Intellectual Discourse <p><strong>About the Journal</strong>: Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, peer-reviewed, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> International Islamic University Malaysia en-US Intellectual Discourse 0128-4878 Table of Contents <p>CONTENTS</p> Intellectual Discourse ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 1 1 Editorial <p>This particular issue of <em>Intellectual Discourse</em>, Vol. 26, No. 2 (2018), will be a novelty. Articles have been divided into two sections; articles in the first section are grouped under the title Special Articles, while the remaining articles are grouped under Research Articles. There are twenty research articles in this issue; four of which are Special Articles, and the remaining sixteen are Research Articles. In addition, we have included four book reviews, one research note, and a conference report.</p> Ishtiaq Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 513–517 513–517 Politics of Forced Migration and Refugees: Dynamics of International Conspiracy? <p>Human mass migration from place to place is well recorded in history. The ancient patterns of mass migrations could have their origins in natural forces (Homo-erectus from Africa to Europe) or divine order (Israelites from the Pharaonic Egypt or early Muslims from Makkah). Simultaneously, modern recorded history suggests that human mass migrations were triggered by local and regional politics too such as political oppression (Nazi holocaust, Israeli occupation) or imperial invasion. However, a new pattern of mass migration emerged in the 20th century triggered by a complete new force-strategic redrawing of certain regional maps. This strategic redrawing of maps is not locally inspired but imposed from abroad as part of competitive economic and military strategies of a global scale. This article intends to analyse the mass migrations triggered by Iraq-Syria civil wars in the framework of international strategic global competition. The article argues that these mass migrations are artificially caused by the economic and military strategies of international hegemonic powers. Strategic national interest abroad is the underlying objective at the cost of the sufferings of the millions.</p> Mohammad Moniruzzaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 26 2 519–540 519–540 Roots of Discrimination Against Rohingya Minorities: Society, Ethnicity and International Relations <p>According to the United Nations, the Rohingya people are the most persecuted minority group in the world. The atrocities perpetrated by Myanmar authorities could by any reckoning be called ethnic cleansing. This paper delves into the level of discrimination against the Rohingya population perpetrated by Myanmar authorities in myriad of ways. A team of researchers interviewed 37 victims. The pattern of persecution goes back to 1948 – the year when the country achieved independence from their British colonizers. Today, this population group is the single largest “stateless” community after Palestinians in the world. Their “statelessness” or lack of citizenship increases their vulnerability owing to the lack of entitlements to any legal protection from the government. Without citizenship, they are deprived of basic rights such as access to health services, education and employment. The illiteracy rate among the Rohingya, for example, is a staggering 80 percent. However, so far, no unified responses either from the ASEAN or the EU were provided to the crisis. As a result, the level of discrimination against and brutality towards them kept escalating.</p> AKM Ahsan Ullah Diotima Chattoraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 26 2 541–565 541–565 Exploring Ways to Provide Education in Conflict Zones: Implementation and Challenges <p>Millions of children in conflict-affected countries are deprived of their fundamental rights to education. Using the qualitative exploratory research method, this study aims to explore ways of providing education to such children, and to identify the challenges facing their implementation. It also presents two short case studies conducted on Palestinian and Syrian refugees residing in Malaysia to explore their perceptions towards their education in their current situation and future orientation. The results show that despite the educational programmes initiated by various organizations, the affected community continue to face numerous political, financial, psychological, economic, administrative, or institutional challenges. The analysis of the interviews data revealed several categories and themes, among them related to the participants’ current situation, educational needs, roles of different members of the community involved, and the challenges. The study recommends increasing efforts to meet the educational demands of the huge number of children out of schools.