A Comparative Analysis of Al-Ghazali and Montessori’s Principles of Child Education (Analisis Komparatif terhadap Prinsip-prinsip al-Ghazali dan Montessori dalam Pendidikan kanak-kanak )

  • Norillah Abdullah Assistant Professor, Department of Fundamental and Inter Disciplinary Studies, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM).
  • Mohd Abbas bin Abdul Razak Assistant Professor, Department of Fundamental and Inter Disciplinary Studies, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University, Malaysia (IIUM).
  • A. Nazilah Senior Lecturer at the Psychology and Counseling Department, School of Social and Economic Development, University Malaysia Trengganu (UMT).

Abstract

Childhood education goes with a lot of innocence, searching and exploring the environment that surrounds the young learners. The amount of energy and inquisitiveness displayed by children at this tender age is a marvel to many parents and teachers alike. This small-scale research represents a sincere attempt to contrastively analyze Montessori and Al-Ghazali’s ideas on child education. The ideas of the two scholars, one from the West and the other from the East, till these days have great significance to their respective communities. In a way, this study should be seen as an initiative undertaken in the absence of a study discussing the differences and commonalities found in the ideas of the two scholars pertaining to child education. By employing the textual analysis method and using Montessori’s principles of child education as the framework, the researchers conducted a comparative analysis. In the course of analyzing the data, the researchers had identified six emerging themes in the ideas of Montessori and Al-Ghazali. The findings have also indicated that the principles of these two prominent scholars either intersect with each other or stand in total isolation. 

Keywords: Child education, Montessori, Al-Ghazali, Contrastive Analysis, Emerging Themes.

Abstrak

Pendidikan kanak-kanak berlaku malalui proses pencarian dan penerokaan terhadap persekitaran mereka. Keceriaan dan sifat ingin tahu yang dipamerkan oleh kanak-kanak dalam proses tersebut amatlah penting bagi para ibubapa dan guru. Pandangan-pandangan Montessori dan Al-Ghazali tentang pendidikan kanak-kanak telah meninggalkan kesan yang amat penting dalam komuniti Barat dan Timur hingga ke hari ini. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk membandingkan pandangan kedua-dua cendekiawan ini tentang pendidikan kanak-kanak. Secara tidak langsung, ia boleh dilihat sebagai usaha untuk mengisi kekurangan dalam bidang kajian. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah analisa tekstual dan prinsip pendidikan kanak-kanak Montessori sebagai rangka kajian. Daripada kajian ini, terdapat enam tema yang boleh digarapkan daripada pandangan kedua-dua cendekiawan yang didapati secara bersilang atau terpisah di antara satu sama lain.        

Kata Kunci: Pendidikan kanak-kanak, Montessori, Al-Ghazali, Analisa Perbandingan (Kontrastif), Tema-tema yang Terhasil.

References

Adibah Sulaiman, Ezad Azraai Jamsari, and Noorsafuan Che Noh. “Is-lamic Environment in Child Development According to The Views of Imam al-Ghazali.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, (5:29, 2014): 33-39.

Al-Ghazali. Ihya’ Ulum ad-Din (1898) (The Revival of The Religious Science), 4 vols. Cairo: Al-Matba’a al-Azhariya, 1898/1316H.

Alkanderi, Latefah. Exploring Education in Islam: Al-Ghazali’s Model of the Master-Pupil Relationship Applied to Educational Relationships within the Islamic Family. Doctoral thesis. The Graduate School, College of Education, Pennsylvania State University. (2001) Retrieved August 2017 from
http://www.latefah.net/artic3/EXPLORING_EDUCATION_IN_ISLAM.pdf

Arfat, Shabina. “Islamic Perspective of the Children’s Rights: An Overview.” Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, (2:1, 2013): 299-307.

Atik Wartini. “Education Character in View of Al-Ghazali and Its Rele-vance with The Education Character in Indonesia.” Ta’dib, (20:2, 2015): 293-310.

Ayoub Mahmoudi, Chadegani, Mehrdad, A., Heidari, Mohammad H. and Zohreh Shafiei. “Comparative Analysis of Paulo Freire & Al-Ghazali’s Pedagogical Comments.” Journal of Education and Practice, (5:14, 2014): 106-113.

Brameld, Theodore. Patterns of Educational Philosophy: Divergence and Convergence in Culturological Perspective. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1971.

Fancher, Raymond E., & Rutherford, Alexandra. Pioneers of Psycholo-gy: A History. NY: W.W. Norton, 2012.

Fazli Rabbi. “Education philosophy Al-Ghazali’s perspective.” Al-Baseera (2, 1:2, 2012): 1-16.

