Journal of Islam in Asia <span style="font-size: 0.6em">(E-ISSN: 2289-8077)</span> http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam <p>The Journal of Islam in Asia is published by the International Islamic University Malaysia. A peer-reviewed international Arabic-English online journal, published biannually in June and December. The Journal includes articles, selected studies, book reviews, reports of conferences etc., which are relevant to Islamic thought and Muslim concerns. The Journal sees itself as an instrument, and an extension, to promote the IIUM's mission of (IIICE); Integration, Islamicization, Internationalization and Comprehensive Excellence. The Editorial Board invites scholars and researchers to submit contributions to the Secretariat of the Journal.</p> <p>This journal is listed and indexed in the following indexing sites:</p> <p><strong>1. <a title="MCC" href="http://www.myjurnal.my/public/browse-journal-view.php?id=190" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Malaysian Citation Centre</a></strong></p> <p><strong>2. <a title="Google Scholar" href="http://scholar.google.com.my/scholar?hl=en&amp;q=ISSN+1823-0970&amp;btnG=&amp;as_sdt=1%2C5&amp;as_sdtp=" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></strong></p> <p><strong>3. <a title="JournalSeek" href="http://journalseek.net/cgi-bin/journalseek/journalsearch.cgi?field=issn&amp;query=1823-0970" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Genamics JournalSeek&nbsp;</a></strong></p> en-US abumariyah@iium.edu.my (Mohammed Farid Ali Al-Fijawi) kamel.ouinez8@gmail.com (Kamel Ouinez) Tue, 25 Dec 2018 17:52:10 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 الألسنية الحديثة: قراءة إيبستمولوجية (Modern Linguistics: An Epistemological Reading) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/741 <p>ثمة قضايا في الألسنية اختلف فيها المعاصرون من حيث القبول أو الرفض؛ حيث تبحث الإيبستمولوجيا في القراءة النقدية للمبادئ والفرضيات والنتائج العلمية، وفي الوقت نفسه تتناول موضوع القراءة النقدية للعلوم. هذه الدراسة تهدف إلى البحث بشكل عام عن بعض قضايا&nbsp; الألسنية الحديثة التي تناولها القدامى؛ للتأكيد على أنّ المعلومات قد استوعبها الطلبة غير الناطقين بالعربية والمتخصصين باللغة العربية، ولتحديد قضايا&nbsp; الألسنية الحديثة&nbsp; لدى القدامى العرب بشكل تفصيلي، ولتقييم أثر الألسنية الحديثة وتكاملها مع جهود القدامى اللغويين في المستوى العلمي للطلبة في الجامعات والمعاهد العليا، ولتوضيح دور اللغة في اللغة الإنسانية، ولتحسين فهم العلاقة بين مجالات الألسنية الحديثة&nbsp; لدى القدامى والمعاصرين&nbsp; وفعاليتها في العلوم الإنسانية، وللتأكيد على أن الألسنية الحديثة وتكاملها مع القدامى العرب فيها عناصر يمكن أن تؤثر في العلوم الإنسانية. توصلت الدراسة إلى نتائج مهمة، ومنها: أن التفكير النحوي وإعادة تدوين النظريات النحوية جاء بأسلوب حديث، وقدم أصول نظرية التحويل والتفريع، وقال بأن نظرية تشومسكي تلتقي في اعتراضها على البنيوية مع الأصول التي رسمها ابن هشام الأنصاري للتحليل اللغوي والمعرب عنده، هناك من العرب المعاصرين من هدف إلى قراءة التراث النحوي وتقييمه. وقد عرضوا عيب مقاربات المحدثين للتراث العربي والتي اتسمت بالتجريبية، وهناك من وصفوا الدراسة التاريخية للعلوم اللغوية من الدراسات اللغوية القديمة إلى الدراسات اللغوية في القرن العشرين.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحيّة:</strong> الإيبستمولوجيا، التراث، المعاصرة، الدراسات اللغوية.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>There are many issues in modernity in which modernists differ in terms of acceptance or rejection; whereas epistemology examines the critical reading of principles, hypotheses, and scientific results along with addressing the critical reading of science. This study aims to search in general various modern linguistics issues that were addressed by the ancient Arabs; to emphasize that the information was absorbed by non-Arabic and Arabic-speaking students, to identify modern Arabic issues in the ancient Arabs in detail, and to evaluate the impact of modern linguistics and integration with the efforts of linguists in the academic level students of universities and higher institutes, to clarify the role of language in the human language, and to improve understanding of the relationship between the areas of modern linguistics&nbsp; of ancient&nbsp; and modern&nbsp; period and its effectiveness in the humanities, and to emphasize that modern linguistics and its integration with ancient Arabs has elements that can influence the humanities. Among the important findings are: The grammatical thinking and the re-codification of grammatical theories brought out the modern methods, introduced the origins of the theory of conversion and division, and the theory of Chomsky meets in its opposition to structuralism with the theories drawn by Ibn Hisham Al-Ansari for linguistic analysis and the inflection. There are contemporary grammarians who aim to read the grammar heritage and evaluate it. They present the defect of modernist approaches to Arab heritage, which was characterized by experimentation, and there are those who define the historical study of linguistic sciences from the old linguistic studies to the linguistic studies of the twentieth century.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Epistemology, Heritage, Contemporary, Language Studies.</p> عاصم شحادة علي ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/741 Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 مكانة الظَّنِّ من الاستدلال في علوم الأصول قراءةٌ معرفيَّةٌ (The Role of Probability in Argumentation of the Usul-Sciences An Epistemological Study) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/742 <p>أكثر ما يتميز به الفكر اليوناني إنتاجُه مجموعة الأبحاث المنهجية العقلية التي أودعها أرسطو كتبًا ثمانية سمَّى مجموعها (الأورغانون)، وبه يتميز العلم اليقيني مما ليس يقينًا، فكأنه المعيار للعلوم كلها، ومن خلاله ناقشت الفلسفة اليونانية موضوعاتها، أي: الإنسان، والطبيعة، والإله، فحاولت إثارة المشاكل فيها، وإيجاد الحلول لها من خلال النظر العقلي الخالص، ثم تُعورف في الثقافة الإسلامية على تسمية هذا المجموع (المنطق)، ولم ترُق المنهجية اليقينية التي يتطلَّبها لعلماء الأصول من فقهاء ومتكلمين ونحويين؛ متقدِّميهم وبعض متأخِّريهم، فهاجموها، وبيَّنوا خطأها، وسعوا إلى إقامة منطق إسلامي جديد في جوهره، فنظروا في أخصِّ ما للمنطق اليوناني، وأرادوا مناقضته والاعتراض عليه، فإذا كانت المنهجية اليقينية سمة المنطق اليوناني؛ فإن المنهجية الظنية سمة المنطق الإسلامي؛ عنها صدر الأصوليون في استدلالاتهم، ومن ثم أسَّسوا معرفيًّا للظن في الفكر الإسلامي؛ ليُمثل منهجية أصولية مركزية مُميِّزة إياه، وعليه؛ تتحرى هذه القراءة بيان مكانة الظن من الاستدلال في علم الأصول؛ بقسميه الاستقراء والقياس، وما يتعلق بهما؛ أي التعليل.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحيّة:</strong> الفكر الإسلامي، علوم الأصول، الأصوليون، الظن، الاستدلال.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Most of the Greek thought can be characterized as projections of rational methodologies which were put together in "the Organon" by Aristotle. As a standard for all sciences, rational methodologies are used to distinguish the certain from the probability. Through it, the Greek philosophers discussed subjects such as the human, nature, and God. They tried to raise objections, and find solutions through pure rational contentions. Then this methodology was introduced in the Islamic culture with a collective name <em>al-Mantiq</em>. It did not live up to the certainty methodology required by the scholars of the principles of Fiqh, Kalam, and Grammarians. The early and some of the later usul-scholars criticized this methodology, and pointed to its mistakes and sought to establish Islamic Logic new in essence. They looked at the Greek Logic in particular, intending to oppose and object on it. If the methodology of certainty is one of the features of Greek Logic, then the methodology of probability is the feature of the Islamic Logic. From it the usul-scholars derived their evidences, and from it they established an epistemology for probability in Islamic thought in order to represent the central distinct usuli-methodology. Therefore this study investigates to explain the position of probability in the usul science, in its two categories induction and syllogism, and its sister concepts such as causality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Islamic Thought, <em>Ilm-al-usul, Usuliyun</em>, probability, Inference.