</p> Kamal J. I. Badrasawi Iman Osman Ahmed Iyad M. Eid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 567–594 567–594 Political Settlement Analysis of the Blight of Internally Displaced Persons in the Muslim World: Lessons from Nigeria <p>The menace of conflicts and natural disasters in different states of the world had spiralled into a global phenomenon of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). These are groups of humans who had helplessly drifted away from their natural and ancestral home due to conflicts and disasters but had not crossed international boundaries into another country. They merely take solace by the protection offered by the spirit and letters of relevant international laws which have domesticated by member states. This paper seeks to answer the question regarding the extent to which the IDPs have become a menace in Nigeria. The paper reveals that many governments’ actions are the primary and the root cause of the IDPs while others are recipient of the domino effect. The paper relies on a panel data elicited from thirteen out of the thirty six states in Nigeria. The paper reveals the need for urgent measures by government to douse the upsurge in the number of IDPs. The political settlement analysis was used to proffer a better way of culminating the crises. Recommendations are directed to the individuals, civil societies and the government at all levels.</p> Ibrahim O. Salawu Aluko Opeyemi Idowu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 595–615 595–615 Women’s Work Empowerment through “Reupcycle” Initiatives for Women-at-home <p>Recyclable issues do not receive sufficient attention, which thus see low awareness among Malaysians. This paper1 proposes women’s active participation in re-upcycling habits to maintain the ecologically challenging world today. Empowering women-at-home in this way enable them to sustain their own social and ecological well-being. Women can be active participants in community development activities. Even though they may be disinterested to work outside home, their involvement in their community should be encouraged. Embeddedness theory (ET) advocates empowerment of women through re-upcycling actions are to be initiated from home. With the support from community, in turn, these actions can be an economic resources for their households. Malaysian women are most affected by employment opportunities, supports and reassurances from various sectors, such as the government, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) and most importantly, the men in their lives. Depriving them from this socio-economic foundation will further impact the unemployment rate for Malaysia. On the other hand, if strategic planning is implemented by utilising the abundance number of unemployed women-at-home, the socio-economic conditions of the nation can also be improved. Indeed, this paper motivates discussions on the employment policy whereby re-upcycling activities may pave ways for women-at-home to get involved in employment, without leaving their homes.</p> Rohaiza Rokis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 617 634 The Islamization of the Malaysian Media: A Complex Interaction of Religion, Class and Commercialization <p>The Islamization of the Malaysian media industry has created a debate on whether Islam has been truly adopted for its religious significance or simply manipulated for commercial gains. While Islamic content is abundant, it seems to grow in size but not in value. This paper offers a political-economic look into this problem by 1) contextualizing the Islamization process in relations to Malaysia’s socio-political environment, 2) delineating the development of Islamic media in Malaysia and, 3) identifying the influence of media ownership on the Islamization process by locating the role of Islam in contemporary Malaysian media.</p> Shafizan Mohamed Tengku Siti Aisha Tengku Mohd Azzman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 635–658 635–658 Rise of Central Conservatism in Political Leadership: Erbakan’s National Outlook Movement and the 1997 Military Coup in Turkey <p>In democratic countries such as Turkey, political parties are established around charismatic leaders and these leaders stay at the centre of the party, from naming the party to the arrangement of deputy candidates. National Outlook, a movement which prevailed in Turkish politics for forty years, won its biggest victory and formed a coalition government in 1995 with the True Path Party, under the leadership of Tansu Ciller. Having secularized its legal system in the early years of the Republic, successive regimes in Turkey aggressively westernized all aspects of life. However, during the multiparty period, the style of radical secularism in Turkey was opposed by conservative groups and it has been criticized since then. The relationship between civil society and the military has always been problematic in Turkey, as the Turkish Army has always been suspicious of conservative governments on the issue of secularism. On several occasions the military has intervened in politics in order to prevent Islam from impinging on the Republic’s secular identity, and it expected to continue in its role as the champion of secularism when the Justice and Development Party (AKP) came to power in November 2002. For the Turkish military, the National Outlook Movement is more dangerous than Kurdish separatist terrorism, being labelled <em>irtica</em>. The paper provides insights into the Turkish political context for the decision and analyses the roles of key actors in Turkish politics, such as Government and Army, during the 28 February 1997 process, their motivations and the policy processes in the country.