Abū Zayd Al-Balkhī’s Sustenance of the Soul and the Development of Self-Control
Keywords:Abū Zayd al-Balkhī, ‘Ilm al-nafs, Psycho-Spiritual, Ethics, Islamic Philosophy
This study aims to explore the view of Abū Zayd Aḥmad Ibn Sahl al-Balkhī on the sustenance of the soul and the development of self-control. The authors focus the discussion on the definition, the nature of self-control and its development, the healthy and unhealthy soul development that manifest into good and bad behaviour. The type of research used for this study is qualitative research as it is to be more helpful to gain in-depth understanding of underlying reasons and thoughts on this topic. This research will employ the descriptive and analytical methods on the content of primary sources and modern secondary sources. Finding reveals that Abū Zayd al-Balkhī’ framework of sustenance of the soul in the development of self-control is significant and relevance to be implemented in developing human character and behaviours. He believed that someone who has a healthy soul possesses high self-control and can control their action to do just good deeds and abstain themselves from doing evils.
Adamson, Peter. “Al-Kindi.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2018. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/al-kindi/.
Akers, Ronald L. “Self-Control as a General Theory of Crime.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 7, no. 2 (1991): 201–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01268629.
Al-Balkhī, Abū Zayd Aḥmed ibn Sahl. Masālih Al-Abdān Wa Al-Anfus. Riyadh, Saudi: King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies, 2003.
Augustine, Ary Ginajar. The Islamic Guide to Developing Emotional Spiritual Quotient. Jakarta: Arga Publishing, 2009.
Awaad, Rania, and Sara Ali. “A Modern Conceptualization of Phobia in Al-Balkhi’s 9th Century Treatise: Sustenance of the Body and Soul.” Journal of Anxiety Disorders 37 (2016): 89–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.11.003.
Badri, Malik. Abu Zayd Al-Balkhi’s Sustenance of The Soul : The Cognitive Behavior Therapy of A Ninth Century Physician. 1st ed. London: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2013.
Cherry, Kendra. “How to Improve Your Self-Control : Why Self-Control Is Important for Well-Being.” VeryWell Mind, 2019.
Dang, Junhua, Fredrik Björklund, and Martin Bäckström. “Self-Control Depletion Impairs Goal Maintenance: A Meta-Analysis.” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 58, no. 4 (2017): 284–93. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12371.
DeLisi, Matt. “Low Self-Control Is a Brain-Based Disorder.” In The Nurture Versus Biosocial
Debate in Criminology: On the Origins of Criminal Behavior and Criminality, edited by J.C. Barnes & Brian B. Boutwell Kevin M. Beaver, 172–83. London: SAGE Publication, 2014.
Deuraseh, Nurdeen, and Mansor Abu Talib. “Mental Health in Islamic Medical Tradition.” Construction 4, no. 2 (2005): 76–79.
Fatimah Abdullah. “Therapeutic Ethics: Managing Anger Negative Thoughts and Depression According to Al-Balkh.” Jurnal Akidah Dan Pemikiran Islam (AFKAR), 2011.
Fatimah Abdullah. “Virtues and Character Development in Islamic Ethics and Positive Psychology.” International Journal of Education and Social Science 1, no. 2 (2014): 69–77.
Flexon, Jamie L., Ryan C. Meldrum, and Alex R. Piquero. “Low Self-Control and the Victim–Offender Overlap: A Gendered Analysis.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31, no. 11 (2016): 2052–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515572471.
Gillebaart, Marleen. “The Operational Definition of Self-Control.” Frontiers in Psychology 9, no. JUL (2018): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01231.
Gottfredson, Michael R, and Travis Hirschi. “Self-Control as a General Theory of
Crime.” Stanford, CA: Stanford U Press, 1990. 201-211 Pp. 7, no. 2 (1990): 201–11.
Haque, Amber. “Psychology from an Islamic Perspective.” Global Psychologies: Mental Health and the Global South 43, no. 4 (2018): 137–50.
Milyavskaya, Marina, Michael Inzlicht, Nora Hope, and Richard Koestner. “Saying ‘No’ to Temptation:” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 109, no. 4 (2015): 677–93. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000045.
Mobayed, Tamim. “Abu Zayd Al-Balkhi: The 9th Century Psychologist Centuries Ahead of His Time.” Ilmfeed.com, 2017. https://ilmfeed.com/abu-zayd-al-balkhi-the-9th-century-psychologist-centuries-ahead-of-his-time/.
Muhammad Vandestra. The Tale of Abu Zayd Al-Balkhi Great Muslim Psychologist from 9th Century. 1st Editio. PublishDrive Inc (Dragon Promedia Publisher & Publishdrive), 2017. https://www.e-sentral.com/book/info/119623/The-Tale-of-Abu-Zayd-Al-Balkhi-Great-Muslim-Psychologist-From-9th-Century.
Sheikh Salman al-Oadah. “The Partnership Between Body and Soul.” The Religion of Islam, 2014. https://www.islamreligion.com/articles/10667/partnership-between-body-and-soul/.
Yusuf, Shaykh Dr Asim. “Abu Zayd Al-Balkhi on Depression.” Seekers Guidance, 2018.