</p> أدهم محمد علي حموية ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/742 Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 (الإرهاب الدولي والأمن الفكري والروحي ودولة ما بعد الاستعمار: دراسة في نظام القيم في القرآن (القسم الثاني (Global Terrorism, Spiritual-Intellectual Security and the Post-Colonial State: A Study on the Qur’anic Valuational System (Part: 2)) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/743 <p>يهدف هذا البحث لبيان أن السبيل الناجح لمواجهة الإرهاب الدولي المعاصر الملتبس بدعاوي الجهاد الإسلامي وإحياء دولة الخلافة الإسلامية هو التركيز على معاني الأمن الفكري والروحي في الإسلام وهذا الاتجاه في المباحثة يُعيد النظر في طرائق قضايا الجهاد ويميز بين ما هو عقائدي ومرتبط بنظام الإسلام الكلي وبين ما هو من مجال حروب الفتنة والصعلكة.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;الكلمات المفتاحيّة:</strong> الجهاد، حروب الصعلكة، حروب الفتنة، الأمن الروحي والفكري.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study focuses on the most effective way of combating global terrorism that utilizes the banner of <em>Jihad</em> and restoration of the <em>Khilafa</em> system of governance. It should be emphasized that there is a dire need for a new line of investigation concerning the issue of <em>Jihad</em> that pays more attention to both spiritual and intellectual security systems in Islam. This requires a distinction to be made between what is universalistic in the Islamic system and what is particular. In this regard one has to differentiate between acts of just war and those of economic or sedition wars.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Jihad</em>, economic war, sedition war, spiritual-intellectual security system.</p> إبراهيم محمد زين ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/743 Fri, 21 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 الصيانة بين النظرية والتطبيق: الإجارة المنتهية بالتمليك نموذجًا (Maintenance in Theory and Practice: Al-Ijārah al-Muntahiyyah bi al-Tamlīk as a Case) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/746 <p>يركز البحث على أحكام الصيانة في الإجارة المنتهية بالتمليك، وهو بحثٌ تحليليٌ لأحكام الصيانة بين النظرية في الفقه الإسلامي والتطبيق المعاصر في العقد الذي تقوم به المصارف الإسلامية والمؤسسات المالية الإسلامية. وقصد الباحث من هذا البحث بيان مفهوم الصيانة وحكمها الشرعي في هذا العقد، ومن الذي يتحمل الصيانة المؤجر أو المستأجر؟ وهل يمكن اشتراطها على العميل فقط؟ وذلك لغرض الوصول إلى مدى التوافق بين النظرية والتطبيق العملي لأحكام الصيانة في هذا العقد في المصارف الإسلامية والمؤسسات المالية الإسلامية. وأهم النتائج التي توصل إليها الباحث هو أن للصيانة ثلاثة أنواع: نوعٌ من الصيانة تتجه إلى المؤجر، ولا يصح تحميلها على المستأجر لا شرعًا ولا تحمُّلًا لا عرفًا ولا شرطًا إلا عند تعديه أو تقصيره فيها، وهي الصيانة الأساسية، فهي كل ما يتعلق بذات العين المؤجرة ويتوقف عليه الانتفاع. ونوع ثاني من الصيانة ما يتجه إلى المستأجر، وهي الصيانة التشغيلية، فهي كل ما يتعلق باستيفاء المنافع والذي تحتاج إليه العين المؤجرة نتيجة استعمالها. ونوع ثالث من الصيانة ما لا يتجه إلى المؤجر ولا إلى المستأجر إلا حسب العرف وعوائد أهل البيئة وحسب تغير الزمان والمكان، وهي الصيانة العرفية. وهذا النوع من الصيانة لا تدخل في الصيانة الأساسية ولا في الصيانة التشغيلية بل هو تابع للعرف والبيئة، ولتغير الزمان والمكان. وأما الصيانة الأساسية والصيانة التشغيلية فلا دخل للعرف فيهما.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحيّة:</strong> الصيانة، الأساسية، التشغيلية، العرفية، الإجارة المنتهية بالتمليك، النظرية والتطبيق.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The study is focusing on the ruling of maintenance (<em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah</em>) in <em>Al-Ij</em><em>ā</em><em>rah al-Muntahiyyah bi al-Taml</em><em>ī</em><em>k</em>. It analytically studies the ruling in theory of Islamic Jurisprudence and in the contemporary practice in the contract applied by Islamic Banks and Islamic Financial Institutions. The study aims to explain the concept of the maintenance and its legislative rules in the contract, the responsibility of the leased asset—lessor or lessee? Is it permissible to impose it on the lessee only? This is to find out the extant of the compatibility between the theoretical and the practical implementations of the sharÊÑah ruling of maintenance in the ijÉrah contracts of Islamic Banks. The important result of the research conducted is that there are three types of maintenance (<em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah</em>): The first type of <em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah</em> pertains to the lessor only, and it is not permissible to be imposed on the lessee neither from the SharÊÑah or liability perspective, but in the case of fault or short coming from the lessee, and this is called major maintenance (<em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah</em> <em>al-As</em><em>ā</em><em>siyyah</em>). This type of <em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah</em> denotes all such maintenance of the leased asset that is related to the essence of the leased asset on which the benefit depends. The second type of the <em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah</em> pertains to the lessee only; this is called minor maintenance (<em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah al-Tashgh</em><em>ī</em><em>liyyah</em>). This refers to all such things that are linked with the fulfilment of benefits and the operation of the leased asset. And the third type of the <em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah</em> does not pertain to lessor or the lessee except because of custom of the time and circumstances. And this is called <em>al-</em><em>Ṣ</em><em>iy</em><em>ā</em><em>nah</em> <em>al-</em><em>ʻ</em><em>Urfiyyah</em>. This type of maintenance is not linked with major maintenance or with minor maintenance, but its ruling is according to the time and custom.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Maintenance, <em>al-</em><em>Ṣī</em><em>y</em><em>ā</em><em>nah, al-As</em><em>ā</em><em>siyyah, al-Tashgh</em><em>ī</em><em>liyyah</em>, <em>al-</em><em>ʻ</em><em>Urfiyyah</em>,<em> Al-Ij</em><em>ā</em><em>rah al-Muntahiyyah bi al-Taml</em><em>ī</em><em>k</em>, Theory, Practice.&nbsp;</p> بخت الرحمن عثماني بن عبد الحميد, عارف علي عارف, عزمان محمد نور ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/746 Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 مصطلح السلوك واضطرابه بين علماء الشريعة وعلم النفس (The Term al-Suluk (Behavior) and the Confusion between Shariah Scholars and the Psychologists) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/747 <p>تُعد دراسةُ النفس البشرية وتحديد كنهها ودراسة ما ينتج عنها من سلوك من أبرز المسائل العلمية التي شغلت الجنس البشري، فمنذ العصور القديمة ويحاول العلماء والفلاسفة الخوض في الإجابة عن تساؤلات الإنسان عن نفسه، فكانت النتائج تظهر بحسب الزاوية التي ينظر الباحثون منها إلى نفس الإنسان، وقد تنوعت النظرة إلى مصطلح السلوك بوجه عام أو السلوك الإنساني بوجه خاص مما يجعل من ذلك مشكلة علمية ينبغي العناية بها، فقد أصبح من المهم بيان ما يعنيه مصطلح السلوك نفسه، ولإظهار القيمة الفارقة في نواتج دراسة السلوك بين الشريعة الإسلامية وعلم النفس، خصوصاً فيما يتعلق بفهم السلوك الموسوم بالاضطراب، لذا جاء هذا البحث ليقف على ما في كتب التراث الإسلامي من تعبير عن السلوك، وكيف تنظر الشريعة إلى المضطرب منه مقارنة بما عند علماء النفس، حيث تظهر نتائج هذا البحث أن مصطلح السلوك يحمل تعبيراً عاماً عن مطلق العمل الذي يصدر من قبل الانسان، أما فيما يتعلق بالاضطراب فقد ظهر في هذا البحث أن الشريعة الإسلامية لها تفصيلها الخاص المستند إلى الإطار التقييمي الشرعي من خلال الأحكام الشرعية في الدلالة على الاضطراب، مع استيعابها إطلاق مصطلح الاضطراب على السلوك الذي يتسم به ولو كان غير مخالف للتقييم الشرعي إذا ما وصفه علم النفس بذلك.