Intellectual Discourse 2018-02-26T15:14:10+00:00 Ishtiaq Hossain Open Journal Systems <p>Intellectual Discourse is a multi-disciplinary, flagship journal of the International Islamic University Malaysia. First published in 1993, it is dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world. Particular attention is paid to works dealing with history, geography, political science, economics, education, psychology, sociology, law, literature, religion, philosophy, international relations, environmental and developmental issues. The journal is international in its range and coverage. It is intended to be a forum for scholarly dialogue and communication on issues related to Islam and the Muslim world.</p> <p><em><strong>Publication fee:</strong>&nbsp;Publication fee is RM1500 (Ringgit Malaysia), in addition to RM20&nbsp;as&nbsp;editing fee per page.</em></p> Editorial 2018-02-26T15:14:10+00:00 Ishtiaq Hossain 2017-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Al-Farabi and Said Nursi on the Civilising Mission of the Prophets 2017-12-30T00:03:25+00:00 Elmira Akhmetova <p>This paper studies the role of prophethood in building a civilisation<br>with special reference to the writings of Al-Farabi and Said Nursi. In order to<br>elucidate the thought of Al-Farabi, the ideas of Ibn Sina are consulted in some<br>parts of the paper. The fi rst part of the paper defi nes the term “true civilisation”<br>(or an “ideal state” according to Al-Farabi), its foundations and peculiarities<br>from the viewpoints of these three Muslim scholars. I t suggests that, on one<br>hand, a human being cannot achieve his main goal, i.e. felicity, without living in<br>a society, and, on the other, his most fundamental need is the need for religion,<br>revealed by the prophets. Therefore, these three scholars argued that the real<br>civilisation, which can make its citizens happy, satisfi ed and equal without any<br>exception, originates from divine laws. As paper fi nds, Said Nursi articulated<br>that the mission of the prophets, besides establishing of the worship to One<br>God, also includes bringing of economic and political justice, social stability,<br>ethical enhancement and emotional inspiration to his society, which are the<br>fundamental requirements for the building of strong civilisations but beyond<br>the power of an ordinary man. Based on the ideas of the scholars, the paper<br>concludes that, according to the Muslim scholars, the prophets sent by God<br>were the best law-givers and founders of the most excellent civilisations.</p> 2017-12-29T09:05:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Colonialism, Society and Reforms in Malaya: A Comparative Evaluation of Shaykh Tahir Jalaluddin and Syed Shaykh Ahmad Al-Hady 2017-12-30T00:03:25+00:00 Hafiz Zakariya <p>Early twentieth-century Malaya witnessed the emergence of Islamic<br>reformist movement. Inspired by ‘Abduh, Malay reformists, epitomized by<br>Tahir Jalaluddin and Ahmad al-Hady, discontented with the socio-economic and<br>political conditions of the Malays, criticised the Malay ruling elites and called<br>for reform of their society. While the former worked within the framework of<br>formal Islamic scholarship as an ‘ālim, the latter primarily operated as a public<br>intellectual who spoke to a broad audience, at least in the urban centres of<br>the Straits Settlements. This study compares their careers and ideas regarding<br>colonialism and their remedies to address the socio-economic conditions of<br>Malay society and the intellectual crisis of the Muslims.</p> 2017-12-29T09:10:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Human Nature and Motivation: A Comparative Analysis between Western and Islamic Psychologies 2017-12-30T00:03:25+00:00 Mohd Abbas Abdul Razak Maziah Bte Mustapha Md Yousuf Ali <p>In the fi eld of psychology, the topics on human nature and motivation<br>have been quite extensively discussed. These two topics are interrelated<br>and inseparable. Any endeavor to understand man and his potentials makes<br>it necessary for one to venture into the study of human nature. Major topics<br>in psychology like motivation, personality, creativity, psychotherapy, mental<br>health, etc. could be well understood with a proper understanding on human<br>nature. In the light of this reality, what makes this research an appealing and<br>interesting one is the fact that the researchers had comparatively analyzed the<br>ideas on human nature and motivation showcased to the world by Western and<br>Islamic