The Issues of Unemployment in the Three Main Districts in the State of Perak Darul Ridzuan: Case Studies of Kinta, Manjung and Kuala Kangsar

  • Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mariana Mohamed Osman
  • Asst. Prof. Dr. Syahriah Bachok


Unemployment is a problem which will affect various situations both social and economic development of a nation. Unemployment is one of the macroeconomic problems that signal the inefficient use of capital resource in the market. It is a stress condition faced by the community especially the unemployed people which will result in self destruction and low self-esteem.  The paper discussed on the unemployment issues in the Districts of Kinta, Manjung and Kuala Kangsar in the state of Perak. Kruppe et al. (2007), defined unemployed as a person searching for employment through various channel such as advertisement agencies, sending out resume, or placing or answering advertisements and capable to work.

In addition, the person also considered as unemployed if they are waiting response from any work agencies (Bradbury, 2007).  A survey of 203 respondents were conducted randomly to identify the current socio-economic condition and the issues faced by the unemployed person in the three district of Kinta, Manjung and Kuala Kangsar in Perak. The result of the survey indicated that 35% of respondents were female, aged between 21- 25 years old (36.4%) and unemployed for more than 6 months. In addition, majority of respondents (57.1%) used newspaper as the medium to search for jobs rather than online internet search and did not know about the existence of local employment agencies i.e. PEKA located in Ipoh (13.8%).

Issues identified such as mismatched between the residents of respondents and their preferred location of work and the availability of workers with their education level and the favored of company toward employing foreign worker in the local labor market. The study also identified issues related to communication and writing skills in English among the unemployed respondents in English.  83.8% of respondents claimed that unemployment caused stress and anxiety due to a job loss, low self-esteem (77.8%) and decrease in purchasing power (71.9%). In addition, they also claimed that unemployment affect income of the family (68.4%) and caused the inadequate and low housing quality (62.4%).  Hence, several recommendations proposed to overcome the issues of unemployment in the study.