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحيّة:</strong> السلوك، علم النفس، علم الشريعة، الاضطراب النفسي، اضطراب السلوك.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The study of human-self, the core of human existence and the behaviour which is generated from therein is considered to be one of the most important issues in which human beings have ever engaged. Philosophers and scientists have long been attempting to find out and answer the questions with respect to human selves. These attempts resulted in different findings according to the framework which was employed to study the subject matter.&nbsp; Attitude towards behavior-terminology in general and human behaviour in particular varies in a very diverse way which has put this issue as a problem where special focus needs to be carried out. It is crucial to identify the actual meaning of "behavior" and the differences in these two perspectives; the shariah and the psychology, especially when it comes to understanding the behavioral disorders. This piece of writing is an attempt to discover how traditional Islamic books dealt with the term "behavioral disorders" and how a disordered person was treated in comparison with the standpoint of psychologists in this regard. This study finds that the term "behavior" in traditional Islamic books has a general meaning that includes every action of humans, whereas the term "disorder" has its specific meaning based on the shariah framework and how it encompasses those behaviors as disorders which are prespribed so by psychologists and they are not in conflict with the <em>shariah</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong> Behavior, Psychology, knowledge of Shariah, Psychological Disorder, Behavioral Disorder.</p> سيف بن حمود المقيمي, رضوان جمال الأطرش ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/747 Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 أسلوب العتاب والعقاب في السنة النبوية (The Modes of Admonition and Punishment in Prophet’s Teachings) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/748 <p>يخطئ بعض المعلمين في معالجة أخطاء الطلبة، أو تقويم سلوكهم الـمَشِين، فيتبع أساليب غير تربوية، كأن يعتدي على الطالب بالضرب المبرح، أو يُعرِّضه للإهانة بين زملائه، مما يُسبِّب أضرارًا نفسيةً واجتماعيةً لدى الطلاب، ويزرع فيهم الخوف والهلع، مع أن الواجب على المعلم أن يُغلِّب الحكمةَ والمصلحةَ، ويبتعد عن الغلظة والقسوة، وجاء هذا البحث ليظهر هدي النبي في معالجة الأخطاء، وأسلوبه في معاتبة أو معاقبة الصحابة. والمنهجُ المتّبَعُ للبحث هو المنهج الاستقرائي، المتمثل في استقراء وتتبع أحاديث صحيح البخاري وصحيح مسلم لاستخراج الأحاديث التي لها علاقة بالموضوع، والمنهج التحليلي لاستنباط أساليب العتاب والعقاب في منهج النبي، وتحليل النصوص وشرحها. وقد انتهى البحث إلى عدة نتائج، منها: أن النبي استعمل أساليب لتقويم السلوك، ومنها: أسلوب العتاب والتأنيب فيغلظ القول على المخطئ، وكان من عادته في التأنيب التلميح بالخطأ دون التصريح بفاعله. وإنَّ أسلوب العقاب في السنة كان على نوعين: الأول: العقاب النفسي كالهجر، والحرمان من الحقوق، والدعاء على المخالف المتكبر، والنوع الثاني: العقاب البدني، وهو الإيذاء اليسير الذي لا يصل إلى رتبة الضرب كالوخز والدفع. وبيَّن البحث أقوال الفقهاء في حكم استعمال الضرب كوسيلة لمعاقبة الطلاب، وذكر الضوابط الشرعية لها.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحيّة:</strong> العتاب، التوبيخ، العقاب النفسي، العقاب البدني، الضرب.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Some teachers err in dealing with the mistakes of their students and evaluation of their misbehaviors. They follow non-educational methods such as assaulting the student with severe beatings or insulting him in front of his colleagues, causing psychological and social demoralization of the students. They were supposed to deal with wisdom and public interest (<em>maÎlaÍah</em>) in this matter, rather than becoming dominant by the flow of arrogance and cruelty. This research aims to show the guidance of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in dealing with faults, and his style of addressing such issues while educating his companions. The method employed in this research is the inductive, whereby hadith of <em>SahÊÍ al-BukhÉrÊ</em> and <em>SaÍÊÍ Muslim</em> related to the subjects are extracted and extrapolated. In Addition, the analytical method is used to devise means and approaches, analyze the texts, and explain them. The research ended with findings such as the Prophet used several methods to evaluate the behavior, including the method of admonition and reprimanding and at times he scolded harshly when necessary. It was also a habit of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) that he used to rebuke pointing on the mistakes without referring directly to the person.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Admonition, rebuke, psychological punishment, corporal punishment, beatings.</p> إبراهيم محمد علي سالم المسكري, محمد أبو الليث الخيرآبادي ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/748 Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 التخطيط اللغوي لنشر اللغة العربية في المدارس الابتدائية والثانوية الماليزية بعد الاستقلال: دراسة وصفية تحليلية (Language Planning for the Promotion of Arabic language in Primary and Secondary Schools in Malaysia since Independance: An Analytical Descript) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/749 <p>لقد وزَّع الاستعمار الإنجليزي المدارس الماليزية الجديدة على أربعة أنظمة لغوية؛ إنجليزية، وملايوية، وصينية، وتاميلية. ومن ثم ألغيت اللغة العربية من المنظومة التربوية في ماليزيا المستعمَرة، وتوِّجت اللغة الإنجليزية بوصفها لغة العصر؛ ما أدى بالمواطنين إلى التنافس فيما بينهم رغبة منهم في مواكبة العصر. من هنا تكمن أهمية هذا البحث؛ إذ يرمي إلى استعراض وضعية اللغة العربية منذ استقلال ماليزيا إلى الآن، والتخطيط لها في المدارس الماليزية الابتدائية والثانوية وفق رؤية استراتيجية. وهي دراسة لم تحظ كثيرًا باهتمام الباحثين الملايويين في شأن الثقافة العربية.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحيّة:</strong> التخطيط اللغوي، اللغة العربية، التعليم، المدارس، ماليزيا.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>English colonial regime classified the new Malaysian schools into four systems: English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil. As a result, the Arabic language was eliminated from the educational system in colonized Malaysia, and the English language flourished as the language of the time, and this led the citizens to compete among themselves with the aim of keeping up with the time. This is the significance of this study as it aims to review the status of the Arabic language since Malaysia’s independence until now. This study also proposes strategies for the primary and secondary Malaysian schools. Studies on Arabic culture is not so popular among Malaysian researchers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Language planning, Arabic Language, education, schools, Malaysia</p> زاليكا آدم, حنفي دوله الحاج ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/749 Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 الغزو العراقي لدولة الكويت عام 1990م قراءة جديدة في الأسباب والعوامل (Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait in 1990: A New Reading of Causes and Factors ) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/750 <p>يعتبر الغزوالعراقي للكويت عام 1990م، من أهم الأحداث التي شهدتها المنطقة العربية في القرن العشرين، بل أن البعض جعله في المرتبة الثانية بعد الاحتلال الصهيوني للأراضي العربية الفلسطينية، إذ شكل الغزو العراقي للكويت حدث انتقال وتحول عميق وجذري في مسار العلاقات الدولية إزاء منطقة الشرق الأوسط والخليج العربي باعتبارها أهم منطقة في العالم وأكثرها حساسية وتعقيداً. لقد تظافرت العديد من الأسباب والعوامل التي أدت إلى وقوع الغزو العراقي لدولة الكويت، وتحوله إلى حدث فعلي وواقع مرير، عانى منه الشعب الكويتي وترتب عنه الكثير من الآلام والآثار التي مازالت تداعياتها قائمة في وعي وضمير المجتمع الكويتي إلى اليوم، فضلاً عما سببه هذا الغزو من معاناة وأزمات للشعب العراقي، والذي مازال تحت وطأتها حتى العصر الراهن. يهدف هذا البحث إلى دراسة وتحليل الأسباب والعوامل الاقتصادية والسياسية والاجتماعية الكامنة وراء قرار النظام العراقي السابق بغزو الكويت واحتلالها في أغسطس من العام 1990م، وهو القرار الذي أدى إلى اندلاع أزمة الخليج الثانية، في محاولة جديدة لسبر أغوار حقيقة هذا الغزو والأبعاد التي أحاطت به على مختلف الأصعدة الوطنية والإقليمية والدولية.