psychologies. The fact that there exist a great number of schools of<br>thought in Western psychology, the researchers had narrowed their scope of<br>investigation to three only. As such, they discussed the ideas on human nature<br>and motivation as conceptualized in Psychoanalysis, Radical Behaviorism and<br>Humanistic psychology. Upon analyzing Western theories, the researchers<br>performed a compare and contrast analysis with ideas provided by Islamic<br>psychology on human nature and motivation. This academic exercise was done<br>in the hope of identifying as to whether there exist any similarity and difference<br>between the two psychologies. Since the nature of this study was a qualitative<br>one, the researchers conducted a library research to collect the relevant data.<br>In analyzing the data related to the study, the researchers used the content and<br>textual analysis methods.</p> 2017-12-29T23:48:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Historical Roots of Extremist and Radical Islamist Thinking 2017-12-30T00:03:26+00:00 Thameem Ushama <p>This study analyses the historical evolution of contemporary Muslim<br>controversies over the historical roots of extremism by applying qualitative<br>content analysis to relevant Qur’ānic verses, prophetic traditions and offerings<br>from early schools of Islamic thought. The study begins by defi ning Arabic<br>term ghulūw with regard to religious extremism and then briefl y introduces<br>manifestations of the phenomenon from the days of Prophet Nūḥ (A.S.) to<br>Jewish and Christian enthusiasts. The paper discusses impacts of extremist<br>thinking on early Muslims with a focus on Kharijite and Muᶜtazilite schools<br>and other related sects. In addition, a discussion of the misuse of certain terms<br>and related legal rulings addresses fi ve matters of importance: [1] matters<br>signifi ed by specifi c appellations, errant legal rulings and consequences; [2]<br>extremist doctrines; [3] extremist religious discourses; [4] rebuttal of errant<br>doctrines; and [5] implications of extremist designations and rulings.</p> 2017-12-29T09:21:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Questioning Styles in the Qur’ān and Their Impact on Human Thinking a Conceptual Analysis 2017-12-30T00:03:26+00:00 Jamal Ahmed Badi Salah Machouche Benaouda Bensaid <p>Questions and questioning represent one of the most important<br>communicative and illustrative mediums of the Qur’an. Qur’ān exegetes<br>devoted signifi cant efforts to the study of styles of questioning across various<br>disciplines of the Qur’ān sciences, and as such, have addressed the topic<br>of questions from the perspectives of language, theology, jurisprudence,<br>dialectics, philosophy and ethics. Little interest, however, is shown to the<br>relationship between questions and thinking. This textual analysis of selected<br>Qur’ānic questions examine Qur’anic questions, their forms, scope, functions<br>and effects with respect to development of human thought. This study shows<br>that questions in the Qur’ān serve a broad range of objectives. The style of<br>questioning inherent the Qur’ān presents an intuitive and familiar method that<br>may be included in current Muslim education and learning to revive critical<br>thinking and creativity known to early generation.</p> 2017-12-29T09:26:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mafqūd and Fasakh in the Writings of Muslim Jurists and Provisions of Malaysian Federal Territory Islamic Family Law: The Case of MH 370 Missing Plane 2017-12-30T00:03:26+00:00 Mek Wok Mahmud Siti Zulaikha binti Mokhtar <p>In Islam, there are various forms of dissolution of marriages that<br>are permitted to avoid the greater evil which may result from their continuance.<br>Wives are granted the right to dissolve a marriage in order to protect their<br>rights, particularly in the case missing husbands, either alive or dead. This is<br>known as mafqūd, or missing person. Therefore, the objective of this study is<br>to discuss the concept of fasakh and mafqūd in accordance with the views of<br>Muslim jurists and the provisions of Islamic family law in Malaysia. This paper<br>also aims to analyse both those views in the context of the MH 370 incident.<br>This study uses the qualitative method, by collecting data obtained by means<br>of information gathering within the resources of the library and authoritative<br>websites. From the study, it is shown that the wife can apply for divorce on the<br>basis of fasakh when it is diffi cult to prove the status of a missing husband.