</p> Suleyman Temiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 659–681 659–681 Language Policy and Practices in Indonesian Higher Education Institutions <p>English in Indonesia has foreign language status. Nevertheless, the language is greatly significant to the country due to its numerous regional and global appeals. The current language policy of Indonesia ensures that the language is taught to children from junior high school level. However, as a reflection of a language that has not been prioritised in school curriculum, school leavers largely have limited grasp of the language by the time they enrol into university programmes. This study attempts to highlight institutional practices in student enrolment into and graduation from English programmes. It is also concerned with issues that are perceived to have derived from the policy. Based on interviews with 23 academics from five universities in Central Java, the majority of whom are administrators, policy-related issues of the English language are identified in this paper. Findings include communication skill difficulties faced by English majors and the juxtaposition of state and private universities in terms of student recruitment. The findings are significant in informing stakeholders such as policy makers, administrators, language instructors, and other practitioners about the impact of language policy and planning on practices in higher education institutions in Central Java and in assisting future decision-making processes whereby the consequences are far-reaching.</p> Maskanah Mohammad Lotfie Hartono , ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 683–704 683–704 A Novel Critique on ‘The Scientific Miracle of Qur’ān Philosophy’: An Inter-Civilization Debate <p>In recent decades we have been given one of the most interesting concepts in Islamic intellectual history, `the scientific miracle of Qur’ān whereby the proponents have almost established the scientific theories in the Qur’ān. However, such ardent claims must not come to be without any inspiration and methodology. This article, firstly, tries to trace the inspiration of such concept and then describe the methodology. However, as exciting as this concept seems, the methodology brings forth a very negative approach to prove the miracle of the Qur’ān, which is value free. That negative value free mentality which is related to the status of prophet of Islam will be exposed and it will detail how the status of prophet of Islam was abated so badly to prove the science from the Qur’ān. To counter this negative narrative and to reveal the true status of prophet of Islam, arguments will be presented from the Qur’ān and Ḥadīth which are incontrovertible. Let it be known than, this analysis is not general but particular. However, it will be a novel critique to re-visit this concept.</p> Rahmah Bt Ahmad H. Osman Naseeb Ahmed Siddiqui ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 705–727 705–727 Duties and Decision-Making Guidelines for Sharī‘ah Committee: An Overview of AAOIFI <p>The <em>Sharī‘ah ‘</em>Committee is a board which is independent in directing, reviewing and supervising an Islamic Financial Institution (IFI). It consists of those who are specialised in <em>Fiqh Mu‛āmalāt </em>or those who know it with expertise in other fields. In conjunction with IFIs emergence, the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) was established and has issued numerous standards on accounting, auditing and also governance for IFIs. The researchers intend to review the duties and decision-making guidelines of the <em>Sharī‘ah </em>Committee prescribed by the AAOIFI in 2010. The review undergoes a thorough search and critical analysis of any related content about the topic throughout the whole standard. Some important results are: AAOIFI mentions directly the duties of the <em>Sharī‘ah</em> Committee along with the definition of this <em>Sharī‘ah </em>Committee. These duties are directing, reviewing and supervising. On the other hand, decision-making guidelines are indicated indirectly and they are scattered throughout the AAOIFI governance standards.