THE APPLICATION OF ḤABL MIN ALLĀH AND ḤABL MIN AL-NĀS ELEMENTS IN ISLAMIC CODE OF ETHICS: AN EXPLORATORY CASE STUDY
Work is often perceived as a means to pursue material interest and basic human needs. Hence, the notion of work has become a meaningless routine that engage man with a series of tasks and duties, which, subconsciously, has made man void of spiritual fulfillment. To address this, Islam ruled on the elements of human to God relationship (ḥabl min Allāh) and the fellow human relationship (ḥabl min al-nās) as the foundation of work ethic that seeks to fulfill both physical and spiritual concerns. Embarking on this idea, this article seeks to explore the application of both elements in cultivating ethical conduct in the workplace by addressing the question of whether the principles are given proper emphasis in employees’ ethical work conduct. This research employed two modes of data collection – survey and interview. The survey is conducted on 166 employees of Tabung Haji (Pilgrims Fund Board), examining to what extent these elements are applied in their work; interview with the manager of Tabung Haji was also conducted to understand the management’s commitment in implementing the organizational code of ethics, known as the Work Values and Ethics of Tabung Haji (NEKTH). The outcome from interviews and survey has shown that both elements were given proper emphasis. The survey indicates that one of the principles, the relationship with Allah (ḥabl min Allāh), is more emphasized than the human relationship, which was assumed to be the driving force of the employees’ ethical practices. The study proves that the inculcation of the principles is significant in reducing work misconduct as well as in promoting ethical work culture. This article aims at providing a deeper insight into the framework of the Islamic code of ethics, and subsequently raising awareness among managers on the significance of the elements in cultivating ethical practices at the workplace.
Abod, G.S. Pengurusan Perniagaan Islam: Satu Perbandingan, in Pengurusan Perniagaan Islam. Edited by Ghazali Sheikh Abod, Shah Alam: Penerbitan Hizbi, 1991.
Ali, A.J., and A. Al-Owaihan. “Islamic Work Ethic: A Critical Review.” Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal 15, no. 1 (2008): 5-19.
Ali, A.J. Islamic Perspectives on Management and Organization. Edward Elgar, 2005.
Al-Bukhārī, A.A.M. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī Vol. 3. Kaherah: Dar alHadith, n.d.
Al-Maududi, A.A. The Islamic Way of Life. ScribeDigital.com, 1997.
Al-Nawawī, M.A.Y. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim bi-Syarḥ al-Nawawī Vol.18. Beirut: Dar al-Maʿrifah, 1994.
Al-Saʿdī,`A.R.N. Bahjah Qulūb al-Abrār wa Qurrah ʿUyūn alAkhyār fi Sharḥ Jawāmiʿ al-Akhbār, Arab Saudi: Wizārah alShuʾūn al-Islāmīyah wa al-Awqāf wa Daʿwah wa al-Irshād, 2002.
Al-Qaradawi, Y. al-Khaṣā’is al-ʿAmmah lil-Islām. Cairo: Maktabah Wahbah, 1977.
Al-Qaradawi, Y. The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam. Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust, 1992.
Al-Zuhayli, W. Al-Tafsīr al-Munīr. Dar al-Fikr: Damascus, 2009.
Basmeih, S.A. Tafsir Pimpinan ar-Rahman Kepada Pengertian alQur’ān. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Islamic Development and Darul Fikir, n.d.
Chanzanagh, H., and M. Akbarnejad. “Do Women Have Lower Work Ethic in an Islamic Society? A Case Study of Iran.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011): 133-37.
Chua, Y.P. Kaedah Dan Statistik Penyelidikan: Asas Statistik Penyelidikan Buku 2. Kuala Lumpur: McGraw-Hill, 2006.
Gazalba, S. Ilmu Islam 3–Fondamen Kebudayaan Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications and Distributors, 1982.