<br>In other words, rulings applicable to fasakh can be activated in the case of<br>mafqūd. Further discussions are expected to fi nd the best period of presumption<br>of death, since it is based on ijtihād or the discretion of lawmakers.</p> 2017-12-29T09:31:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Islamic Republic of Iran’s Networking Diplomacy: The Role of Ahl-ul-Bayt World Assembly (ABWA) 2017-12-30T00:03:26+00:00 Wahabuddin Ra’ees Abdol Moghst Bani Kamal <p>The 1979 Iranian Revolution entailed establishing Iran’s hegemony<br>in the region and promotion of shi’ite doctrinal values in the Muslim world.<br>The Iranian State under the leadersip of Ayatullah Khomeini was tasked to<br>design a strategy of organizing and connecting the non-Iranian Shi’ites and<br>Sunnite sympathisers of the revolution particulary in the Muslim world with the<br>Islamic Republic of Iran. Networking with the non-Iranian Shi’ites and Sunnite<br>sympathizers of the revolution was crucial for support for Iran’s hegemony and<br>export of the revolution. The Islamic Republic established Ahl-ul-bayt World<br>Assembly (ABWA) to carry out its networking diplomacy. ABWA’s objectives,<br>networking strategies and activities in Afghanistan and Malaysia suggest that<br>the non-Iranian Shi’ites and Sunnite sympathizers of the Revoltion are political<br>and strategic asset and Iran under the guise of the narrative of exporting<br>revoltion expects their loyalty and sympathy rather than to the state of their<br>citizenship and residence. Unlike Malaysia, ABWA’s networking activity in<br>Afghanistan also entails integrating the Afghan Shi’ites into sensitive positions<br>in the post-Taliban political system, indeed a breach of the claim that ABWA is<br>apolitical and neutral institution.</p> 2017-12-29T09:35:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cedaw Implementation in Malaysia: An Overview of Reservations from Islamic Perspective 2017-12-30T00:03:26+00:00 Nadzrah Ahmad Rabi’ah Aminuddin Roslina Othman Norzulaili Ghazali Nurul Syuhada <p>Abstract: This study examines the extent to which CEDAW has been<br>implemented in Muslim countries particularly in Malaysia. Applying a<br>qualitative approach comprising of content and comparative analyses, the<br>paper seeks to understand the reservations Muslim countries have concerning<br>the compatibility of CEDAW’s understanding of gender equality with<br>the SharÊÑah’s perspective on gender and gender relations. It does this by<br>examining Malaysia’s implementation of CEDAW in three areas: constitution,<br>legal and policy based on the SharÊÑah, and CEDAW’s articles. By doing so,<br>the paper clarifies misconceptions regarding the SharÊÑah’s treatment of gender<br>related issues. This paper will also explore the different roles given to each<br>gender and how they are positioned in the overall worldview of Islam. The<br>paper concludes that both the SharÊÑah and CEDAW share the same positive<br>advocacy of gender equality albeit with different approaches. The differences<br>in approach should be respected as they underscore deep and complex creedal<br>and social commitments that define the different countries with their unique<br>cultural settings.</p> 2017-12-29T23:55:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Following Islamic Reality Show Personalities on Twitter: A Uses and Gratifi cation Approach to Understanding Parasocial Interaction and Social Media Use 2017-12-30T00:03:26+00:00 Tengku Siti Aisha Tengku Mohd Azzman Shariffadeen Aini Maznina .A Manaf <p>Islamic reality shows started in Malaysia with Imam Muda, produced<br>in 2010 by Astro Oasis. Since then, other television stations in Malaysia have also<br>adopted this format. Using uses and gratifi cation as a theoretical framework, a<br>major focus of this paper was to examine the effects of Islamic reality shows on<br>its audience, specifi cally on the parasocial relationships formed between Twitter<br>users and their favorite Islamic reality show personality. It was predicted that<br>active social media users would be more inclined to watch Islamic reality shows<br>because of specifi c Twitter habits related to the show, and level of religiosity.<br>A survey was conducted among students taking introductory Human Sciences<br>and Islamic Revealed Knowledge subjects from the International Islamic<br>University of Malaysia (IIUM). Among others, evidence from this research<br>suggests that being relatable to viewers is important for mediated characters.