</p> Muhammad Amanullah Muhammad Nabil Fikri Bin Mhd Zain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 729–748 729–748 Waqf Institutions in Malaysia: Appreciation of Wasaṭiyyah Approach in Internal Control as a Part of Good Governance <p>Good governance is important for the sustainability of Waqf institutions in Malaysia. As a part of good governance, the evaluation of internal control and its components are essential to be considered. While reaching the Maqāṣid al-Sharī‘ah (the objectives of the Lawgiver), the appreciation of Wasaṭiyyah approach can be utilised in the evaluation of internal control in the Waqf institutions. Based on qualitative research method, this research explores the internal control and its components in Waqf institutions. The conceptual study on Wasaṭiyyah approach is provided in brief, and the appreciation of Wasaṭiyyah approach in relation to internal control and its components are provided. It is found that Wasaṭiyyah approach can be used in the evaluation of internal control of Waqf institutions in improving their good governance.</p> Nor Razinah Binti Mohd. Zain Rusni Hassan Nazifah Mustaffha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 749–764 749–764 Muslim Jurists Debate on Non-Muslim Religious Festivals and Its effects on Minority Muslims in the United States of America <p>Muslims in the U.S. are increasingly looking to integrate into its society while trying not to lose their identity as Muslims. They find themselves in a dilemma when it comes to the issue of congratulating and even partaking in the festivals of non-Muslims in the U.S. This issue has gained prominence and momentum after the event of 9-11, in which the Muslims wanted to show and prove their tolerance and acceptance towards others while trying to hold onto and maintain the core principles of Islam. For this reason, this topic is a hotly debated issue in the U.S. and the West in general and a cause of division and confusion amongst Muslims. However, in order to justify their position and feel that they are following the teachings of Islam, they turned to the Islamic scholars, both in the West and the Muslim world, regarding the permissibility or prohibition of congratulating and partaking in non-Muslim festivals. This paper employs a qualitative methodology to analyse the <em>fatāwā</em> of permissibility and its effects on the Muslims living as minorities in the U.S. This qualitative method will give readers an insight, through a questionnaire that was conducted by the researchers, into how the Muslims in the U.S. perceive the issue of congratulating and/or partaking in the religious festivals of the non-Muslims.</p> Ali Ahmed Zahir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 765–784 765–784 Archaeological Analysis of Arabic-Malay Translation Works of Abdullah Basmeih <p>Utusan Melayu Company, Qalam Press Company and the Department of Islamic Affairs, Prime Minister’s Department are the main contributors to the translation discipline of religious texts in Malaysia. Abdullah Basmeih has worked with these institutions as a translator. His purpose is to assist the translation of religious writings from <em>Al-Muṣawwar </em>magazine and multi-disciplinary religious texts, among them <em>sīrah</em>, stories of the Prophet’s companions, <em>ʿaqīdah</em>, <em>‘Ibādah</em>, social and politics. Sheikh Abdullah Basmeih migrated to Singapore in 1939 and worked with Qalam Press Company from 1950 to 1962 as assistant author for monthly magazines published by Qalam Press. Within the 12-year period he worked in Qalam Press, he had successfully translated more than 30 books on the life of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), his wives, children and companions. Abdullah Basmeih then returned to Malaysia. During that time, his great work was produced, which is <em>Tafsir Pimpinan Ar-Rahman Kepada Pengertian Al-Quran </em>in 1968 in Jawi edition, and a Roman edition was published in 1980 by the Department of Islamic Affairs, Prime Minister’s Department. Another great work by him was <em>Mastika Hadis</em>, which is a translation of ḥadīth collection, produced in three volumes, also published by Prime Minister’s Department on 1973. Both works become important materials to enhance the quality of lives of Muslims in Malaysia. Therefore, this study looks at his service and contributions with Utusan Melayu Company, Qalam Press Company and Prime Minister’s Department in producing translations of academic texts. This literary study is conducted to investigate and analyse the translated texts by him in knowledge hub in reality and virtual.</p> Azman Ariffin Kasyfullah Abd Kadir Idris Mansor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 785–805 785–805 Takyīf Fiqhī and its Application to Modern Contracts: A Case Study of the Central Provident Fund Nomination in Singapore <p>The term <em>takyīf fiqhī </em>stands for one crucial concept in Islamic jurisprudence and refers to one of the important steps in the process of formulating <em>fatwā. </em>It basically revolves around the categorization of particular issues under the appropriate rules and precedents established in Islamic juristic thought. The present article attempts to examine the concept of <em>takyīf fiqhī </em>in a comprehensive manner in terms of its meaning, authority, types, importance, and governing criteria as can be gleaned from the works of <em>Sharī‘ah </em>scholars. This is then followed by an exploration of its application to modern contracts, taking as a case study the Central Provident Fund Nomination in Singapore. The article concludes with the view that the Central Provident Fund Nomination, in terms of its essential characteristics and objective, resembles the Islamic will contract as discussed in books of Islamic Jurisprudence.