IIUM Engineering Journal http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually&nbsp;(June and December), is a peer-reviewed open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers, short communications and technical notes. The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines, and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Currently Indexed by:</strong></p> <p><a title="thomson_reuters_logo" href="http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Search.do?product=UA&amp;SID=U1yWZttU3hFUyp1wzif&amp;search_mode=GeneralSearch&amp;prID=11a92d27-6b66-4ebb-b2ba-b981a72237e1" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 75px; 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hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/scholar_logo.gif" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="MyCite_img" href="http://www.myjurnal.my/public/browse-journal-view.php?id=237" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 80px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/mcclogo.jpg" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="DOAJ_img" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2289-7860" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 120px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/doaj_logo.jpg" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="ISC_img" href="http://mjl.isc.gov.ir/Default.aspx?lan=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 40px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/isc_logo.jpg" alt=""></a></p> <div> <div> <div><strong><span style="color: red;">&nbsp;</span></strong></div> </div> <div><br><br></div> </div> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUM EJ is committed to meet and uphold standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process.&nbsp; A summary of our expectation of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/about/editorialPolicies#focusAndScope" target="_self">link</a>].</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> en-US <p>The IIUM Engineering journal follows the open access policy.</p> zahirulalam@iium.edu.my (Prof. Dr. AHM Zahirul Alam) alam_z@ieee.org (Zahirul alam) Fri, 01 Jun 2018 01:13:24 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/917 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <!-- [if !mso]> <style> v\:* { behavior: url(#default#VML) } o\:* { behavior: url(#default#VML) } .shape { behavior: url(#default#VML) } </style> <![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]> <xml><o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="1027"></o:shapedefaults> </xml><![endif]--> <div class="WordSection1"><hr> <h2 style="margin: .05in 0in .0001pt 129.25pt;">IIUM ENGINEERING JOURNAL</h2> <hr> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 4.1pt; margin: 0in -2.0pt .0001pt -2.45pt;">&nbsp;</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .2pt;"><strong> <span style="font-size: 4.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <h4 style="margin-top: 4.55pt;">CHIEF EDITOR</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">Ahmad Faris Ismail, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h4 style="margin-top: 5.4pt;">TECHNICAL EDITOR</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">Erry Yulian Triblas Adesta, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h4 style="margin-top: 5.65pt;">EXECUTIVE EDITOR</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">AHM Zahirul Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h4 style="margin-top: 5.65pt;">ASSOCIATE EDITOR</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">Anis Nurashikin Nordin, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h4 style="line-height: 10.9pt; margin-top: 5.4pt;">LANGUAGE EDITOR</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.9pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">Lynn Mason, Malaysia</p> <h4 style="margin-top: 6.1pt; line-height: normal;">COPY EDITOR</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-left: 7.4pt;">Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .25pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <h4 style="line-height: normal;">EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 5.85pt 278.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia Amir Akramin Shafie, IIUM, Malaysia Erwin Sulaeman, IIUM, Malaysia Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.6pt; margin-left: 20.95pt;">Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 240.15pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 294.25pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Md Zahangir Alam, IIUM, Malaysia Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 160.7pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States Muataz Hazza Faizi Al Hazza, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 180.95pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore Nor Farahidah Binti Za'bah, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 124.7pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States Rosminazuin AB. Rahim, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.8pt; margin-left: 20.95pt;">Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .2pt;"><span style="font-size: 8.5pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <h4 style="line-height: 10.75pt; margin-top: .05pt;">AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUMENGINEERING JOURNAL</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 16.25pt .0001pt 7.4pt;">The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually, is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">span </span>of engineering disciplines; covering the main <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">areas</span> of engineering: Electrical and <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">Computer</span> Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental and Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">other</span> <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">areas</span> of Engineering and Applied Science are also welcomed. The <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">IIUM</span> Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers, Invited review papers, Short communications, Technical notes, and Letters to the editor </em> <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">(no</span> page charge). Book reviews, reports of and/or call for papers of conferences, symposia and meetings, and advances in research <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">equipment</span> could also be published in <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">IIUM</span> Engineering Journal with minimum charges.</p> <h4 style="line-height: 10.8pt; margin-top: 5.3pt;">REFEREES’ NETWORK</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 16.55pt .0001pt 7.4pt;">All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</p> <h4 style="margin-top: 5.6pt; line-height: normal;">SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</h4> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 97%; margin: .2pt 11.2pt .0001pt 7.4pt;"><!-- [if gte vml 1]><v:rect id="_x0000_s1028" style='position:absolute;margin-left:385.5pt;margin-top:31.5pt; width:3.75pt;height:.75pt;z-index:-5296;mso-position-horizontal-relative:page' fillcolor="#00c" stroked="f"></v:rect><![endif]-->&lt;![if !vml]&gt;<span style="mso-ignore: vglayout; position: absolute; z-index: -5296; left: 534px; top: 692px; width: 5px; height: 1px;"><img src="new_page_17_files/image002.gif" width="5" height="1"></span>&lt;![endif]&gt;A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM-Engineering Journal website:<a href="http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal"><span style="color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal. </span></a>Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website and the e-mail addresses of the Executive Editor: <a href="mailto:zahirulalam@iium.edu.my"> <span style="color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">zahirulalam<em>@iium.edu.my</em></span></a> Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jan Gombak, 53100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. <em>Phone: (603) 6196 4529, Fax:(603) 6196 4488.