</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحية:</strong> الغزو العراقي، الأسباب الاقتصادية، الأسباب السياسية، الأسباب الاجتماعية.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 was one of the most important events in the Arab region of the twentieth century. Some historians even rank it as the second after the Zionist occupation of the Arab Palestinian territories, as the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait constituted a transition and a crucial transformation in the course of international relations towards the Middle East and the Arabian Gulf as the most important region in the world and the most sensitive and complex. There have been many reasons and factors that led to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait which transformed it into an actual event and bitter reality, which the Kuwaiti people suffered and resulted in a lot of suffering and relics whose repercussions continue to exist in the consciousness and conscience of Kuwaiti society today. In addition, the cause of this invasion was due to the suffering and crisis of Iraqi people has been continuing until today. This research aims to study and analyze the economic, political and social causes and factors underlying the decision of the former Iraqi regime to invade and occupy Kuwait in August 1990, which triggered into the second Gulf crisis, in a new attempt to probe the reality of this invasion and the dimensions that cover various levels, regional and international.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Civilisational Approach, man, renewal of Islamic education and learning.</p> سلامه علي حسين الزهما المصعبي, حسن إبراهيم, كابوي عثمان سليمان ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/750 Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 "دراسة تحليلية نقدية لكتاب عرفان عبد الحميد فتاح "اليهودية عرض تاريخي والحركات الحديثة في اليهودية (A Critical and Analytical Study of Irfan Abdul Hamid Fattah’s Book "Judaism: A Historical Overview and Modern Movements in Judaism") http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/745 <p>يسعى البحث في هذه الدراسة إلى عرض أحد الكتب الإسلامية التي تتحدث عن تاريخ اليهود على مرِّ العصور، وكما يهدف هذا البحث إلى عرض الكتاب أولاً وتحليل فصوله الخمسة كل على حدة ثانية، ومن ثم يتجه إلى النقد بشقيه الإيجابي والسلبي، ويختم بعد ذلك برأيه الشخصي. وتظهر أهمية هذا البحث جلية في عرض الجهود المبذولة من المؤلف في هذا الكتاب، حيث إن الكتاب يعد شاملاً وعاماً لكثير من أمور اليهود، وكذلك فالمؤلف لم ينل حقه في أن تنشر كتبه ومؤلفاته على نطاق واسع يظهر جهده وغزارة علمه، فيما تتمحور إشكالية البحث في عدم تناول كتاب المؤلف من قبل على وجه العرض والتحليل والنقد، وهذا ما سيسعى هذا البحث إلى فعله.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>الكلمات المفتاحيّة:</strong> اليهودية، عرفان عبد الحميد فتاح، اليهود، النقد، العلم، مقارنة الأديان.</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study seeks to expound one of the Islamic books, which talks about the history of the Jews throughout the ages. The goal of this research is <em>firstly</em> to show the content of the book and <em>secondly</em> to analyze its five chapters separately. It utilizes constructive and destructive criticism, and concludes by showing researcher’s personal view. This study is significant as it shows the exerted efforts of the author in this book. The book is considered comprehensive as well as general in matters related to Jews. Also, the author did not get the right to publish his books and writings on a large scale in order to show his efforts and the abundance of his knowledge. This book has not been discussed before in the form of presentation, analysis and criticism, and this is what this research will attempt to do.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Judaism, Irfan Abdul Hameed Fattah, Jews, criticism, knowledge, comparative religion.</p> يوسف حسن, فطمير شيخو ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/745 Sat, 22 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Modernity’s Impact on Muḥammad ᶜĀbid al-Jābirī’s Understanding of Religion, the Qur’ān and Sunnah, and Legal Injunctions: A Critical Analysis(Kesan Permodenan terhadap Pemahaman Muhammad ᶜĀbid al-Jābirī tentang Agama, Quran dan Sunnah, serta Undang-unda) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/752 <p>This paper critically analyzes the late Muḥammad ᶜĀbid al-Jābirī’s postmodernist influence on contemporary Muslims. The author qualitatively reviews the content of his historicist approach to the Qur’ān and Islam’s heritage. Al-Jābirī questioned the Qur’ān’s universal message in addition to its authenticity and validity. An Arab Muslim who sparked considerable controversy, he accused the holy book of omissions, fabrications, distortions and interpolations; he also deemed Islamic legal injunctions no longer valid. The author also examines his objection to injunctions he considered archaic and absolutely irrelevant to the present Muslim community.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Controversy, distortion, historicism, modernity, orientalism.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kertas kajian ini mengkaji secara kritikal pengaruh pasca moden Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri terhadap orang Islam pada masa kini. Penulis menggunakan kaedah kualitatif untuk mengkaji kandungan sejarah didalam Al-Qur’an dan warisan Islam, dimana, Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri mempersoalkan ajaran al-Qur’an yang berbentuk universal/ menyeluruh untuk menguji kesahihan dan kebenaran inti-pati Al-Qur’an. Sebagai seorang Arab Muslim, Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri mencetuskan kontroversi yang besar dengan mendakwa pengguguran, pemalsuan, penyelewengan, dan penambahan ayat-ayat telah berlaku dalam al-Qur’an; beliau juga menyifatkan udang-undang Islam sudah tidak relevan untuk diaplikasikan pada masa kini. Disamping itu, penulis juga mengkaji penolakan beliau terhadap undang-undang tersebut dimana beliau menyifatkan sebagai kuno dan tidak sesuai untuk masyarakat Islam masa kini.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Kontroversi, Penyelewengan, Historisisme, Pemodenan, Orientalisma.</p> Ushama Thameem ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/752 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Scientific World-View of Nature and Environmental Problem with a Special Concentration on Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s Understanding of Environmental Sustainability (Perspektif Sains terhadap Krisis Alam dan Persekitaran: Pemikiran Seyyed Hossein Nasr tentan) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/753 <p>The present paper attempts to expose how the scientific world-view of nature contributes to the present environmental crisis. Alongside this, it relates European Renaissance, humanism, secularism, the scientific and industrial revolutions, modern philosophy, scientism, technology-based modern life, consumerism-based modern society, etc. with current environmental problems. By focusing on Nasr’s traditional understanding of nature, the paper explores how materialistic and mechanistic world-views are deeply connected with the present ecological crisis. It also offers a critical analysis of Nasr’s spiritual and religious world-view of nature and examines its relevance. In doing so, it aims to highlight some demerits of the present world-view, and to call to reform current perceptions of nature by revitalizing traditional wisdom in order to protect the environment from further degradation. Thus, the paper is scholarly addition to the ongoing discourse on the issue of religions and the environment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Eco-theology, Environmental Degradation, Materialistic and Mechanistic Views of Nature, Scientism, Spiritual Crisis of Modern humans, Religious and Spiritual World-Views.