</p> Mohamed El Tahir El Mesawi Mohammad Rizhan bin Leman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 807–827 807–827 Revisiting English as a Foreign Language (EFL) vs English Lingua Franca (ELF): The Case for Pronunciation <p>The spread of English as the world lingua franca has evoked the rethinking of the significance of native-speaker (NS) norms and models in teaching English, and as a result, the target of pronunciation teaching and learning has shifted from imitating native accents to achieving speech intelligibility. The Lingua Franca Core (LFC) proposal introduced a list of phonological features in English that are, arguably, the minimum required to achieve intelligibility and argued that mispronouncing these features is expected to cause a breakdown in communication among non-native speakers. As a consequence of this, it has been suggested that LFC be prioritized in teaching and learning English pronunciation. In response to the LFC proposal, researchers have become polarized; while some have found LFC a promising approach, others have argued against its appropriateness as a target of pronunciation teaching and learning. This paper evaluates the controversial position of the LFC proposal in the literature, focusing on three main dimensions: the LFC’s potential to result in intelligible communication, its teachability and its scope of function as an alternative target to the NS models (Received Pronunciation and General American), and the influence of different attitudes on the success of implementing the LFC.</p> Wafa Zoghbor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 829–858 829–858 “How did we Choose?”: Understanding the Northern Female Voting Behaviour in Malaysia in the 14th General Election* <p>Pakatan Harapan (PH) won the 14thGeneral Election (GE-14) held in May, 2018 in Malaysia. PH thus ended sixty-one years rule of Barisan Nasional (BN).While the slogan of Malaysia Bahru (New Malaysia), indicating changes to come in the country, became a popular slogan, one thing remained constant. This was the number of women contesting the GE-14 as candidates and the number of them who were elected was much less than the number of men contesting and getting elected in GE-14 although women represented slightly more than 50% of the total registered voters in that election. The main objective of this paper is to examine the main factors that influenced the female voters in GE-14. Two states in the northern Malaysia were selected with 200 eligible female voters. They were clustered and conveniently sampled and were given self-administered questionnaires. Demographic variables were cross-tabbed while asking the women which factors had influenced their votes. The findings show that majority of the female voters were influenced by the candidates’ social background. Younger women were very concerned with the issues directly affecting them. Significantly, preference for political party was of least interest to them while voting. While the majority of women voters from the three main ethnic groups supported more women to be nominated as candidates in elections, the Malay women showed the highest level of disagreement on that matter as compared to the rest. The study also shows that majority of the female voters, whether young or old, rural or urban, use social media as the main and the most trusted source of news on election. These findings have concluded that, their demographic background interplayed with each other constructing their voting preferences. Female voters are crucial and each contesting parties need to pay closer attention to the women’s concerns in order to secure their votes.</p> Ummu Atiyah Ahmad Zakuan Mohammad Azizuddin Mohd Sani Norehan Abdullah Zaireeni Azmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 859–882 859–882 Unintended Consequences? The Commodification of Ideas in Tertiary Education and their Effects on Muslim Students <p>Islamic education, from a holistic point of view, is more than just the direct transmission of the pure Islamic sciences. It encompasses other branches of specialisation and ideally accompanies Muslims, through reflections of the Islamic worldview, during their formal and informal formation. This paper reflects how, in the contemporary tertiary education in the Islamic world, commodified concepts stemming from a non-Islamic worldview are being proliferated, and what the expected results are for Muslim students. The paper expounds on differences in worldview and educational systems and the commodification of ideas. It gives examples from business school curricula, psychology and the impact of teaching in a foreign language, to summarise (un)intended consequences on the students’ educational developments. It also shows how the agency of the theory of Maqāṣid, the higher objectives of Islamic law, has immersed Islamic thought in reaction to the bias in the educational system.