</em></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .45pt;">&nbsp;</p> <br clear="ALL"> &nbsp;&nbsp;</div> <p><span style="font-size: 4.5pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;"> <br style="page-break-before: always;" clear="all"> &nbsp;</span></p> <div class="WordSection2"> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .15pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 12.5pt;">&nbsp;</span></em></p> <h2 style="margin-top: 4.4pt;">INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .15pt;"><strong> <span style="font-size: 13.5pt;">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin: .05pt 0in .0001pt 56.95pt;">A. Anwar, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.8pt; margin-left: 56.95pt;">Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 199.55pt .0001pt 56.95pt;">Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.75pt; margin-left: 56.95pt;">Hany Ammar, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.8pt; margin-left: 56.95pt;">Idris Mohammed Bugaje, Nigeria</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 97%; margin: .1pt 295.95pt .0001pt 56.95pt;">K.B. Ramachandran, India Kunzu Abdella, Canada</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 180.95pt .0001pt 56.95pt;">Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 267.45pt .0001pt 56.95pt;">Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland Mohamed B Trabia, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 124.7pt .0001pt 56.95pt;">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States Nazmul Karim</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 106.15pt .0001pt 56.95pt;">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States Razi Nalim, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.7pt; margin-left: 56.95pt;">Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0in 104.0pt .0001pt 56.95pt;">Tibor Czigany, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary Yiu-Wing Mai, The University of Sydney, Australia.</p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .5pt;"><span style="font-size: 13.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: center; margin: .05pt 205.1pt .0001pt 196.35pt;" align="center">Published by: IIUM Press,</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-indent: 11.4pt; line-height: 106%; margin: .1pt 133.3pt .0001pt 132.7pt;">International Islamic University Malaysia Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Phone (+603) 6196-5014, Fax: (+603) 6196-6298</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.9pt; margin-left: 134.4pt;">Website: <a href="http://iiumpress.iium.edu.my/bookshop"> <span style="color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> http://iiumpress.iium.edu.my/bookshop</span></a></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 113%; margin: 8.7pt 16.65pt .0001pt 12.8pt;">Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisement herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.</p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><!-- [if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"></v:stroke> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"></v:f> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"></v:f> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"></v:f> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"></v:f> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"></v:f> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"></v:f> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"></v:f> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"></v:f> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"></v:f> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"></v:f> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"></v:f> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"></v:f> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"></v:path> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"></o:lock> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="image1.jpeg" o:spid="_x0000_s1030" type="#_x0000_t75" style='position:absolute;margin-left:248.25pt;margin-top:13.5pt;width:114pt; height:57.75pt;z-index:1096;visibility:visible;mso-wrap-style:square; mso-wrap-distance-left:0;mso-wrap-distance-top:0;mso-wrap-distance-right:0; mso-wrap-distance-bottom:0;mso-position-horizontal-relative:page; mso-position-vertical:absolute;mso-position-vertical-relative:text'> <v:imagedata src="new_page_17_files/image004.jpg" o:title=""></v:imagedata> </v:shape><![endif]-->&lt;![if !vml]&gt;<span style="mso-ignore: vglayout; position: absolute; z-index: 1096; left: 341px; top: 1352px; width: 152px; height: 77px;"><img src="new_page_17_files/image005.jpg" width="152" height="77"></span>&lt;![endif]&gt;</p> <br clear="ALL"> &nbsp;&nbsp; <h2 style="text-align: center; margin: 0in 138.85pt .0001pt 135.3pt;" align="center">IIUM Engineering Journal</h2> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; margin: .05pt 138.75pt .0001pt 135.45pt;" align="center"><strong><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">ISSN: 1511-788X&nbsp;&nbsp; E-ISSN: 2289-7860</span></strong></p> </div> <p><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;"> <br style="page-break-before: always;" clear="all"> &nbsp;</span></p> <hr> <div class="WordSection3"> <h1 style="line-height: 16.3pt; margin-left: 135.45pt;"><span style="color: #233e5f;">Volume 19, Issue 1, June 2018</span></h1> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; line-height: 12.55pt; margin: 0in 135.75pt .0001pt 135.45pt;" align="center"><span style="color: #233e5f;">https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v19i1</span></p> <h1 style="margin: 6.3pt 138.85pt 1.05pt 135.4pt;"><span style="color: #233e5f;">Table of Content</span></h1> <hr> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 1.0pt; margin-left: 5.55pt;">&nbsp;</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .55pt;"><span style="font-size: 7.0pt; font-family: Cambria,serif;">&nbsp;</span></p> <h3 style="margin-top: 2.95pt;">CHEMICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING</h3> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 5.9pt 11.2pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS AND RESIDUAL OIL FROM PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT USING A NOVEL ADSORBENT OF ALGINATE AND MANGROVE COMPOSITE BEADS COATED WITH CHITOSAN IN A PACKED BED COLUMN... 1</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 12.2pt; margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Rana Jaafar Jawad, Mohd </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">Halim </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Shah Ismail, Shamsul Izhar Siajam</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;"> INVESTIGATION OF BIOFLOCCULANT AS DEWATERING AID IN SLUDGE TREATMENT........................................ 15</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent: 10.9pt; line-height: 101%; margin: .2pt 9.95pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 101%;">Mohammed Saedi Jami, Maizirwan Mel, Aysha Ralliya Mohd Ariff, Qabas Marwan Abdulazeez </span></em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 101%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;"> HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM ETHANOL DRY REFORMING OVER LANTHANIA-PROMOTED C</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 101%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">O</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 101%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">/A</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; line-height: 101%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">L</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 101%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">2O3 CATALYST............................. 