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kertas kajian ini menerangkan bagaimana pandangan saintifik telah menyumbang kepada krisis alam sekitar semasa. Disamping itu, kertas ini akan menhubungkaitkan Gerakan Revolusi Humanisma di Eropah, sekularisme, revolusi&nbsp; sains dan perindustrian, falsafah moden, saintisme, kehidupan moden yang berasaskan teknologi, masyarakat moden yang berasaskan consumerisme, etc. dengan krisis alam sekitar yang berlaku dewasa ini. &nbsp;Dengan memahami pandangan Nasr terhadap alam sekitar, kertas ini akan merungkai bagaimana pandangan materialistik (kebendaan) dan mekanistik mempengaruhi krisis ekologi masa kini. Ia juga akan menganalisa pandangan spiritual dan agama Nasr terhadap alam sekitar secara kritikal dan akan menilai sejauh mana kesesuaiannya. Dengan sedemikian dapat menyedarkan manusia tentang kecacatan pandangan semasa, yang kemudiannya akan membawa kepada pembaharuan persepsi mereka terhadap alam sekitar dengan cara menghidupkan semula nilai-nilai tradisional demi mengelakkan kemerosotan alam sekitar. Kertas ini akan memuatkan idea-idea para cendiakawan dalam membincangkan isu&nbsp; berkaitan agama dan alam sekitar.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Eko-Teologi, Kemerosotan Alam Sekitar, Pandangan Materialistik dan Makanistik terhadap Alam, Saintisme, Krisis Spiritual Manusia Moden, Perspektif Spiritual dan Agama.</p> Md. Abu Sayem ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/753 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Contributions of the Mamluks to the Architecture of the Prophet’s Mosque (Sumbangan Dinasti Mamluk kepada Senibina Masjid Nabawi) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/754 <p>This paper discusses the contributions of the Mamluks to the architecture and development of the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah. The main discussion lays emphasis on two major issues: Making the Mosque in the Mamluk architectural image, and the maturation of architectural deviations. In order to make them more comprehensible, the two thrusts are preceded by a brief account of a religio-political context that existed prior to and at the time when the Mamluks started to assert their authority, both locally and internationally. In the sheer context of the architectural development of the Mosque, the Mamluks unmistakably showed why they are regarded as some of the greatest patrons of art and architecture in the history of Islamic civilization. But in terms of how they dealt with the prevalent architectural deviations, the Mamluks could be recognized both as victims of the established nonconformist architectural tendencies and trends, and as active protagonists in their further nurturing and spreading.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> The Mamluks, the Prophet’s Mosque, Madinah, architectural deviations.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kertas kajian ini membincangkan sumbangan ‘Mamluk’ kepada seni bina dan pembangunan Masjid Nabi di Madinah. Perbincangan utama kajian ini menekankan kepada dua isu utama: pembinaan Masjid dalam imej seni bina ‘Mamluk’, dan penyelewengan seni bina. Untuk menjadikannya lebih mudah difahami, terdapat dua teras yang perlu didahului, iaitu satu ringkasan tentang konteks agama-politik yang wujud sebelum zaman penguasaan ‘Mamluk’ dan pada masa ‘Mamluk’ meluaskan kuasa mereka, samada di dalam dan di luar negara. Dalam konteks pembangunan seni bina Masjid, ‘Mamluk’ membuktikan mereka adalah salah satu pelukis seni bina terkemuka dalam sejarah tamadun Islam. Tetapi dari segi menangani penyelewengan seni bina, ‘Mamluk’ juga dikenali sebagai mangsa kepada seni bina yang tidak konvensional, dan sebagai protagonis aktif dalam memupuk dan menyebarkannya.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci:</strong> Mamluk, Masjid Nabi, Madinah, penyelewengan seni bina.</p> Spahic Omer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/754 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the Legality of Rahn Contracts in Malaysian Islamic Financial Institutions (Meneliti Kesahihahn Akad Rahnu di Institutusi Kewangan Islam) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/755 <p>This study aims to investigate the legality of <em>rahn</em> contracts in Malaysian Islamic Financial Institutions. Specifically, it attempts to examine how <em>rahn</em> is used in these institutions as well as the <em>Shariah</em> issues related to it so as to ascertain the extent to which it has achieved the objectives for which it was legislated by the <em>Shariah</em>. To achieve these objectives, inductive method is used to gather information on <em>rahn</em> both from classical and modern books of Islamic Jurisprudence. Qualitative approach with interview as the instrument of data collection was also adopted to elicit data from the following Malaysian Islamic Financial Institutions: Bank Rajhi, Maybank, Bank Muamalat and Bank Islam. This research concludes that the<em> rahn</em> used in these Islamic financial institutions has achieved the objectives for which it was legislated. It is also used through several combinations of contracts such as <em>wadiah</em> <em>yad dhamanah</em> (savings with a protection guarantee), <em>ujrah</em> (fee), <em>qard hasan</em> (loan) among others. However, some transactions in which the <em>rahn</em> appears need to be reviewed, and amended to comply with the provisions of Islamic <em>Shariah</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Islamic Mortgage, <em>Rahn</em>, Islamic Contract, Islamic Home Financing, Islamic Financial Institutions.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kajian ini bertujuan meneliti kesahihan Akad al-Rahnu di Institusi Kewangan Islam di Malaysia. Secara khususnya, kajian ini cuba meneliti aplikasi al-Rahnu di institusi-institusi kewangan Islam Malaysia serta isu-isu Shariah yang berkaitan dengannya, demi memastikan akad tersebut mecapai objektif yang digariskan oleh Shariah. Demi mencapai objektif tersebut, metod induktif telah digunakan untuk mengumpul maklumat&nbsp; daripada buku-buku Fiqh klasik dan kontemporari. Pendekatan kualitatif dengan wawancara sebagai instrumen pengumpulan data juga diguna pakai untuk mendapatkan data dari Institusi Kewangan Islam Malaysia berikut: Bank Rajhi, Maybank, Bank Muamalat dan Bank Islam. Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahawa akad rahnu yang digunakan dalam institusi kewangan Islam ini telah mencapai objektif sebagaimana ditetapkan oleh Shariah.&nbsp; Ia juga digunakan melalui beberapa kombinasi kontrak seperti wadiah yad dhamanah (simpanan dengan jaminan perlindungan), ujrah (fee), qard hasan (pinjaman) dan lain-lain. Walau bagaimanapun, beberapa transaksi yang melibatkan rahnu perlu dikaji semula, dan dipinda supaya selari dengan Syariah.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci:</strong> Mortgage Islam, Rahnu, Kontrak Islam, Pembiayaan Rumah Islam, Institusi Kewangan Islam.</p> Luqman Zakariyah, Mohammed Kabiru Musah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/755 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Approaches to Integration of Knowledge: A Study of Al-Ghazali And Alwani’s Views (Pendekatan ke Arah Mengintegrasikan Ilmu Pengetahuan: Satu Kajian terhadap Pandangan Al-Ghazali dan Alwani ) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/756 <p>This research aims to study the approaches to integrating scientific and Islamic knowledge based on the views of two selected Muslim scholar, namely Al-Ghazali and Alwani. A considerable amount of research has been produced on knowledge integration, yet there is still a lack of study in exploring the ‘processes’ of integration. Hence, this research highlights this particular aspect from both traditional and contemporary perspectives. Qualitative in nature, the data for this work was collected from the writings of the selected scholars and analyzed in order to find out how the integration is achieved. As a result, this study finds out two distinctive approaches to integration: Firstly, in al-Ghazali’s view, integration is an external and complementary factor where Islamic knowledge and science maintain their own entity but the later complements the former as a supportive tool; secondly, Alwani sees the integration as an internal and essential matter where a knowledge evolves as a result of a mix of scientific reading of the Quranic texts as well as reading of the nature based on Quranic worldview.