Hanapi, M.S. “The Conceptual Elements of the Development Worldview in the Qur’ān: A Study of Thematic Exegesis.” American International Journal of Social Science 2, no. 3 (2013): 40-55.
Haroon, M., H. M. Fakhar Zaman, and W. Rehman. “The Relationship between Islamic Work Ethics and Job Satisfaction in Healthcare Sector of Pakistan.” International Journal of Contemporary Business Studies 3, no. 5 (2012): 6-12.
Ibrahim, H., K. Hambali, S. Suraya, N.Senin, S.Shaharuddin, M. Ahmad, M.R.M. Nor and N.A.A. Kadir. “The Role of Comparative Religion Curricula in Intra–Inter Civilizational Dialogue.” Religious Education 108, no. 1 (2013): 28-40.
Kamarudin, K. “Islamic Legal Principles in the Short Anthology ‘Ujana Rindu’.” Malay Literature 23, no. 2 (2010): 18-38.
Kamri, N.A. “Kefahaman dan Sambutan Terhadap Kod Etika Islam: Pengalaman Tabung Haji.” Shariah Jurnal 16, no. 1. (2008): 145-62.
Kamri, N.A. “Pelaksanaan Kod Etika Islam di Institusi Pembangunan Berteraskan Islam: Kajian Kes Lembaga Tabung Haji Malaysia”, Doctoral Thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2007.
Kya, L.T. and Awang, Z. Statistik Asas ITM. Shah Alam: Penerbit
Fajar Bakti, 1995.
Lembaga Tabung Haji. Nilai dan Etika Kerja Tabung Haji. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Hajj Pilgrims Fund Board, n.d.
Levin, R.I., and D. S. Rubin. Statistik Untuk Pengurusan, 7th edition. Translated by Susila Munisamy & Halimah Awang Petaling Jaya: Pearson Education Malaysia, 2000.
Mahmud, `Ali `Abd al-Halim. Fiqh al-Ukhuwwah fi al-Islam. Kaherah: Dar al-Tawzi‘wa al-Nasyr al-Islamiyah, 1993.
Marri, M.Y.K., A.M.Sadozai, H.M.F. Zaman, and M. I. Ramay. “The Impact of Islamic Work Ethics on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Study of Agriculture Sector of Pakistan.” International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences 2, no. 12 (2012): 32-45.
Mustafar, M.Z. and J.T. Borhan. “Muslim Consumer Behavior: Emphasis on Ethics from Islamic Perspective.” Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 18, no. 9 (2013): 1301-07.
Rokhman, W., and A. Hassan. “The effect of Islamic work ethic on organizational justice.” African Journal of Business Ethics 6, no. 1(2011): 1-7.
Salleh, M.S.. Pembangunan Berteraskan Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors, 2002.
Salleh, M.S. Pengurusan Pembangunan Berteraskan Islam: Konsep dan Perkaedahan (Siri Syarahan Umum Perlantikan Profesor). Pulau Pinang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2003.
Salim, A. Akhlaq Islam – Membina Rumahtangga dan Masyarakat. Edited by H. Ramlan Mardjoned et al. Malaysia:Thinkers Library, 1988.
Sarif, S. “Hubungan Antara Anggota Dalam Organisasi Menurut Perspektif Islam” in Dimensi Pengurusan Islam: Mengurus Kerja dan Mengurus Modal Insan, Ab. Mumin Ab. Ghani et al. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 2006.
Sekaran, U. Research Methods For Business: A Skill-Building Approach, 4th edition. New York: Wiley, 2003.
Wahab, M.A. “A Cross-cultural Comparison of Muslim and Non-Muslim Students in terms of Islamic Work Ethic characteristics.” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 8, no. 24 (2014): 301-07.
Zainal Abidin, N.L.A., and K. Kamarudin. “The Concept of Tazkiyah al-Nafs in the Female Character in the Novel the Missing Piece.” Malay Literature 24, no. 1 (2011): 85-108.