</p> Anke Iman Bouzenita Bronwyn Wood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 883–902 883–902 Ultra Petita and the Threat to Constitutional Justice: The Indonesian Experience <p>The doctrine of Ultra Petita has been the subject of much criticism and poses a threat to constitutional justice. This article examines the doctrine in operation inside of Indonesia where the Constitutional Court appears to have expanded its jurisdiction by not only reviewing or analysing but also by invalidating or annulling acts. The impact of this is a creation of a high-degree of legal uncertainty and ambiguity in the judicial process. The article argues that instead of making use of the extra-constitutional Ultra Petita doctrine, the Indonesian Constitutional Court should return to a black letter approach to the law, thereby promoting certainty and coherence.</p> Muhammad Siddiq Armia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 903–930 903–930 Methods of Qur’ānic Memorisation (Ḥifẓ): Implications for Learning Performance <p>Memorisation of the Qur’ān occupies a central position in Muslim conception of religious education. The awareness of preserving the Qur’ān through memorisation (<em>ḥifẓ</em>) is becoming prevalent and is still continued in these modern days in many educational institutions in many parts of the Muslim countries. This article examines different methods of Qur’ānic memorization being practiced in Malaysia. Similarities and uniqueness of those methods will be presented. The evaluation of those Qur’ānic memorisation techniques brings to the foreground the educative value of memorisation as a learning tool and the implications memorisation methods have in enhancing an individual’s learning performance.</p> Mariam Adawiah Dzulkifli Abdul Kabir Hussain Solihu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 931–947 931–947 Volume 26, No 2 (All Articles, One PDF) Intellectual Discourse ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 513 979 Saudi Arabia in Transition: Insights on Social, Political, Economic and Religious Change. Edited by Bernard Haykel, Thomas Hegghammer and Stephane Lacroix. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2015, pp. 351. ISBN: 978-0-521-18509-7 <p><em>Saudi Arabia in Transition </em>is a collection of works by scholars from various backgrounds who have carried out in-depth research on one of the most obscure countries in terms of its cultural identity and political system. Since the Arab Uprising which started in 2011, countries in the Middle East have had to look into the mirror and reformulate their claim to legitimacy. While Saudi Arabia did not have the same revolutionist fervour as did its neighbours to the east and west, it cannot escape pockets of rising dissent in its own community. While this book was published in 2015, it may provide important insights into how Saudi Arabia is changing, and more importantly, provide a background to help understand the direction and pace of reform that is undertaken by Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman who has been the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia since 2017.</p> Syaza Farhana Shukri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 949–951 949–951 ‘Arab Spring’: Faktor dan Impak (‘Arab Spring’: Factors and Impact). Edited by Wan Kamal Mujani & Siti Nurulizah Musa. Bangi: Penerbit Fakulti Pengajian Islam, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. 2015, pp. 164. ISBN 978-967-5478-91-8. <p>In 2015, Wan Kamal Mujani, a Professor of Islamic History and Siti Nurulizah Musa, a postgraduate student in Arabic and Islamic Studies, both from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia published an edited book entitled ‘Arab Spring’: Factor and Impact (‘Arab Spring’ Faktor dan Impak). Written in Malay and published by the Faculty of Islamic Studies of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). This volume comprises of fourteen chapters on the ‘Arab Spring’. They approach this phenomenon from different perspectives in order to guide the readers understand selected issues arising arose from those momentous events that shook the Arab world between 2011 and 2012.</p> Mohammad Irwan Syazli Saidin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 952 955 Faith in an Age of Terror. Edited by Quek Tze Ming and Philip E. Satterthwaite. Singapore: Genesis Books, 2018, pp.150. ISBN: 978- 981-48-0707-4 <p>This book is timely considering that the beginning of the 21st century is marked by the tragedy of 9/11 which witnessed the most heinous act of terrorism committed in the land of democracy. This tragedy has changed the discourse on religion and terrorism and continues to be discussed by scholars. Experts are interested to explore the role of religion especially Christianity and Islam in the age where religious fundamentalism has been closely linked to violent acts. The book contains nine chapters that are based on papers presented at the conference on ‘Faith in an Age of Terror’ organised by the Biblical Graduate