The Impact of University Entities on Students’ Loyalty: The Mediating Role of Student Satisfaction
Keywords:University entity, Student satisfaction, Student loyalty, Mediation effect, Higher Education Institutions
Student loyalty in the higher education sector helps university administrators establish appropriate programs, facilities and services that promote, develop, and maintain a successful long-term relationship with both current and former students. This study proposes the use of a mediation model that links university entities and student loyalty via student satisfaction. A survey research design was used to collect data from 200 students of private universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The data were then analyzed using the Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM). Upon analysis, it was found that student satisfaction was the major driver of student loyalty. The result also reveals that student satisfaction has fully mediated the relationship between academic facilities and student loyalty, whereas student satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between the support system and student loyalty. The study highlights the need for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to seriously acknowledge and focus in providing better university entities for students’ satisfaction as the satisfied students tend to be more loyal to make a comeback to the university.
Ali, F., and M. Amin. “The Influence of Physical Environment on Emotions, Customer Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions in Chinese Resort Hotel Industry.” Journal for GlobalBusiness Advancement 7, no. 3 (2014): 249-66.
Ali, M., and M. Ahmed. “Determinants of Students’ Loyalty to University: A Service-based Approach.” Working paper in Munich Personal RePEc Archive no 84352 (2018): 1-46.
Al-Kilani, M.H., and N. Twaissi. “Perceived Quality of Administrative Services and its Consequences on Students’ Behavioral Intentions.” International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences 9, no.1 (2017): 103-19.
Alves, H., and M. Raposo. “Conceptual Model of Student Satisfaction in Higher Education.” Total Quality Management 18, no. 5 (2007): 571-88.
Annamdevula, S., and R.S. Bellamkonda. “The Effects of Service Quality on Student Loyalty: The Mediating Role of Student Satisfaction.” Journal of Modelling in Management 11, no. 2 (2016): 446-62.
Arif, S., and M. Ilyas. “Quality Of Work-Life Model for Teachers of Private Universities in Pakistan.” Quality Assurance in Education 21, no. 3 (2013): 282-98.
______, M. Ilyas, and A. Hameed. “Student Satisfaction and Impact of Leadership in Private Universities.” The TQM Journal 25, no. 4 (2013): 399-416.
Aritonang, R., and R. Lerbin. “Student Loyalty Modeling.” Market-Tržište 26, no. 1 (2014): 77-91.
Austin, A.J., and S. Pervaiz. “The Relation between ‘Student Loyalty’ and ‘Student Satisfaction’ (A Case of College/Intermediate Students at Forman Christian College).” European Scientific Journal 13, no. 3 (2017): 324-41.
Cardona, M.M., and J.B. Bravo. “Service Quality Perceptions in Higher Education Institutions: The Case of a Colombian University.” Estudios Gerenciales 28 (2012): 23-9.
Carter, S., and A.C.M. Yeo. “Students-As-Customers’ Satisfaction, Predictive Retention with Marketing Implications: The Case of Malaysian Higher Education Business Students.” International Journal of Educational Management 30, no. 5 (2016): 635-52.
Creswell, John W. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th Edition). London, United Kingdom: Pearson New International Edition, 2014.
Danjuma, I., and A. Raslia. “Imperatives of Service Innovation and Service Quality for Customer Satisfaction: Perspective on Higher Education.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 40 (2012): 347-52.
Douglas, J.A., A. Douglas, R.J. McClelland, and J. Davies. “Understanding Student Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction: An Interpretive Study in the UK Higher Education Context.” Studies in Higher Education 40, no. 2 (2015): 329-49.
Egyir, I.K. “The Antecedents of Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in Higher Education Institutions: An Empirical Study of Students of The University of Ghana.” [Unpublished Master’s Thesis]. Aalesund University College, 2015.
Elliott, K.M., and D. Shin. “Student Satisfaction: An Alternative Approach to Assessing this Important Concept.” Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 24, no. 2 (2002): 197-209.