24</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 29.35pt; line-height: 103%;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 103%;">Fahim Fayaz, Nguyen Thi Anh Nga, Thong Le Minh Pham, Huong Thi Danh, Bawadi Abdullah, Herma Dina Setiabudi, Dai-Viet Nguyen Vo</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 9.75pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;"> OPTIMIZATION OF RED PIGMENT PRODUCTION BY MONASCUS PURPUREUS FTC 5356 USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY......................................................... 34</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Nor Farhana Hamid And Farhan Mohd Said</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .35pt 10.75pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">PRODUCTION AND STABILITY OF MYCO-FLOCCULANTS FROM LENTINUS SQUARROSULUS RWF5 AND SIMPLICILLIUM OBCLAVATUM RWF6 FOR REDUCTION OF WATER TURBIDITY.............................................................................. 48</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .15pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Nessa Jebun, Md. Zahangir Alam, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Raha Ahmad Raus</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .15pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">ROLE OF SUBSTRATE BINDING ON THE PROTEIN DYNAMICS OF AN ENDOGLUCANASE FROM FUSARIUM&nbsp;OXYSPORUM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES .............................................................307</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .15pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Abdul Aziz Ahmad, Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh</span></em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3>CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING</h3> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.05pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">DIMINISHING SEISMIC EFFECT ON BUILDINGS USING BEARING ISOLATION....................................................... 59</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .1pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">A. B. M. Saiful Islam</span></em></p> <h3>ELECTRICAL, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING</h3> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.05pt 10.15pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">A DISTRIBUTED ENERGY EFFICIENT CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR DATA AGGREGATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS.................................................................................. 72</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .1pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Seyed Mohammad Bagher Musavi Shirazi, Maryam Sabet, Mohammad Reza Pajoohan</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .55pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT WITH CASCADED MULTILEVEL CONVERTER BASED STATCOM................. 91</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .25pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Mahdi Heidari, Abdonnabi Kovsarian, S. Ghodratollah Seifossadat</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .4pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">THE EFFECTS OF CABLE CHARACTERISTICS ON MAXIMUM OVERVOLTAGE IN COMBINED</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;"> OVERHEAD/CABLE LINES PROTECTED BY SURGE ARRESTERS.............................................................................. 104</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .2pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Reza Alizadeh, Mohammad Mirzaie</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 12.2pt; margin: .6pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">SMART PORTABLE CRYOTHERAPY SYSTEM REPHRASED I.E. WITH CONTROLLED THERMOELECTRIC</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 12.2pt; margin-left: 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">COOLING MODULES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS................................................................................................ 117</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .2pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Abbas Rahmani, Reza Hassanzadeh Pack Rezaee, Naser Kordani</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .55pt 7.45pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">STATIC PIPELINE NETWORK PERFORMANCE OPTIMISATION USING DUAL INTERLEAVE ROUTING ALGORITHM&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 129</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .15pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Siva Kumar Subramaniam1, Shariq Mahmood Khan, Anhar Titik, Rajagopal Nilavalan</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .55pt 7.35pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">A MODIFIED MODEL BASED ON FLOWER POLLINATION ALGORITHM AND K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR FOR DIAGNOSING DISEASES........................................................................ 144</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .1pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Mehdi Zekriyapanah Gashti</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .6pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">A SINGLE LC TANK BASED ACTIVE VOLTAGE BALANCING CIRCUIT FOR BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .158</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .2pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">A K M Ahasan Habib, S. M. A. Motakabber, Muhammad Ibn. Ibrahimy, A. H. M. Zahirul Alam</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.55pt 0in .0001pt 7.4pt;"><strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS AND APPLIED SCIENCE</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 5.95pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">ON THE CONTROL OF HEAT CONDUCTION.......................................... 168</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .2pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Fayziev Yusuf Ergashevich</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.55pt 0in .0001pt 7.4pt;"><strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.05pt 9.85pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING SAGO (METROXYLON SAGU) VIA AUTOCLAVING METHOD......178</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .1pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Aliyah Jamaludin, Che Ku Mohammad Faizal</span></em></p> </div> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 2.3pt 7.55pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">EFFECT OF ALKALINE TREATMENT ON PROPERTIES OF RATTAN WASTE AND FABRICATED BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD....185</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .1pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Zuraida Ahmad, Maisarah Tajuddin, Nurul Farhana Fatin Salim, Zahurin Halim</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 12.1pt; margin: .55pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">AMORPHOUS STRUCTURE IN C</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">U</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">-Z</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">N</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">-V-A</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">L </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;"> OXIDE COMPOSITE CATALYST FOR METHANOL REFORMING..... 