مصطلح "أهل السنة" وأثره في الرواية الحديثية الشيعية: دراسة تحليلية The Term Ahlu-Sunnah and Its Impact on the Shiite-Oriented Narrations of Ḥadīth: An Analytical Study

Authors

  • يوسف أوكتان Yusuf Oktan
  • محمد أبو الليث الخيرآ Mohamed Abul Lais Al-Khair Ābādī
  • محمد أبو الليث الخيرآ Mohamed Abul Lais Al-Khair Ābādī
  • محمد أبو الليث الخير آ Muhammad Abul Lais Al-Khair Abadi

Keywords:

أهل السنة، الشيعة الإمامية، الحديث، الأئمة، الرواية, Imamate Shiism, Ḥadīth, Imams, Narration

Abstract

يتناول هذا المقال تبيان مصطلح أهل السنة والجماعة من خلال مراحله التاريخية التي مر بها، إضافة إلى أثره في الرواية الحديثية للشيعة من حيث تقسيمهم للحديث باعتبار الرتبة والدرجة، مع بيان أثر رواة أهل السنة والجماعة في الأسانيد الشيعية، وقد توصل الباحث إلى أن الشيعة تأثروا بأهل السنة من حيث تقسيم الحديث ودرجاته، فقلدوهم في مصطلح الصحيح والحسن، ثم استحدثوا مصطلحا ثالثا حاولوا من خلاله تمييز مذهبهم عن المذهب السني وهو مصطلح الحديث الموثق، كما توصل الباحث إلى أن الشيعة الإمامية يتعاملون مع الراوي السني بناء على التوجه المذهبي، في حين كان الواجب التعامل معه بناء على عدالته، وقد وصل بهم الأمر في مناكفة أهل السنة ومخالفتهم إلى أن جعلوا مخالفة أهل السنة أصلا في حل التعارض بين الأحاديث المروية عن أئمتهم حيث كان رواتها شيعة، أما إذا كان رواة بعضها سنة فإن ما رواه السني يحمل على التقية، كما أفتوا أتباعهم بمخالفة أهل السنة عند ورود حوادث لا نص فيها عند أئمة الشيعة.

This paper aims at explaining the term Ahl As-Sunnah wa Al-Jamāʿah through its historical stages. In addition, it aims at highlighting the impact of that term on the Shīʿah -oriented narration of the ḥadīth (i.e. narratives and reports of the deeds and sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad) by dividing these narratives in terms of their category and degree of authenticity. Furthermore, it deals with the impact of the narrators of Ahl As-Sunnah wa Al-Jamāʿah on the Shiite continuous chain of transmitters. This paper has concluded that the Shīʿah tradition in transmitting ḥadīth has been influenced by Ahl As-Sunnah in terms of categorization of ḥadīth and its degree of authenticity. As a result, the Shiites have imitated Ahl As-Sunnah in the usage of the terms: ṣaḥīḥ (authentic ḥadīth) and ḥasan (decent ḥadīth). Furthermore, they have innovated another term in an attempt to distinguish their school of thought from that of the Sunnis. This term is known as al- ḥadīth al-muwaththaq (the authenticated ḥadīth). The paper has also concluded that the imamate-based shīʿah or Shi’ism deal with the Sunni transmitters on the basis of their doctrine instead of dealing with them on the basis of justice and uprightness of their character, so much so that it has become a firm conviction that disagreeing with Ahl As-Sunnah is an essential requirement for solving any contradictions that may appear in the narratives by their imams since the transmitters of these aḥadīth are Shīʿah. However, if some of the transmitters are Sunnis, then their narratives are accepted on the basis of taqiyyah (concealment). Moreover, the followers of Shīʿah have been given a religious ordinance allowing them to disagree with Ahl As-Sunnah in case of incidences and happenings in which there is no any stipulation by the Shīʿah imams.

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Published

2018-12-15

How to Cite

Yusuf Oktan ي. أ., Mohamed Abul Lais Al-Khair Ābādī, ., Mohamed Abul Lais Al-Khair Ābādī, ., & Muhammad Abul Lais Al-Khair Abadi م. أ. ا. ا. آ. (2018). مصطلح "أهل السنة" وأثره في الرواية الحديثية الشيعية: دراسة تحليلية The Term Ahlu-Sunnah and Its Impact on the Shiite-Oriented Narrations of Ḥadīth: An Analytical Study. Al-Risalah: Journal of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences (ARJIHS), 2(4), 107-131. Retrieved from https://journals.iium.edu.my/al-risalah/index.php/al-risalah/article/view/130

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