51–58.

Freeman, R. E., C.W. Andrew, and B. Parmar. “Stakeholder Theory and “The Corporate Objective Revisited.” Organization Science 15, no. 3 (2004): 364–69.

Gandy, Oscar H. Beyond Agenda Setting: Information Subsidies and Public Policy. Norwood, N.J: Ablex Pub. Co., 1982.

Hallahan, K. “Seven Models of Framing: Implications for Public Relations.” Journal of Public Relations Research 11, no. 3 (1999): 205–42.

Haniffa, R., and M. Hudaib. “Exploring the Ethical Identity of Islamic Banks via Communication in Annual Reports.” Journal of Business Ethics 76, no. 1 (2007): 97–116.

Hassan, A., and A. Chachi. “The Role of Islamic Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development.” Islamic Finance and Economic Development (2005): 59-93.

______, and S. Abdul Latif. “Corporate Social Responsibility of Islamic Financial Institutions and Businesses.” Humanomics 25, no. 3 (2009): 177–88.

Hellsten, I., D. James., and L. Loet. “Implicit Media Frames: Automated Analysis of Public Debate on Artificial Sweeteners.” Public Understanding of Science 19, no. 5 (2009): 590–608.

Kamla, R., and H.G. Rammal. “Social Reporting by Islamic Banks: Does Social Justice Matter?” Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 26, no. 6 (2013): 911–45.

Kiliç, M. “Online Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Disclosure in The Banking Industry.” International Journal of Bank Marketing 34, no. 4 (2016): 550–69.

Lee, S.Y., and D. Riffe. “Who Sets the Corporate Social Responsibility Agenda in The News Media? Unveiling the Agenda-Building Process of Corporations and A Monitoring Group.” Public Relations Review 43, no. 2 (2017): 293–305.

Moody, R. “The Press Release: Do TV and Newspaper Editors See Eye to Eye?” Public Relations Journal 5, no. 2 (2011):1-20.

Nielsen, J. “F-Shaped Pattern for Reading Web Content (Eye tracking Research).” Nielsen Norman Group, November 12, 2017,

Panagiotopoulos, I. “Novel CSR & Novel Coronavirus: Corporate Social Responsibility Inside the Frame of Coronavirus Pandemic in Greece.” International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility 6, no. 1 (2021): 1-12.

Peng, J., J. Zhang., H. Sun., Z. Zeng., Y. Mai., and D. Miao. “Mixed Frames and Risky Decision-Making.” Psychological Reports 120, no. 6 (2017): 1037–57.

Pérez, A., and I.R. del Bosque. “Customer Personal Features as Determinants of the Formation Process of Corporate Social Responsibility Perceptions.” Psychology & Marketing 30, no. 10 (2013): 903–17.

Pomering, A., W.J. Lester., and G. Noble. “Advertising Corporate Social Responsibility.” Corporate Communications: An International Journal 18, no. 2 (2013): 249–63.

Scheufele, D. A. “Framing as a Theory of Media Effects.” Journal of Communication 49, no. 1 (1999): 103-22.

Soana, M.G. “The Relationship between Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance in the Banking Sector.” Journal of Business Ethics 104, no. 1 (2011): 133-48.

Taylor, M., and D.C. Perry. “Diffusion of Traditional and New Media Tactics in Crisis Communication.” Public Relations Review 31, no. 2 (2005): 209–17.

Van der Meer, T.G., V. Piet., H. Beentjes., and R. Vliegenthart. “When Frames Align: The Interplay between PR, News Media, and the Public in Times of Crisis.” Public Relations Review 40, no. 5 (2014): 751–61.

Wan Jusoh, W.N.H., and U. Ibrahim. “Corporate Social Responsibility of Islamic Banks: Malaysian Practitioners’ Outlook.” Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research 11, no. 3 (2020): 889–904.

Wood, D.J. “Corporate Social Performance Revisited.” The Academy of Management Review 16, no. 4 (1991): 691-718.

Zhao, W.W. “How to Improve Corporate Social Responsibility in The Era of Artificial Intelligence?” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 186 (2018).

Zubairu, U.M., O.B. Sakariyan, and D.K. Chetubo. “Evaluation of Social Reporting Practices of Islamic Banks in Saudi Arabia.” Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies 17, no. 1 (2011): 41-50.




How to Cite

Khan, T. N., & Alzubeir Diab, D. M. . (2022). Detecting the Framing of Islamic Bank Press Releases: Are They CSR Focused?. International Journal of Economics, Management and Accounting, 30(2), 349–376. Retrieved from