197</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 11.35pt; margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Mohd Sabri Mahmud, Zahira Yaakob, Abu Bakar Mohamad, Wan Ramli Wan Daud,&nbsp;</span></em><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Vo Nguyen Dai Viet</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .45pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) WITH NICKEL ADDED DIELECTRIC FLUID....215</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Ahsan Ali Khan</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">, Muataz Hazza Faizi Al Hazza</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">, A K M Moh</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">iuddin, Nurfatihah Abdul Fattah</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">,&nbsp;</span></em><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Mohd Radzi Che Daud</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .55pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF DURIAN SKIN NANOFIBRE BIOCOMPOSITE.......................................... 233</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .1pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;"> Siti Nur E’zzati Mohd Apandi, Hazleen Anuar, Siti Munirah Salimah Abdul Rashid</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.55pt 0in .0001pt 7.4pt;"><strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.1pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">A REVIEW ON RHEOLOGY OF NON-NEWTONIAN PROPERTIES OF BLOOD....................................................... 237</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 12.15pt; margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">Esmaeel </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Fatahian</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">, Naser Kordani, Hossein Fatahian</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 12.15pt; margin-left: 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">NUMERICAL STUDY OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUEL OIL-ALUMINA AND WATER-.......................... 250</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 0in .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">Hossein Fatahian, Hesamoddin Salarian, Majid Eshagh Nimvari, Esmaeel Fatahian</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 7.35pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">A PARAMETRIC STUDY ON CONTROL OF FLOW SEPARATION OVER AN AIRFOIL IN INCOMPRESSIBLE REGIME....270</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 11.7pt; margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">Lakshmanan </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Prabhu</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">, </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Jonnalagadda Srinivas</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .5pt 0in .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">OPTIMIZATION OF BOX TYPE GIRDER WITH AND WITHOUT INDUSTRIAL CONSTRAINTS................................ 289</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">Muhammad </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Abid, Shahbaz Mahmood </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">Khan, Hafiz </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Abdul Wajid</span></em></p> AHM Zahirul Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/917 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS AND RESIDUAL OIL FROM PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT USING NOVEL ADSORBENT OF ALGINATE AND MANGROVE COMPOSITE BEADS COATED BY CHITOSAN IN A PACKED BED COLUMN http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/734 <div><p class="abstract">In this study, a novel adsorbent was prepared, namely alginate and mangrove composite beads coated with chitosan (AMCBCC), and performed well to remove heavy metals and residual oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using continuous adsorption studies in a fixed bed column under different bed heights. Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to predict the breakthrough curve and to compute the characteristic parameters such as maximum capacity and the time required for 50% of adsorbate breakthrough. It was found that the total removal percentage of iron ions, zinc ions, and residual oil were 26.75%, 76.74%, and 83% respectively at pH 3, and a bed height 27 cm. Both models can well describe the breakthrough curve of heavy metals and residual oil. These results indicated that AMCBCC can be used to remove heavy metals and residual oil from industrial wastewater.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini menyediakan tentang penjerap baharu iaitu alginat dan manik komposit bakau bersalut kitosan (AMCBCC), berfungsi menyingkirkan logam berat dan sisa minyak daripada efluen kilang minyak sawit (POME) dengan sempurna, menggunakan kajian penjerapan berterusan dalam lapisan lajur tetap pada ketinggian berbeza. Model Thomas dan Yoon-Nelson telah digunakan bagi meramal lengkungan terbaik dan mengira parameter cirian seperti keupayaan maksimum dan tempoh diperlukan bagi 50% lengkungan terbaik penjerap. Jumlah peratusan penyingkiran ion besi, ion zink, dan sisa minyak masing-masing sebanyak 26.75%, 76.74%, dan  83% pada pH 3, dan pada ketinggian lapisan 27 cm. Kedua-dua model mampu menggambarkan lengkungan terbaik bagi logam berat dan sisa minyak dengan sempurna. Dapatan ini menunjukkan AMCBCC sesuai digunakan bagi menyingkirkan logam berat dan sisa minyak daripada air sisa industri.</p></div> Rana Jaafar Jawad, Mohd Halim Shah Ismail, Shamsul Izhar siajam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/734 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 INVESTIGATION OF BIOFLOCCULANT AS RENEWABLE DEWATERING AID IN SLUDGE TREATMENT http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/735 <div><p class="abstract">Sludge treatment is one of the most important and expensive steps in water and wastewater treatment plants. Chemical conditioners such as polyaluminum chloride, aluminum sulfate, Fenton’s reagent, gypsum, and polyacrylamide can produce byproducts that cause health and environmental problems. <em>Moringa oleifera</em> (MO) seeds can be used as a natural alternative to chemical conditioners. The bioactive materials have to be extracted from MO seeds for better performance. In this study, the treatment methods of MO seeds were the bioactive extraction by NaCl (1 M) and oil extraction by hexane solvent, as well as the untreated (crude) seeds powder. Synthetic sludge samples were prepared using kaolin suspension (5% w/v). The most effective coagulant-form was determined based on the values of settling velocity (<em>V</em><sub>s</sub>) and sludge volume index (SVI). Results showed that extraction by NaCl gave the best results of 0.41 cm/min of settling velocity and 63.39 ml/g of SVI. A SVI value greater than 150 ml/g indicates poor settling qualities whereas the control sludge of the current study was 100 ml/g. The most effective coagulant-form was optimized with respect to three process conditions: MO seeds dosage, mixing speed, and contact time. The experiments were designed using 2 Level Factorial-Design by Design-Expert software. The optimum process conditions were seeds dosage of 3246 mg/l, mixing speed of 102 rpm, and mixing time of 29 min. MO seeds can be considered as a natural coagulant that can be used as main sludge conditioner.