School of Theology (BGST), Singapore. The editors of this book, Quek Tze-Ming and Philip E. Sattherwaite, are lecturers at the BGST. The most interesting fact about the book is that it includes the perspective of inter-faith relations especially Muslim-Christian relations and the discussion on how to move forward in a multi-cultural and diverse society such as Singapore. The other contributors to the book are from various academic disciplines such as Sociology, Political Science, and Theology. They are Kumar Ramakrishna, Robert M.Solomon, Timothy T.N Lim, Lewis E. Winkler, Kiem-Kiok Kwa, Sng Bee Bee, Benjamin Pwee, and Mohammad Alami Musa. Through the inter-disciplinary perspective of these contributors the book discusses terror acts that are inspired by religious values, and methods that religious community can adopt in trying to understand and curb them.</p> Rabi’ah Aminudin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 956 959 Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion. By Gareth Stedman Jones. London: Penguin Books, 2017, pp. 768. Paper Back. ISBN 978-0- 141-02480-6. <p>As early as page 2 in <em>Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion, </em>Stedman Jones boldly highlights that “(t)he invention of what came to be called as ‘Marxism’ was initially in large part the creation of Engels in his books and pamphlets, beginning with <em>Anti-Dühring </em>in 1878”. He further adds, as keepers of Marx’s works, the leaders of the German Social Democratic Party, including August Bebel, Karl Kautsky, Eduard Bernstein, and Franz Mehring, were also responsible for further mystifications of Marx by hiding the embarrassing gaps between the image and reality of Marx and his theory. This was ostensibly done in order to protect the party – which had Marx as its founding theorist – from being attacked and discredited by the ruling power which was the imperial government of Wilhelmine Germany (p. 2-3). Jones subsequently states, “From the beginning, what came to be called as ‘Marxism’ had been built upon an unambiguously selective view of what was to count as theory, not only in relation to would-be heretics, but also in relation to Marx himself” (p. 4). Afterwards he reveals a content from Bebel’s letter to Kautsky: “By the way, I want to tell you – but please keep absolutely quiet about it – that some of the letters (Marx’s) were not published, above all, because they were too strong for us” (p. 4). These punchlines are more than enough to shake the general understanding of Marx and “Marxism” to acclaiming Marxists and critical theorists alike.</p> Zahid Zamri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 959 965 “O People of the Book”: An Exegetical Analysis of the Ahl al-Kitāb in Qur’ānic Discourse <p>The purpose of this research is to develop a methodological framework through which to analyse the Qur’ān’s dialogical engagement with the <em>Ahl al-Kitāb </em>(the People of the Book – Jews and Christians). A substantial portion of the Qur’ānic revelations are directed towards, or about, the Jews and Christians, warranting a critical analysis of <em>why </em>such a dialogue was necessary and what the nature of that dialog entailed. Indeed, the Qur’ān’s engagement with the <em>Ahl al-Kitāb </em>is one of the most critical elements of the Qur’ānic revelation, evidenced by the sheer number of verses addressing them. This research seeks to address why the Qur’ān engages so heavily in polemics with the <em>Ahl</em> <em>al-Kitāb </em>and the evolutionary nature of the engagement and polemical tone throughout Muhammad (SAW)’s prophethood.</p> Jonathan Alexander Hoffman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 965–977 965–977 International Conference on Religion, Culture and Governance in the Contemporary World (ICRCG2018), 3-4 October 2018 (Wednesday-Thursday), 23-24 Muharram 1440. <p>The contemporary world is passing through a very crucial time. According to UN reports, the world is facing its ‘worst humanitarian crisis’ since the end of World War II, with more than 20 million people facing starvation and famine in four countries. (AFP). Different regions of the world are marred by wars and conflicts. Unfortunately, attempts to end those so far have come to naught. As a consequence of these wars and conflicts ordinary people continue to suffer from hunger, and diseases. They continue to be victims of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Despite all efforts to stymie poverty, social, economic and gender inequalities, religious conflicts and extremism of all kinds, these continue to increase at an alarming pace. As if these were not enough, people have to deal with the negative impacts of rapid climate change in terms of increased number of floods, wild fires, and global warming.</p> Atiqur Rahman Mujahid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 979–982 979–982 Front Matter Intellectual Discourse ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2 Back Matter Intellectual Discourse ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-19 2018-12-19 26 2