Government Incentives: The Role of Human Resource in Delivering Flexible Organizational Working Strategies in Singapore


  • Sharifah Rahama Amirul Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
  • Charmine E. J. Härtel Monash University, Australia
  • Stephen Jones The University of Queensland, Australia
  • Rasid Mail Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
  • Sharifah Milda Amirul Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia



FWAs, Government incentive, HR strategy and practices


Rapidly changing and turbulent business environments due to the socio-economic changes, the increased technology use and the Covid-19 pandemic crisis have forced governments to fast-track development of flexible working arrangements (FWAs). The recent initiatives have seen government FWA incentives to support FWA adoption in the workplace. Singapore is a leader among developing Asian countries regarding adopting FWA incentive-based approaches, which also emphasize human resource (HR) roles in delivering the FWA program. This paper investigates the nexus between government incentives and HR roles in managing FWAs. Additionally, during times of pandemic crisis, most businesses have no option but to implement FWAs in sustaining business continuity or ensuring survival. Therefore, strategic FWAs are critically needed. This paper has two aims; first we investigate how HR translates government FWA incentives into strategies and practices, and then we critically analyze these findings to improve the current FWA strategies by developing a conceptual framework for strategic FWAs. Twenty case studies from Singapore were used as a data set. As results, we identified ten themes representing the role HR plays in delivering organizational flexibility through their strategies and practices. We then propose a conceptual model for advancing FWA practices from policy formalization to flexibility strategy and agility working practices.


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How to Cite

Amirul, S. R., Härtel, C. E. J. ., Jones, S. ., Mail, R., & Amirul, S. M. . (2023). Government Incentives: The Role of Human Resource in Delivering Flexible Organizational Working Strategies in Singapore. International Journal of Economics, Management and Accounting, 31(2), 369–395.