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Rawatan kotoran mendapan adalah salah satu rawatan penting dan termahal dalam merawat air dan sisa­ kumbahan loji. Perapi kimia seperti poli-aluminium klorida, aluminium sulfida, reagen Fenton, gipsum, dan poli-akrilamida menghasilkan sisa, di mana memberi kesan kepada kesihatan dan alam sekitar. Benih <em>Moringa oleifera</em> (MO) boleh digunakan sebagai bahan ganti semula jadi kepada perapi kimia. Bahan bio-aktif perlu diekstrak daripada benih MO bagi memberi kesan terbaik. Dalam kajian ini, kaedah rawatan menggunakan benih MO adalah dari ekstrak bio-aktif NaCl (1 M) dan ekstrak minyak dari bahan larut hexane, serta serbuk benih tidak dirawat (mentah). Sampel sintetik kotoran mendapan disediakan dengan menggunakan ampaian kaolin (5% w/v). Bentuk kogulan yang paling efektif didapati berdasarkan nilai halaju malar (<em>V</em><sub>s</sub>) dan indeks ketumpatan kotoran mendapan (SVI). Keputusan menunjukkan ekstrak NaCl memberi keputusan terbaik pada halaju malar 0.41 cm/min dan bacaan pada SVI 63.39 ml/g. Nilai SVI lebih besar daripada 150 ml/g menunjukkan kualiti kadaran malar kurang baik berbanding 100 ml/g kajian kawalan semasa kotoran mendapan. Bentuk kogulan yang paling efektif telah dioptimumkan pada tiga keadaan proses: dos benih MO, halaju campuran dan tempoh campuran. Eksperimen dibentuk menggunakan 2 Level Factorial-Design daripada perisian Design-Expert. Keadaan optimum proses adalah pada 3246 mg/l dos benih, 102 rpm halaju campuran, dan tempoh campuran selama 29 min. Benih MO boleh di kategori sebagai kogulan semula jadi dan boleh digunakan sebagai perapi utama bagi kotoran mendapan.</p></div> MOHAMMED SAEDI JAMI, MAIZIRWAN MEL, AYSHA RALLIYA MOHD ARIFF, Qabas Marwan Abdulazeez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/735 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM ETHANOL DRY REFORMING OVER LANTHANIA-PROMOTED Co/Al2O3 CATALYST http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/813 <div><p class="abstract">La-promoted and unpromoted 10%Co/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> catalysts were synthesized using wet a impregnation method and evaluated in a quartz fixed-bed reactor at different CO<sub>2</sub>:C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH ratios of 2.5:1-1:2.5 and a reaction temperature of 973 K under atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction measurements detected the presence of Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and CoAl<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> phases on the surface of both promoted and unpromoted catalysts. BET surface area of promoted and unpromoted 10%Co/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> catalysts was about 143.09 and 136.04 m<sup>2</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The La promoter facilitated Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> reduction, improved the degree of reduction from 86 to 98% and increased metal dispersion from 9.11% to 16.64%. The La-promoted catalyst appeared to be a better catalyst in terms of catalytic activity and product yield regardless of reactant partial pressure. Both C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH and CO<sub>2</sub> conversions improved significantly with an increase in CO<sub>2</sub> partial pressure from 20 to 50 kPa for both catalysts whilst a decline in catalytic performance was observed with rising C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH partial pressure. La addition improved C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH and CO<sub>2</sub> conversions up to about 74.22% and 33.80%, respectively.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penggalak-La dan bukan penggalak-La mangkin 10%Co/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> dihasilkan menggunakan kaedah impregnasi basah dan dinilai dalam reaktor alas-tetap quarza pada pelbagai nisbah CO<sub>2</sub>:C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH sebanyak 2.5:1-1:2.5 dan suhu tindak balas sebanyak 973 K di bawah tekanan atmosfera. Hasil daripada ukuran pembelauan X-ray, didapati terdapat kehadiran fasa Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> dan CoAl<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> pada permukaan kedua-dua mangkin penggalak dan bukan penggalak. Permukaan kawasan BET pada penggalak dan bukan penggalak mangkin 10%Co/Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> adalah masing-masing sebanyak 143.09 dan 136.04 m<sup>2</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup>. Penggalak-La membantu dalam pengurangan Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>,membaiki peratus penurunan daripada 86 kepada 98% dan menambah penyebaran logam daripada 9.11% kepada 16.64%. Mangkin penggalak-La dilihat sebagai mangkin terbaik dari segi aktiviti pemangkinan dan hasil pengeluaran, biarpun pada tekanan separa reaktan. Kedua-dua penukaran C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH dan CO<sub>2</sub> meningkat dengan ketara dengan kenaikan separa tekanan CO<sub>2</sub> daripada 20 kepada 50 kPa bagi kedua-dua pemangkin, sementara penurunan dalam aktiviti pemangkinan dilihat dengan kenaikan tekanan separa C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH. Penambahan La meningkatkan penukaran C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH dan CO<sub>2</sub>, masing-masing sebanyak 74.22% dan 33.80%.</p></div> FAHIM FAYAZ, NGUYEN THI ANH NGA, THONG LE MINH PHAM, HUONG THI DANH, BAWADI ABDULLAH, HERMA DINA SETIABUDI, DAI-VIET NGUYEN VO ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/813 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OPTIMIZATION OF RED PIGMENT PRODUCTION BY MONASCUS PURPUREUS FTC 5356 USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/814 <div><p class="abstract">Factors such as environmental conditions and nutrients are significant for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulations of the factors are the most effective way to stimulate the growth of the microorganism, which can be used to optimize the yield of a product. In this study, Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the production of red pigment by <em>Monascus purpureus</em> FTC 5356 using the petioles of oil palm fronds (OPF) as a substrate in solid state fermentation (SSF). The data was analyzed using Design Expert Software. The optimum combination predicted via RSM was confirmed through experimental work. The interactions between three variables such as initial moisture content (%), initial pH value (pH), and peptone concentration (%) were studied and modelled. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the optimal conditions for red pigment production 47 AU/g with the biomass of 425.1 mg/g was at 55% initial moisture content, 3% of peptone, and at pH 3.  The RSM results showed that the initial pH value had a significant effect on red pigment production (P-value &lt;0.05). The validation of these results was also conducted by fermentation with predicted conditions and it was found that there was a discrepancy of 0.39% between the values of the experimental result and those of the predicted values.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Keadaan persekitaran dan nutrien merupakan faktor-faktor penting dalam pertumbuhan mikroorganisma. Manipulasi faktor-faktor tersebut adalah kaedah terbaik bagi meningkatkan pertumbuhan mikroorganisma dan mengoptimumkan penghasilan produk. Kajian ini mengguna pakai Rekaan Gabungan Pusat (CCD) melalui Kaedah Tindak balas Permukaan (RSM) bagi penghasilan pigmen merah optimum oleh <em>Monascus purpureus</em> FTC 5356 menggunakan batang pelepah kelapa sawit (OPF) sebagai perumah dalam proses penapaian pepejal (SSF). Data telah dianalisis menggunakan perisian Design Expert. Gabungan parameter optimum seperti cadangan RSM telah disahkan secara eksperimen. Interaksi antara tiga pemboleh ubah seperti kandungan lembapan awal (%), nilai pH awal (pH), dan kepekatan pepton (%) telah dikaji dan dimodelkan. Analisis statistik menunjukkan penghasilan optimal pigmen merah adalah pada 47 AU/g dengan biomas sebanyak 425.1 mg/g, pada 55% lembapan awal, 3% pepton dan pada pH 3. Hasil keputusan RSM menunjukkan pH awal memberikan kesan signifikan kepada penghasilan pigmen merah (nilai P &lt;0.05). Pengesahan analisis juga telah dijalankan melalui proses penapaian dan hasil ujikaji mendapati 0.39% lebih tinggi daripada nilai jangkaan.