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Generic skills, Integration of Knowledge, Islamization of knowledge, Al-Ghazali, Alwani, Islamic Worldview<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kajian ini bertujuan mengkaji pendekatan untuk mengintegrasikan ilmu Sains dan Islam berdasarkan pandangan dua cendiakawan Islam iaitu Al-Ghazali dan Alwani. Sejumlah besar kajian telah pun dilakukan namun masih terdapat kekurangan kajian dari aspek proses integrasi ilmu pengetahuan. Oleh itu kajian ini secara khususnya akan memaparkan proses tersebut berdasarkan perspektif tradisional dan kontemporari. Disebabkan bersifat kualitatif, data-data kajian ini diperolehi daripada penulisan-penulisan para cendiakawan yang terpilih yang kemudiannya akan dianalisa untuk mengetahui proses bagaimana integrasi dapat dicapai. Hasil kajian mendapati dua pendekatan untuk tujuan integrasi, yang pertama menurut pandangan al-Ghazali, integrasi merupakan faktor luaran dan pelengkap dimana ilmu pengetahuan Islam dan Sains mengekalkan entiti tersendiri, namun Sains merupakan penyokong kepada ilmu pengetahuan tersebut. Kedua, Alwani melihat integrasi sebagai faktor dalaman yang penting untuk perkembangan ilmu hasil daripada pembacaan saintifik teks-teks al-Quran dan alam menurut perspektif al-Quran.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci:</strong> Kemahiran Generic, Pengintegrasian ilmu, Pengislaman ilmu, Al-Ghazali, Alwani, Pandang dunia menurut Islam.</p> Sayyid Muhammad Yunus Gilani, Tazul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/756 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Qur’anic Interpretation and the Phenomenon of Ellipsis and Brevity: A Critical Analysis (Tafsiran al-Quran dan Fenomena Ellipsis dan Breviti: Analisa Kritikal) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/757 <p>Scholars of Qur’anic Studies like al-ZarkashÊ (d.794 A.H.) and al-SuyËÏÊ (d.911 A.H.) have dealt in detail with Qur’anic ellipsis and brevity (<em>Íadhf and ÊjÉz</em>) in their respective works on Qur’anic Studies. Commentators of the Qur’an like al-ÙabarÊ (d.310 A.H.), al-ZamakhsharÊ (d.538 A.H.), and al-RÉzÊ (d.606 A.H.) have identified the phenomenon of ellipsis and brevity at several places in the Qur’an. Yet, this feature of the Qur’an did not get proper recognition in the methodology of Qur’anic interpretation. The Qur’an came down in the linguistic style of Arabs in general and Quraysh in particular who loved to apply ellipsis and brevity in their poetry and prose. Any poem or oration deplete with this style was not appreciated by Arabs. One of the main reasons for the Arabs’ acceptance of the Qur’an as the most effective and highly moving discourse was its brevity (<em>ÊjÉz</em>) due to the ellipsis (<em>Íadhf</em>) of details of the matter concerned. It seems then quite pertinent to interpret the Qur’an by taking into consideration, among others, phenomenon of ellipsis and brevity. One may see four kinds of ellipsis occurred in the Qur’an: (1) the background of revelation, (2) certain words, (3) complete sentence, and (4) whole paragraph. Interpretation of the Qur’an needs to be based on the identification of one kind of ellipsis or another. This exercise may facilitate the serious task of Qur’anic interpretation. This paper will identify and explain the four categories of ellipsis and brevity in the Qur’an.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ellipsis, Brevity, the Qur’an, Interpretation, Revelation<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Para ulama al-Quran seperti al-ZarkashÊ (d.794 A.H.) dan al-SuyËÏÊ (d.911 A.H.) dalam kajian mereka telah membincangkan elipsis dan brevity&nbsp; (<em>Íadhf and ÊÉz</em>)&nbsp; dalam al-Quran. Para pengulas al-Quran seperti al-ÙabarÊ (d.310 A.H.), al-ZamakhsharÊ (d.538 A.H.), dan al-RÉzÊ (d.606 A.H.) telah mengenalpasti fenomena elipsis dan brevity di beberapa tempat dalam al-Quran. Namun tidak diberi pengiktirafan dalam metodologi penafsiran al-Quran. Al-Quran diturunkan dalam gaya linguistik Arab amnya dan Quraysh khususnya dimana mereka &nbsp;mengaplikasikan konsep elipsis dan brevity dalam kebanyakan puisi dan prosa mereka. Sebarang puisi yang tidak mempunyai elipsis dan brevity adalah tidak diminati oleh orang Arab. Salah satu sebab utama orang Arab mempercayai al-Quran sebagai kitab yang paling tinggi adalah kerana brevity (<em>ÊjÉz</em>) yang disebabkan elipsis (<em>Íadhf</em>)&nbsp; butiran perkara berkenaan. Jadi ia nampaknya sangat penting untuk menafsirkan al-Quran dengan fenomena elipsis dan brevity. Ada empat jenis elipis yang berlaku dalam al-Quran: (1) latar belakang wahyu, (2) perkataan tertentu, (3) ayat sepenuhnya, dan (4) perenggan. Penafsiran al-Quran perlu berasaskan pengenalan elipsis. Latihan ini boleh memudahkan kerja penafsiran yang serius terhadap al-Quran. Kajian ini akan mengenalpasti dan menjelaskan keempat-empat kategori elipsis dan brevity yang terdapat dalam al-Quran tersebut.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci:</strong> Ellipsisi, Brevity, Quran, tafsiran, Wahyu.</p> Israr Ahmad Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/757 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Dispute over the Legality of Codification of Islamic Law: A Critical Analysis (Perselisihan Tentang Kesahihan Kodifikasi Undang-Undang Islam: Analisa Kritikal) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/758 <p>Codification of Islamic law is studied due to its positive role on practical life to produce appropriate solutions and fair judgments for litigation and disputation. Codification is a process which contributes to the reformation in political, social, financial and judiciary sectors, by drafting fair Islamic codes, pursuant to the principles, values and customs of the Muslim nations. However, there is a scholarly debate on whether Islamic law could be codified or not. A group of intellectuals validates it while another group invalidates it. Hence, this study aims to critically examine the intellectual dispute over the legality of codification of Islamic law. The study is accomplished through the critical analysis of related documents, books and literature. The study verifies that codification of Islamic law is not just valid but rather indispensable because it conforms to the legal policy <em>(siyasah shariyyah</em>), public wellbeing and fundamental ruling of permissibility. In addition, codification of Islamic law complies with the noble objectives of the <em>Shariah (Maqasid al-Shariah)</em>. The study finds out that the merits and motives of codification are far higher than its perils as seen by some scholars. It posits that codification of Islamic law would be the timely solution to get back the unity and solidarity among the Muslim world. It concludes that all the sections of Islamic law, excluding the rituals <em>(ibadat)</em>, such as civil, constitutional, judiciary, penal, international, etc. are eligible to be codified. Thus, codification in Islamic law refers to the codification of <em>fiqh</em> provisions and not to the <em>Shariah</em> in its wider sense and overall contents. Moreover, the study also provides required conditions to be observed in the codification of Islamic law.