<br>Specifi cally, the level of parasocial interaction was found to signifi cantly<br>infl uence motivation to use Twitter, and intention to watch Islamic reality<br>shows in the future, because of their Twitter use. However, religiosity did not<br>infl uence intention to watch Islamic reality shows. The implications of these<br>findings on the role of parasocial interaction, and the effects of social media on<br>television viewing were discussed in this paper.</p> 2017-12-29T09:45:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Imposition of Good Samaritan Laws to Improve Professionalism among Medical Practitioners 2017-12-30T00:03:26+00:00 Aishath Iffa Ashraf Najy Faiz Adlina Ariffin <p>This paper discusses a legal-moral confl ict that exists in the<br>medical fi eld which pertains to the duties of medical practitioners toward their<br>patients. More specifi cally, it deliberates on paradoxical situations where<br>medical practitioners are “legally permitted” to refuse rendering their services<br>to the needy due to the principles entrenched in the law of negligence. This<br>legal conundrum has created a moral ‘neglect’ on the part of the medical<br>practitioners toward their patients who are in dire need of medical treatment.<br>Hence, this paper argues that the concepts inherent in the Good Samaritan laws<br>should be imposed on medical practitioners in Malaysia, particularly, since<br>neglecting patients who urgently require medical attention transgresses the<br>Islamic principle of helping ones neighbours and the needy, contravenes the<br>Hippocratic Oath and infringes the conscience of a morally upright individual.</p> 2017-12-29T09:50:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Leadership in Promoting Quality Management: A Study on the Chittagong City Corporation, Bangladesh 2017-12-30T00:03:27+00:00 SM Abdul Quddus Nisar Uddin Ahmed <p>Leadership plays a crucial role in ensuring quality management in<br>an organization. The purpose of this article is to examine the roles of leadership<br>in quality management relating to the Chittagong City Corporation (CCC),<br>one of the major urban government units in Bangladesh. This study is guided<br>by the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM) model, which<br>is a quality assessment tool designed to evaluate an organization’s quality<br>management capacity. This paper will focus on the role of leadership because<br>it is one of the major “enabler” components of the EFQM model for quality<br>management. When talking about quality management in an organization,<br>leaders develop and facilitate the achievement of the mission and vision of the<br>organization. They also develop organizational values and systems required<br>for sustainable success and implement these via their actions and behaviours.<br>In relation to this study, both quantitative and qualitative data collection<br>methods were used to gather and analyse that information. Quantitative data<br>were collected from a total of 142 participants, including selective Chittagong<br>City Corporation offi cials, city inhabitants, government offi cials and NGO and<br>civil society personnel by using a structured questionnaire. The fi ndings of<br>this study reveal that the CCC leadership has played a positive role in their<br>interaction with the customers, partners and representatives of society. Data<br>also revealed that the leaders of CCC reinforce a culture of improvement in their<br>support of staff and they tend to identify and promote organizational change.<br>However, our data also found that leaders/managers of CCC are not aware<br>of the necessity to develop the mission, vision, values and ethics of quality<br>management in the organization and they lack the quality or capacity to be a<br>proper role model for a culture of excellence, even though they are personally<br>involved in the development, implementation and continuous improvement<br>process of the CCC. This study suggests that the leaders/managers of CCC<br>need to develop a properly structured organizational mission, vision, value<br>framework and system that is essential to improve the quality of management<br>in the organization.</p> 2017-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Front Matter 2017-12-30T00:03:27+00:00 . . 2017-12-29T08:56:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Back Matter 2017-12-30T00:03:27+00:00 . . 2017-12-29T08:58:09+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##