</p></div> Farhan M. Said, Nor Farhana Binti Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/814 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 PRODUCTION AND STABILITY OF MYCO-FLOCCULANTS FROM LENTINUS SQUARROSULUS RWF5 AND SIMPLICILLIUM OBCLAVATUM RWF6 FOR REDUCTION OF WATER TURBIDITY http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/843 <div><p class="abstract">The production and stability of two novel myco-flocculants produced by river water fungus (RWF) were investigated. Screening tests were conducted to find suitable nutrients, pH, nutrient concentration, inoculum dose, and stability for two myco-flocculants<em> L. squarrosulus</em> (RWF5) and <em>S. obclavatum </em>(RWF6). The strains showed good flocculating activity in reducing turbidity of kaolin suspension while malt extract was used as nutrient source. Supernatants of RWF5 and RWF6 were able to reduce turbidity from 900±10 NTU to 46 NTU (95%) and 195 NTU (78%), respectively. In order to enhance the production, optimization of cultivation conditions were studied using a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method. <em>L. squarrosulus</em> (RWF5) reduced 96% of turbidity at optimum conditions, comprising of 0.1% (w/v) malt extract, 3% (v/v) inoculum dose, and initial pH 7.0 for 6 days. The results of the compatible mixed culture showed good flocculation activity at 88% compared to a single culture of <em>S. obclavatum</em> at 78%. On the other hand, <em>L. squarrosulus</em> showed better turbidity reduction in the single culture rather than the mixed culture. The stability of <em>L. squarrosulus and S. obclavatum</em> supernatants showed excellent turbidity reduction over a wide pH range of 4-8 with the maximal flocculation rate of 96% and 90%, respectively, at pH 7.0. They also exhibited high turbidity removal ability in a temperature range of 4 <sup>o</sup>C – 55 <sup>o</sup>C for 24h with a maximum turbidity removal rate of 96% (RW5) and 87% (RW6) at 25 <sup>o</sup>C. Time stability of the <em>L. squarrosulus</em> supernatant showed good turbidity removal potential at above 90% at room temperature (28± 2 <sup>o</sup>C) and 85% at low temperature (4 <sup>o</sup>C) for 12 days. The high flocculating rate of the myco-flocculants and their good stability under wide range of temperature indicated their potentiality as biodegradable flocculants for water and wastewater treatment industry.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Keberhasilan dan kestabilan dua myco-gumpalan baharu oleh kulat air sungai (RWF) telah dikaji. Ujian penapisan telah dijalankan untuk mencari nutrien sesuai, pH, kepekatan nutrien, dos inokulum dan kestabilan dua myco-gumpalan <em>L. squarrosulus</em> (RWF5) dan <em>S. obclavatum </em>(RWF6). Rantaian menunjukkan aktiviti gumpalan yang baik dalam mengurangkan kekeruhan air sungai dengan penggantungan koalin di mana ekstrak malt telah digunakan sebagai sumber nutrien. Larutan supernatan RWF5 dan RWF6, masing-masing mampu mengurangkan kekeruhan dari 900±10 NTU kepada 46 NTU (95%) dan 195 NTU (78%). Bagi meningkatkan pengeluaran, keadaan optimum bagi menggalakkan hasil telah diselidiki menggunakan kaedah Satu Faktor pada Tiap Masa (OFAT). Pada takat optimum, <em>L. squarrosulus</em> (RWF5) mengurangkan 96% kekeruhan, ianya terdiri daripada ekstrak malt 0.1% (w/v), dos inokulum 3% (v/v) dan pH awal 7.0 selama 6 hari. Keputusan kultur campuran yang sesuai menunjukkan aktiviti penggumpalan yang baik pada 88% berbanding kultur sendirian <em>S. obclavatum</em> pada 78%. Pada waktu sama, <em>L. squarrosulus</em> menunjukkan pengurangan kekeruhan yang lebih baik dalam kultur sendirian berbanding kultur campuran. Kestabilan larutan supernatan <em>L. squarrosulus </em>dan<em> S. obclavatum</em> menunjukkan pengurangan kekeruhan yang sangat baik pada pH yang luas iaitu 4-8 dengan kadar maksimum kekeruhan pada 96% dan 90%, pada pH 7.0 masing-masing. Keduanya menunjukkan kebolehan penyingkiran kekeruhan yang tinggi pada skala suhu 4 <sup>o</sup>C – 55 <sup>o</sup>C selama 24 jam dengan kadar nyah kekeruhan maksimum pada 96% (RW5) dan 87% (RW6) pada suhu 25 <sup>o</sup>C. Kestabilan masa larutan supernatan <em>L. Squarrosulus </em>menunjukkan potensi penyingkiran kekeruhan terbaik atas 90% pada suhu bilik (28± 2 <sup>o</sup>C) dan 85% pada suhu rendah (4 <sup>o</sup>C) selama 12 hari. Kadar gumpalan yang tinggi oleh myro-gumpalan dan kestabilan yang baik pada julat suhu yang luas menunjukkan potensinya sebagai agen biodegradasi gumpalan kepada air dan industri rawatan loji air.</p></div> Nessa X Jebun, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md. Zahangir Alam, Raha Ahmad Raus ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/843 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ROLE OF SUBSTRATE BINDING ON THE PROTEIN DYNAMICS OF AN ENDOGLUCANASE FROM FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/894 <p><strong><em>: </em></strong>Thermostability is an important requirement for protein function, and one goal of protein engineering is improvement of activity of the enzymes at higher temperatures, particularly for industrial applications. Computational approaches to investigate factors influencing thermostability of proteins are becoming researchers’ choice. This study investigates the influence of substrate binding on the protein dynamics by comparing the molecular dynamics simulations of substrate-enzyme complex against un-bound enzyme, using endoglucanase I from <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em>. Endoglucanase-substrate complex was prepared by docking and molecular dynamics simulations were carried out at three different temperatures, 313 K, 333 K and 353 K. Our finding shows that the secondary structures for substrate-enzyme complex show more fluctuations relative to un-complexed structure. The same trend was observed for solvent accessible surface area and radius of gyration. At the highest temperature studied (353 K), the substrate-enzyme complex form showed the highest fluctuations. The fluctuations around the active site regions reach a minimum at the optimum temperature, compared to the other structural regions and other temperatures.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kestabilan (ketahanan) terhadap haba merupakan keperluan yang penting untuk fungsi protin, salah satu matlamat kejuruteraan protin adalah penambahbaikan aktiviti enzim pada suhu yang tinggi khususnya untuk aplikasi industri. Kini para penyelidik memilih kaedah komputasi, bagi mengkaji faktor yang mempengaruhi kestabilan terhadap haba. Kajian ini menyelidik pengaruh ikatan substrat pada protin dengan membandingkan simulasi molekular dinamik diantara substrat-enzim kompleks dan enzim sahaja, menggunakan endoglucanase I dari <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em>. Kompleks endoglucanase-substrat disediakan melalui kaedah docking dan simulasi molekular dinamik dilakukan pada suhu 313 K, 333 K dan 353 K. Kajian kami menunjukkan struktur sekunder bagi substrat-enzim kompleks kurang stabil berbanding enzim sahaja. Pola yang sama bagi luas permukaan boleh dicapai pelarut (SASA) dan jejari gyrasi. Pada suhu tertinggi dikaji (353 K), substrat-enzim kompleks paling tidak stabil. Pada suhu optimum, kadar ubah-ubah sekitar amino asid aktif adalah minimum berbanding struktur dan suhu lain.