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; .&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Codification, Islamic Law, Legal Policy, Public Wellbeing, Fundamental permissibility, <em>Maqasid al Shari'ah</em>.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kodifikasi undang-undang Islam diberi perhatian kerana peranan positifnya dalam kehidupan manusia dalam menghasilkan solusi yang sesuai dan pertimbangan yang adil dalam perbicaraan dan perselisihan. Kodifikasi undang-undang menyumbang kepada perubahan dalam sektor politik, sosial, kewangan dan kehakiman, dengan penyediaan kod syariah yang adil, berdasarkan prinsip, nilai dan budaya orang Islam. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat perdebatan ilmiah tentang kodifikasi tersebut sama ada ianya boleh dilakukan atau sebaliknya. Sebahagian cendekiawan berpendapat ianya dibolehkan manakala sebahagian yang lain menafikannya. Oleh itu, kajian ini mengkaji secara kritis perselisihan intelektual mengenai kesahihan kodifikasi undang-undang Islam. Kajian ini dicapai melalui analisis kritikal terhadap dokumen, buku dan kesusasteraan yang berkaitan. Kajian ini mengesahkan bahawa kodifikasi undang-undang Islam bukan hanya sah tetapi diperlukan kerana ia mematuhi dasar undang-undang <em>(siysah sharyariyyah)</em>, kesejahteraan awam dan ketetapan asas yang dibenarkan. Di samping itu, kodifikasi undang-undang Islam adalah mematuhi objektif <em>Shariah</em> <em>(maqasid al shari’ah)</em>. Kajian ini mendapati bahawa merit dan motif kodifikasi ini lebih memberi kesan baik &nbsp;daripada bahaya sebagaimana difahami oleh beberapa ulama. Ia mengemukakan bahawa kodifikasi hukum Islam adalah penyelesaian bagi mengembalikan perpaduan di kalangan dunia Islam. Ia menyimpulkan bahawa semua bahagian undang-undang Islam, tidak termasuk ritual, seperti sivil, perlembagaan, kehakiman, hukuman, antarabangsa, dan lain-lain layak untuk dikodifikasikan. Oleh itu, kodifikasi dalam undang-undang Islam merujuk kepada kodifikasi fiqh dan bukannya Shariah secara keseluruhannya. Selain itu, kajian ini juga menyediakan syarat-syarat yang perlu dipatuhi dalam pengkodifikasi hukum Islam.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Kod Pengubahsuaian, Undang-undang Islam, Dasar Perundangan, Kesejahteraan Awam, Kebolehpercayaan asas, <em>Maqasid al Shari'ah</em>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Md. Habibur Rahman, Muhammad Amanullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/758 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Analysis of Al-Ghazali and Montessori’s Principles of Child Education (Analisis Komparatif terhadap Prinsip-prinsip al-Ghazali dan Montessori dalam Pendidikan kanak-kanak ) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/759 <p>Childhood education goes with a lot of innocence, searching and exploring the environment that surrounds the young learners. The amount of energy and inquisitiveness displayed by children at this tender age is a marvel to many parents and teachers alike. This small-scale research represents a sincere attempt to contrastively analyze Montessori and Al-Ghazali’s ideas on child education. The ideas of the two scholars, one from the West and the other from the East, till these days have great significance to their respective communities. In a way, this study should be seen as an initiative undertaken in the absence of a study discussing the differences and commonalities found in the ideas of the two scholars pertaining to child education.&nbsp;By employing the textual analysis method and using Montessori’s principles of child education as the framework, the researchers conducted a comparative analysis. In the course of analyzing the data, the researchers had identified six emerging themes in the ideas of Montessori and Al-Ghazali.&nbsp;The findings have also indicated that the principles of these two prominent scholars either intersect with each other or stand in total isolation.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Child education, Montessori, Al-Ghazali, Contrastive Analysis, Emerging Themes.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Pendidikan kanak-kanak berlaku malalui proses pencarian dan penerokaan terhadap persekitaran mereka. Keceriaan dan sifat ingin tahu yang dipamerkan oleh kanak-kanak dalam proses tersebut amatlah penting bagi para ibubapa dan guru. Pandangan-pandangan Montessori dan Al-Ghazali tentang pendidikan kanak-kanak telah meninggalkan kesan yang amat penting dalam komuniti Barat dan Timur hingga ke hari ini. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk membandingkan pandangan kedua-dua cendekiawan ini tentang pendidikan kanak-kanak. Secara tidak langsung, ia boleh dilihat sebagai usaha untuk mengisi kekurangan dalam bidang kajian. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah analisa tekstual dan prinsip pendidikan kanak-kanak Montessori sebagai rangka kajian. Daripada kajian ini, terdapat enam tema yang boleh digarapkan daripada pandangan kedua-dua cendekiawan yang didapati secara bersilang atau terpisah di antara satu sama lain.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Pendidikan kanak-kanak, Montessori, Al-Ghazali, Analisa Perbandingan (Kontrastif), Tema-tema yang Terhasil.</p> Norillah Abdullah, Mohd Abbas bin Abdul Razak, A. Nazilah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/759 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Wasaṭiyyah (Moderation) as the Principle and Objective of the Shariah as a Solution for Preventing Violence and Extremism (Wasatiyyah (Kesederhanaan) sebagai Satu Prinsip dan objektif Shariah adalah satu Solusi Mencegah Keganasan dan Ekstrim) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/760 <p>The <em>Shariah, </em>the foundation of the scheme of life<em>, </em>seems to be the most misunderstood concept of our time. The <em>Shariah</em> is confined to the domain of law in a rigid way and used out of context in an exclusivist manner. This has generated numerous implications to thought and life. It is generally assumed that the violent extremism that we witness in many parts of the world is the result of this misrepresentation of the <em>Shariah. </em>The situation demands a textual and contextual reading of the <em>Shariah’s</em> principles scientifically, especially, the principle of the <em>wasatiyyah</em> as an objective of the <em>Shariah</em> [<em>Maqasid Shariah</em>]. A correct view of the <em>Shariah</em> and the principle of <em>wasatiyyah</em> will help to remove the misunderstandings. It will also help to prevent the violent extremist and terrorist tendencies. This paper, therefore, aims at examining the principle of <em>wasatiyyah</em> based on the textual study of the Principle Sources – the Quran and <em>Sunnah</em> - and determines its scope to counter violence, extremism and terrorism. The socio-ethical dimensions and the principle of <em>wasatiyyah</em> as principles and objectives of the <em>Shariah </em>in relation to extremist trends will be explored and analyzed in this paper. This paper will present the principle of <em>wasa</em><em>ṭiyyah </em>as a solution for preventing the current extremist tendencies among some Muslims. The descriptive and analytical approaches will be employed in this study. Based on the textual study in a changing context, this paper concludes that the principle of <em>wasa</em><em>ṭiyyah</em>, owing its significance in the <em>Shar</em><em>ī</em><em>‘ah,</em> needs to be highlighted and acknowledged as a major principle and objective of the <em>Shar</em><em>ī</em><em>‘ah </em>which would be helpful to solve the societal problems besides its significance in private life.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Shariah</em>, <em>Wasatiyyah</em>, violent tendencies, extremism, contextual reading.