______, and M.A. Healy. “Key Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction Related to Recruitment And Retention.” Journal of Marketing for Higher Education10, no.4 (2001): 1-11.
Fares, D., M. Achour, and O. Kachkar. “The Impact of Service Quality, Student Satisfaction, and University Reputation on Student Loyalty: A Case Study of International Students in IIUM, Malaysia.” Information Management and Business Review 5, no. 12 (2014): 584-90.
Fernandes, C., K. Ross, and M. Meraj. “Understanding Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in the UAE HE Sector.” International Journal of Educational Management 27, no. 6 (2013): 613-30.
Fontaine, M. “Student Relationship Management (SRM) in Higher Education: Addressing the Expectations of an Ever Evolving Demographic and its Impact on Retention.” Journal of Education and Human Development 3, no. 2 (2014): 105-19.
Giner, G.R., and A.P. Rillo. “Structural Equation Modeling of Co-creation and its Influence on the Student’s Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards University.” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 291 (2016): 257-263.
Hair Jr, Joseph F., G. Tomas M. Hult, Christian Ringle, and Marko Sarstedt. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. (PLS-SEM) (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2017.
______, M. Sarstedt, C. Ringle, and J.A. Mena. “An Assessment of the Use of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing Research.” Journal of the Academy Marketing Science 40, no. 3 (2012): 414-33.
Hanssen, T.S., and G. Solvoll. “The Importance of University Facilities for Student Satisfaction at a Norwegian University.” Facilities 33, no. 13/14 (2015): 744-59.
Helen, W.S.M., and W.K. Ho. “Building Relationship between Education Institutions and Students: Student Loyalty in Self-Financed Tertiary Education.” IBIMA Business Review (2011): 1-22.
Hennig-Thurau, T., M.F. Langer, and U. Hansen. “Modeling and Managing Student Loyalty: An Approach Based on the Concept of Relationship Quality.” Journal of Service Research 3, no. 4 (2001): 331-44.
Henseler, J., and W.W. Chin. “A Comparison of Approaches for the Analysis of Interaction Effects Between Latent Variables Using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling.” Structural Equation Modeling 17, no. 1 (2010): 82-109.
Imran, M., Q.S. Wei, and A. Waheed. “The Impact of Higher Education Quality on Student’s Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence from PR China.” Pacific International Journal 2, no. 1 (2019): 26-35.
Kärnä, S., P. Julin, and S. Nenonen. “User Satisfaction on a University Campus by Students and Staff.” Intelligent Buildings International 5, no. 1 (2013): 69-82.
Kotler, Philip, and Roberta N. Clarke, Marketing For Health Care Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1987.
______, and Karen F.A. Fox. Strategic Marketing for Educational Institutions. (2nd Edition). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: PrenticeHall, Inc., 1995.
Kunanusorn, A. and D. Puttawong. “The Mediating Effect of Satisfaction on Student Loyalty to Higher Education Institution.” European Scientific Journal, ESJ 11, no. 10 (2015): 449-63.
Kwun, D.J.W., E. Ellyn, and Y. Choi. “Campus Foodservice Attributes and Their Effects on Customer Satisfaction, Image, and Word-Of-Mouth.” Journal of Foodservice Business Research 16, no. 3 (2013): 276-97.
Lai, M.M., S.H. Lau, N.A.M. Yusof, and K.W. Chew. “Assessing Antecedents and Consequences of Student Satisfaction in Higher Education: Evidence from Malaysia.” Journal of Marketing for Higher Education 25, no. 1 (2015): 45-69.
Li, S.C. “Explore the Relationships Among Service Quality, Customer Loyalty and Word-Of-Mouth For Private Higher Education in Taiwan.” Asia Pacific Management Review 18, no. 4 (2013): 375-89
Mansori, S., A.F. Vaz, and Z. Ismail. “Service Quality, Satisfaction and Student Loyalty in Malaysian Private Education.” Asian Social Science 10, no. 7 (2014): 57-66.