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ABDUL AZIZ AHMAD, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IBRAHIM ALI NOORBATCHA ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/894 Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 DIMINISHING SEISMIC EFFECT ON BUILDINGS USING BEARING ISOLATION http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/844 <div><p class="abstract">Adopting suitable seismic protection techniques is presently a foremost concern worldwide and has become a governing principle in the growing construction industry globally. Thus, a rapid upsurge in infrastructure development in seismic-prone areas requires proper treatment for building structures. Therefore, the aim of the study is to incorporate a rubber bearing isolation device in a building base in order to diminish the seismic effect on the superstructure. The changes of structural parameters and responses of fixed-based buildings for applying High Damping Rubber Bearing (HDRB) are investigated under site-specific ground excitation. Twenty representative buildings have been used to examine the responses employing four types of HDRB systems. The study reveals that the HDRB makes the structure more flexible, offering reduced structural responses. The introduction of HDRB may help to decrease floor moment by 31~55%, which can allow the structures to withstand comparatively high seismic tremors safely and efficiently. The base isolated structures experience significant lateral shift between 87.15 and 130.15 mm, and relative floor displacement is below 3% because of additional flexibility. The effective inertia height for the BI buildings remains under two-thirds of building elevation showing triangular distribution concentrating to the top story level. The reduction in forces, moments, and relative displacements of the structural members by applying HDRB can ensure economic design and higher structural safety against seismic excitation.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penerapan teknik yang sesuai bagi pelindungan gelombang seismos menjadi penekanan semasa di seluruh dunia dan telah menjadi prinsip penentu dalam industri pembinaan secara global. Oleh itu, kenaikan yang cepat dalam pembangunan infrastuktur dalam kawasan terdedah kepada gelombang seismos memerlukan penyelenggaraan yang betul bagi struktur bangunan. Jadi, matlamat kajian ini adalah bagi menggabungkan getah alat pengandar asing dalam teras bangunan bagi mengurangkan kesan seismos pada struktur asas. Perubahan pada parameter struktur dan tindak balas tapak-tetap bangunan bagi penggunaan teknik High Damping Rubber Bearing (HDRB) dikaji di bawah setiap kenaikan getaran gelombang sebenar bawah tanah. Dua puluh bangunan telah digunakan bagi menilai tindak balas terhadap penggunaan empat jenis sistem HDRB. Kajian menunjukkan HDRB membuatkan struktur lebih fleksibel, dan mengurangkan tindak balas terhadap struktur. Penggunaan HDRB dalam pembangunan membantu mengurangkan momen lantai sebanyak 31~55%, di mana struktur bangunan lebih tahan terhadap gegaran tinggi secara selamat dan berkesan. Struktur asas yang terasing mengalami peralihan sisi yang ketara antara 87.15 dan 130.15 mm, dan anjakan lantai relatif di bawah 3% dengan penambahan sistem fleksibel ini. Ketinggian inertia berkesan bagi bangunan BI kekal di antara dua pertiga ketinggian bangunan. Ini menunjukkan pengagihan segitiga tertumpu pada aras atas bangunan. Pengurangan pada daya, momen dan perubahan relatif struktur menggunakan HDRB dapat memastikan reka bentuk lebih ekonomi dan selamat pada bangunan tinggi daripada sebarang gelombang seismos.</p></div> A. B. M. Saiful Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/844 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A DISTRIBUTED ENERGY EFFICIENT CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR DATA AGGREGATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/825 <div><p class="abstract">Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a new generation of networks typically consisting of a large number of inexpensive nodes with wireless communications. The main purpose of these networks is to collect information from the environment for further processing. Nodes in the network have been equipped with limited battery lifetime, so energy saving is one of the major issues in WSNs. If we balance the load among cluster heads and prevent having an extra load on just a few nodes in the network, we can reach longer network lifetime. One solution to control energy consumption and balance the load among nodes is to use clustering techniques. In this paper, we propose a new distributed energy-efficient clustering algorithm for data aggregation in wireless sensor networks, called Distributed Clustering for Data Aggregation (DCDA). In our new approach, an optimal transmission tree is constructed among sensor nodes with a new greedy method. Base station (BS) is the root, cluster heads (CHs) and relay nodes are intermediate nodes, and other nodes (cluster member nodes) are the leaves of this transmission tree. DCDA balances load among CHs in intra-cluster and inter-cluster data communications using different cluster sizes. For efficient inter-cluster communications, some relay nodes will transfer data between CHs. Energy consumption, distance to the base station, and cluster heads’ centric metric are three main adjustment parameters for the cluster heads election. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol leads to the reduction of individual sensor nodes’ energy consumption and prolongs network lifetime, in comparison with other known methods.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Rangkaian sensor wayarles (WSN) adalah rangkaian generasi baru yang terdiri daripada nod-nod murah komunikasi wayarles. Tujuan rangkaian-rangkaian ini adalah bagi mengumpul maklumat sekeliling untuk proses seterusnya. Nod dalam rangkaian ini dilengkapi bateri kurang jangka hayat, jadi simpanan tenaga adalah satu isu besar dalam WSN. Jika beban diimbang antara induk kelompok dan lebihan beban dihalang pada setiap rangkaian iaitu hanya sebilangan kecil nod pada tiap-tiap kelompok,  jangka hayat dapat dipanjangkan pada sesebuah rangkaian. Satu penyelesaian adalah dengan mengawal penggunaan tenaga dan mengimbangi beban antara nod menggunakan teknik berkelompok. Kajian ini mencadangkan kaedah baru pembahagian tenaga berkesan secara algoritma berkelompok bagi pembahagian data dalam WSN, dikenali sebagai Pembahagian Kelompok Kumpulan Data (DCDA). Melalui pendekatan baru ini, pokok transmisi optimum dibina antara nod sensor melalui kaedah baru. Stesen utama (BS) ialah akar, induk kelompok-kelompok (CHs) dan nod penyiar ialah nod perantara, dan nod-nod lain (nod-nod ahli kelompok) ialah daun bagi pokok trasmisi. DCDA mengimbangi beban CHs antara-kelompok dan dalam-kelompok komunikasi data daripada kelompok berbeza saiz. Bagi komunikasi berkesan dalam-kelompok, sebahagian nod penyampai akan memindahkan data antara CHs. Penggunaan tenaga, jarak ke stesen utama dan induk kelompok metrik sentrik adalah tiga parameter pelaras bagi pemilihan induk kelompok. Keputusan simulasi protokol yang dicadang menunjukkan pengurangan penggunaan tenaga pada nod-nod sensor individu dan memanjangkan jangka hayat rangkaian, berbanding kaedah-kaedah lain yang diketahui.</p></div> Seyed Mohammad Bagher Musavi Shirazi, maryam sabet, Mohammad Reza Pajoohan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/825 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT WITH CASCADED MULTILEVEL CONVERTER BASED STATCOM http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/873 <div><p class="abstract">Static synchronous compensators (STATCOM) are increasingly implemented in power systems. Moreover, cascaded multilevel converters (CMC) are more frequently taken in consideration because of their strong capabilities. In this paper, the design and simulation of a multilevel STATCOM for voltage regulation of load is presented. Design of the passive components, active and reactive power controller, and balancer of capacitor voltage are parts of proposed system design. The pole placement method was used for the design of the controller. Simulation results with MATLAB/SIMULINK show good performance of voltage regulation in full load and dynamic load conditions.