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Shariah yang merupakan asas kehidupan manusia adalah konsep yang seringkali disalah ertikan masa kini, Shariah yang dianggap terhad kepada undang-undang dan digunakan di luar konteks deengan cara ekslusif telah memberi pelbagai implikasi terhadap pemikiran dan kehidupan manusia. Secara amnya, keganasan golongan ekstrimis di beberapa Negara di dunia ini adalah berpunca daripada pemahaman Shariah yang salah. Situasi ini perlu kepada pembacaan prinsip-prinsip Shariah secara saintifik terhadap teks dan konteks terutamanya prinsip wasatiyyah sebagai satu bentuk objektif Shariah. Pandangan sebenar terhadap Shariah dan prinsip wasatiyyah dapat menghapuskan tanggapan yang salah dan mampu mencegah keganasan golongan ekstrimis dan terroris.&nbsp; Oleh itu makalah ini mengkaji prinsip wasatiyyah berdasarkan teks al-Quran dan Sunnah untuk mengenalpasti skopnya demi mencegah keganasan, ekstrimis dan terroris. Dimensi sosio-etika dan prinsip wasatiyyah sebagai objektif Shariah akan dianalisis dalam makalah ini. Makalah ini akan membincangkan prinsip wasaṭiyyah sebagai penyelesaian untuk mencegah kecenderungan ekstremis semasa di kalangan umat Islam. Pendekatan deskriptif dan analisis digunakan dalam kajian ini. Berdasarkan kajian tekstual makalah ini menyimpulkan bahawa prinsip wasaṭiyyah, perlu diakui sebagai objektif dan prinsip utama Sharī'ah yang akan membantu menyelesaikan masalah sosial selain kepentingannya dalam kehidupan setiap individu.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Shariah, Wasatiyyah, kecenderungan kepada keganasan, exkstirmis, pembacaan konteks.</p> Muhammad Mumtaz Ali, Muneer Muhammed Rafeeque ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/760 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Creativity in Islamic Entertainment: A Case Study of Malaysian Nashid Groups (Rabbani, Raihan and Hijjaz) (Kreativiti dalam Hiburan Islam: Kajian Kes Kumpulan Nasyid Malaysia (Rabbani, Raihan And Hijjaz)) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/761 <p>This paper attempts to shed some light on Islamic Nashid (Nasyid) groups in Malaysia, in particular Rabbani, Raihan and Hijjaz. With the emergence of globalization and its entertainment aspect, and due to the huge influence of modernization on the society especially among the youth, there was a need for an alternative entertainment. And, as far as Muslims are concerned, the most effective way in this regard was, to a great extent, Islamic Nashid.&nbsp; Entertainment itself has been an area of great discussion and dispute among Muslim scholars throughout the ages all over the world. In Malaysia, the issue of allowing or disallowing entertainment specifically songs and music is no longer a big issue. As a matter of fact, entertainment is part of the traditions and culture of the Muslims in this part of the world. Nevertheless, the major concern here is what kind of songs and music do Nashid groups present? Could Islamic Nashid be an alternative to the conventional or non-Islamic songs? Is it possible for Nashid performance to be viewed as an act of worship?&nbsp; To what extent Nashid groups are contributing in the Islamization of entertainment and enhancement of Islamic awareness in Malaysian society?? The focus of this research is: (1) The historical background of Rabbani, Raihan and Hijjaz Nashid groups (2) The role these groups have been playing in creating Islamic awareness; (3) The Islamization of songs and music as promoted by these three groups; (4) The challenges these Nashid groups are facing in terms of publication and audience attendance etc.; and (5) The future of Islamic Nashid in Malaysia. This research is expected to provide important findings that will enhance Islamic awareness among the society members. Besides, it is hoped that this paper will highlight the effectiveness of Islamic Nashid in Malaysia especially in this borderless globalized village.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Nasyid, Nashid, Islamic Entertainment, Creativity, virtues, Malaysia.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Makalah ini cuba menerangkan beberapa kumpulan Nasyid Islam di Malaysia, khususnya RABBANI, RAIHAN DAN HIJJAZ. Dengan kemunculan globalisasi dan aspek hiburannya, dan disebabkan oleh pengaruh besar pemodenan terhadap masyarakat terutama kalangan belia, hiburan alternatif amatlah diperlukan. Cara yang paling berkesan dalam hal ini adalah, sebahagian besarnya, Nasyid Islam. Hiburan itu sendiri merupakan bidang perbincangan dan pertikaian hebat di kalangan para ulama Islam sepanjang zaman di seluruh dunia. Di Malaysia, isu membenarkan atau menolak hiburan khususnya lagu dan muzik tidak lagi menjadi masalah besar. Hakikatnya, hiburan adalah sebahagian daripada tradisi dan budaya umat Islam. Walau bagaimanapun, kebimbangan utama di sini, apakah jenis lagu dan muzik yang didendangkan oleh kumpulan Nasyid tersebut? Bolehkah Nasyid Islam menjadi alternatif kepada lagu konvensional atau yang bersifat tidak Islamik? Adakah mungkin Nasyid dilihat sebagai satu ibadah? Sejauh manakah kumpulan Nasyid menyumbang kepada Islamisasi hiburan dan meningkatkan kesedaran Islam dalam masyarakat Malaysia? Fokus penyelidikan ini adalah: (1) latar belakang kumpulan-kumpulan Nasyid RABBANI, RAIHAN DAN HIJJAZ (2) Peranan kumpulan-kumpulan ini dalam membentuk kesedaran Islam; (3) Islamisasi lagu dan muzik seperti yang diketengahkan oleh ketiga-tiga kumpulan ini; (4) Cabaran yang dihadapi kumpulan-kumpulan Nasyid ini dari segi penerbitan dan menarik minat pendengar; dan (5) Masa depan Nasyid Islam di Malaysia. Penyelidikan ini dijangka memberikan penemuan penting yang akan meningkatkan kesedaran Islam di kalangan masyarakat. Di samping itu, diharapkan makalah ini akan menonjolkan keberkesanan Nashyd Islam di Malaysia terutamanya dalam dunia globalisasi tanpa sempadan.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci</strong>: Nasyid, Hiburan yang bersifat Islamik, kreativiti, nilai-nilai murni, Malysia.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Abdulhamid Mohamed Ali Zaroum, Mohd. Abbas Abdul Razak, Abdul Latif Abd. Razak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/761 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Universal Condemnation on the Practice of Riba (Pengutukan Universal terhadap Pengamalan Riba) http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/762 <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine the notion of <em>riba</em>. <em>Riba</em> is the only transgression in the Quran which invokes war on Allah SWT and his Messenger SAW. This writeup examines <em>riba</em> with a threefold objective: i) to establish that <em>riba</em> is a universal prohibition and not just an Islamic injunction, ii) to understand that <em>riba</em> was a widely entrenched practice during the time of the Prophet SAW, and that the abolishment of <em>riba</em> was done in stages according to the revelation of the Quran and, iii) to explain why riba is so detrimental to society.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Riba, Stages of Revelation, Prohibition, Universal Prohibition, Usury.</p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Tujuan kertas ini adalah untuk melihat pendapat <em>riba</em>. Riba adalah satu-satunya pelanggaran dalam Qur’an yang memakan perang terhadap Allah SWT dan Rasulullah SAW. Penulisan ini mengkaji riba dengan tujuan tiga kali: i) untuk menetapkan riba itu adalah suatu larangan sejagat dan bukan sekadar injunksi Islam, ii) memahami bahawa riba adalah amalan yang luas di masa Nabi SAW, dan pemansuhan riba dilakukan secara berperingkat mengikut wahyu Al-Quran dan, iii) untuk menjelaskan mengapa riba sangat memudaratkan masyarakat.</p> <p><strong>Kata kunci:</strong> Riba, Peringkat Wahyu, Larangan, Larangan Universal, Usury.</p> Mohamed Ashraf bin Mohamed Iqbal, Mohammed Farid Ali al-Fijawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/jiasia/index.php/Islam/article/view/762 Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000