Martin, M.C., E. Moriuchi, R.M., Smith, J.D. Moeder, and C. Nichols. “The Importance of University Traditions and Rituals in Building Alumni Brand Communities and Loyalty.” Academy of Marketing Studies Journal 19, no. 3 (2015): 107-23.
Muhammad, S., M. Sapri, and I. Sipan. “Academic Buildings and Their Influence on Students’ Wellbeing in Higher Education Institutions.” Social Indicators Research 115, no. 3 (2014): 1159-78.
Oliver Richard, L. Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
Ong, M.H.A., and F. Puteh. “Quantitative Data Analysis: Choosing between SPSS, PLS, and AMOS in Social Science Research.” International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scientific Research 3, no. 1 (2017): 14-25.
Pallant, Julie. SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using IBM SPSS (6th Edition). Routledge, 2016.
Pedro, E.M., H. Alves, and J. Leitão. “Does The Quality of Academic Life Mediate the Satisfaction, Loyalty and Recommendation of HEI Students?” International Journal of Educational Management 32, no. 5 (2018): 881-900.
Saad, M., R. Husain, W.N.F.W.M. Nawi, and N. Mahyuddin. “Students’ Quality Learning Experience: Key to Further Studies in the Same University.” Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal 2, no. 5 (2017): 127-34.
Sekaran, Uma, and Roger Bougie. Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2016.
Saunders, Mark, Philip Lewis, and Adrian Thornhil. Research Method for Business Students (5th Edition). New York: Prentice Hall Publications, 2009.
Shaver, B.J. “Meeting Undergraduate Students’ Expectations Of The University Experience: How Enrollment Managers Can Secure Students' Loyalties.” [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation]. UC San Diego, 2012.
Teeroovengadum, V., R. Nunkoo, C. Gronroos, T. J. Kamalanabhan, and A.K. Seebaluck. “Higher Education Service Quality, Student Satisfaction and Loyalty.” Quality Assurance in Education 27, no. 4 (2019): 427-45.
Thomas, S. “What Drives Student Loyalty in Universities: An Empirical Model From India.” International Business Research 4, no. 2 (2011): 183-92.
Ushantha, R.A., and P.A.P.S. Kumara. “A Quest for Service Quality in Higher Education: Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka.” Services Marketing Quarterly 3, no. 2 (2016): 98-108.
Vianden, J., and P.J. Barlow. “Showing the Love: Predictors of Student Loyalty to Undergraduate Institutions.” Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice 51, no. 1 (2014): 16-29.
______, and P.J. Barlow. “Strengthen the Bond: Relationships Between Academic Advising Quality and Undergraduate Student Loyalty.” The Journal of the National Academic Advising Association 35, no. 2 (2015):15-27.
Weerasinghe, I.M.S., and H.H. Dedunu. “University Staff, Image and Students’ Satisfaction in Selected Regional Universities in Sri Lanka.” IOSR Journal of Business and Management 19, no. 5 (2017): 34-7.
______, and R.L.S. Fernando. “Critical Factors Affecting Students’ Satisfaction with Higher Education in Sri Lanka.” Quality Assurance in Education 26, no. 1 (2018):115-30.
Williams, M. and F. Buttle. “Managing Word-Of-Mouth: A Nonprofit Case Study.” Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 25, no. 3 (2013): 284-308.
Yusoff, M., F. McLeay, and H. Woodruffe-Burton. “Dimensions Driving Business Student Satisfaction in Higher Education.” Quality Assurance in Education 23, no. 1 (2015): 86-104.
Zabala, I., G. Panadero, L.M. Gallardo, C.M. Amate, M. Sa´nchez-Galindo, I. Tena, and I. Villalba. “Corporate Reputation in Professional Services Firms: Reputation Management Based on Intellectual Capital Management.” Corporate Reputation Review 8, no. 1 (2005): 59-71.