Fitrah Yuliawati. “Islamic Education of Children. Raising Children in Islam - How to Raise Children into Responsible Muslim Adults?” Re-trieved August 2017 from
http://jurnal.uim.ac.id/index.php/pai/article/download/42/22

Ibad, Fareeda. “Ghazali’s Educational Perspective: Myths and Realities.” Pakistan Business Review (July 2016): 527-540. Retrieved September 2017 from
http://journals.iobmresearch.com/index.php/PBR/article/download/827/164

Ibrahim, Mohd R. “The Integration of Islam and Science: Al-Ghazali on Causality Revisited.” Ulum Islamiyyah Journal, (15, June, 2015): 157-165.

Jassiem, Shamiemah. Montessori and Religious Education in Western Cape Preschools. Master thesis. University of Cape Town. (2016) Retrieved August 2017 from
https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/item/27850/thesis_hum_2017_jassiem_shamiemah.pdf?
sequence=1

Kamali, Mohammad H. “Classical and Contemporary Approaches to Education: An Islamic Perspective.” Islam and Civilisational Renewal (ICR), (2:3, 2011): 447-467.

Maryam Ghaffari, Sara Mohammadi, and Firooz Sadighi. “Montessori and Conventional Teaching Methods in Learning English as A Second/Foreign Language: An Overview.” Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, (4:5, 2017): 209-218.

Mastura Badzis. “Child Education: What Should Be Optimal?” Jurnal Pendidikan Islam (12, (1), 2006): 77-90.

Masthurhah Ismail, Puteri Rohani Megat Abdul Rahim, and Muhammad Sufi Mohamad Yusoff. “Educational Strategies to Develop Discipline Among Students From The Islamic Perspectives.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, (107, 2013): 80-87.

Mohammadi, M. Mahmoud and Khan, Ali, H. “Comparative Analysis of Ghazali and Egan’s Views on Imagination and Education: The Mythic Understanding and Children Learning.” International Journal of Humanities (18: 2, 2011): 19-35.

Montessori, Maria. The Secret of Childhood. NY: Ballantine Books, 1974.

Morrison, George. S. Early Childhood Education Today, (11th ed.) pp. 140-143. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Pearson. 2009. ISBN 13: 9780135010525

Mosier, Richard, D. Progressivism in Education. Peabody Journal of Education, (29:5, 1952): 274-281. Retrieved
from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1489846

Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob. An Islamic Perspective on the Role of Education in Responding to Social Issues Among Students in Malaysia. US-China Education Review, (3:6, 2013): 2161-6248.

Piaget, Jean. The Essential Piaget. H.E. Gruber, J.J. Voneche (Eds.) NY: Basic Books. 1977

Radu, Lucian. John Dewey and Progressivism in American Education. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, Series VII, (Vol. 4 (53) No. 2, 2011): 85-90. Retrieved September 2017 from
http://webbut.unitbv.ro/BU2011/Series%20VII/BULETIN%20VII/03_4%20Radu.pdf

Salishu Shehu. A Study of the Islamic Perspective of Cognitive Development and Its Implications in Education in the Muslim World. Revelation and Science, (5:1, 2015): 1-9.

Santrock, John.W. A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development (8th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill. 2016

Sofiah Mohamed, Kamarul Azmi Jasmi, and Muhammad Azhar Zailaini. Elements of Delivering Islamic Education Through Islamic Morality in Several Malaysian Schools. Pertanika Journal of Social Science & Humanities, (24:4, 2016): 1267 – 1277.

Soussi, Khalid. “Al Ghazali Cultivates Education: A Comparison with Modern Theories.” International Journal of Education and Research, (4:11, 2016): 425-436.

Urban, Wayne, J. “Anti-Progressivism in Education: Past and Present.” International Journal of Progressive Education, (9:1, 2013): 14-24.

Zainab Mahirah Ismail. and Nik Suryani Nik Abdul Rahman. “School Violence and Juvenile Delinquency in Malaysia: A Comparative Analysis Between Western Perspectives and Islamic Perspectives.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (69, 2012): 1512 – 1521.
Published
2018-12-24
How to Cite
Abdullah, N., bin Abdul Razak, M. A., & Nazilah, A. (2018). A Comparative Analysis of Al-Ghazali and Montessori’s Principles of Child Education (Analisis Komparatif terhadap Prinsip-prinsip al-Ghazali dan Montessori dalam Pendidikan kanak-kanak ). Journal of Islam in Asia <span Style="font-Size: 0.6em">(E-ISSN: 2289-8077)</Span&gt;, 15(2), 453-476. https://doi.org/10.31436/jia.v15i2.759
Section
English Articles