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penyelaras pengimbang statik (STATCOM) semakin dilaksanakan dalam sistem kuasa. Selain itu, penukar pelbagai aras tingkatan (CMC) lebih diutamakan kerana mempunyai banyak kelebihan. Dalam kajian ini, reka bentuk dan simulasi bertingkat STATCOM bagi pelbagai voltan beban dibentangkan. Reka bentuk komponen pasif, penyelenggara kuasa aktif dan reaktif dan pengimbang voltan kapasitor adalah sebahagian daripada sistem yang dicadangkan. Bagi reka bentuk penyelenggara, kaedah penempatan titik telah digunakan. Hasil simulasi melalui MATLAB/SIMULINK menunjukkan keputusan yang baik pada regulasi voltan pada beban penuh dan pada keadaan beban dinamik.</p></div> Mahdi Heidari, Abdonnabi Kovsarian, S. GHodratollah Seifossadat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/873 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECTS OF CABLE CHARACTERISTICS ON MAXIMUM OVERVOLTAGE IN COMBINED OVERHEAD/CABLE LINES PROTECTED BY SURGE ARRESTERS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/707 <div><p class="abstract"> This paper presents the calculation of maximum lightning overvoltage for a transmission system consisting of overhead lines in combination with an underground power cable. For this purpose, a 132 kV overhead transmission line combined with an underground cable is considered. This combined line has been protected by surge arresters. EMTP-RV and MATLAB software are used to conduct the modeling, simulation and calculation works. Lightning strikes on the tower top and results in large over-voltages appearing along overhead lines and cable. Underground cable characteristics have significant effects on maximum lightning over-voltages. Therefore, the three characteristics considered for these effects are: (i) cable length; (ii) cable core resistivity, (iii) cable sheath resistivity. Tower footing resistance effect is also included in the computer simulation.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini berkenaan tentang pengiraan takat maksimum voltan kilat berlebihan bagi sistem transmisi melibatkan kabel atas kepala termasuk kabel tenaga bawah tanah. Bagi tujuan ini, talian kabel penghantaran atas kepala 132 kV termasuk kabel bawah tanah telah diambil kira. Kombinasi kabel ini dilindungi dengan penahan lonjakan voltan tenaga. Perisian EMTP-RV dan MATLAB telah digunakan untuk membuat model, simulasi dan kerja-kerja pengiraan. Panahan petir di atas puncak bangunan merupakan penyebab utama voltan berlebihan muncul bersama talian atas kepala dan kabel. Ciri-ciri kabel bawah tanah merupakan faktor penyumbang utama ke atas voltan berlebihan daripada kilat. Oleh itu, tiga kes telah diambil kira sebagai penyumbang voltan berlebihan: (i) panjang kabel; (ii) rintangan teras kabel, (iii) rintangan sarung kabel. Kesan rintangan tapak bangunan turut diambil kira dalam simulasi komputer.</p></div> Reza Alizadeh, Mohammad Mirzaie ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/707 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 SMART PORTABLE CRYOTHERAPY SYSTEM INVOLVING CONTROLLED THERMOELECTRIC COOLING MODULES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/791 <div><p class="abstract">When a person suffers from an injury, there are specific methods of treatment which are recommended according to the type of injury. One of these methods involves Cryotherapy, in which the part of the affected body is exposed to cooling for decreasing the temperature. The aim of this therapeutic method is to decrease cellular metabolism, increase cellular survival, decrease inflammation and reduce pain and spasm.  The system designed in the present study involves the possibility of “smart” treatment using portable thermoelectric cooling devices based on electronic hardware, software and digital control techniques. In the proposed system, all stages of treatment have been performed automatically by using Arduino as the microcontroller to controlling temperature in cryotherapy methods. This research focus on usage of thermoelectric effect with Peltier module for smart electronic cooling and does not involve the usage of chemicals or cooling materials e.g. ice. Smart cooling methods have significant advantages that they are highly accurate and allow precise timing of the treatment especially for the athletes, and for whom the recovery time from injuries is critical. This approach can be fundamentally important for practical investigations relating to the timing of cryotherapy for any type of users.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Apabila seseorang mengalami kecederaan, terdapat kaedah rawatan khas yang disyorkan berdasarkan jenis kecederaan. Salah satu kaedah ini melibatkan Krioterapi, di mana sebahagian kawasan badan yang terlibat didedahkan kepada kesejukan untuk megurangkan suhu badan. Tujuan kaedah terapeutik ini adalah bagi mengurangkan metabolisme sel, menambah sel selamat, mengurangkan radang dan mengurangkan sakit dan sentakan. Sistem yang direka dalam kajian ini berkemungkinan melibatkan rawatan bijak yang menggunakan alat penyejuk termoelektrik mudah alih melibatkan peranti elektronik, perisian dan teknik kawalan digital. Dalam sistem cadangan ini, kesemua peringkat rawatan telah dilaksanakan secara automatik menggunakan Arduino sebagai alat mikro-kawalan bagi mengawal suhu dalam kaedah Krioterapi. Fokus kajian ini adalah dengan menggunakan kesan termo-elektrik dengan modul Peltier untuk penyejuk elektronik bijak dan tidak melibatkan penggunaan bahan kimia dan bahan penyejuk seperti ais. Kaedah penyejuk bijak ini mempunyai faedah ketara seperti sangat tepat dan memberi masa rawatan yang jitu terutama untuk atlet, dan kepada sesiapa yang tempoh masa pemulihan kecederaan amat penting untuknya. Pendekatan ini boleh menjadi asas penting bagi penyelidikan praktikal berkaitan masa krioterapi untuk pelbagai jenis pengguna.</p></div> Naser Kordani, Abbas Rahmani, Reza PR Hasanzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/791 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 STATIC NETWORK PERFORMANCE OPTIMISATION USING DUAL INTERLEAVE ROUTING ALGORITHM http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/841 <div><p class="abstract">In the recent years, there is an increasing demand on multi-hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) especially for remote condition and integrity monitoring of oil and gas pipelines. The sensing points are connected through WSN points, known as a wireless communication medium, between the remotely measured locations on a pipeline and a centralised monitoring station, located some distance away. Generally, WSN deployment on a multi-hop linear topology has critical factors that contribute towards overall degrading of network performance proportional to the number of nodes. This is especially true in highly dense networks. In general, such a drawback contributes towards poor network reliability, low network capacity, high latency, and inequality with snowballing effect, increasing in the direction of the destination node. This paper introduces the Dual Interleaving Linear Static Routing (DI-LSR) for a multi-hop linear network with high reliability and efficiency to significantly enhance the overall network performance of a pipeline network. The DI-LSR was tested and analysed according to IEEE 802.11 standard in a various simulation environment for future real-time deployment in a pipeline network.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sejak beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini, terdapat permintaan yang drastik pada rangkaian multi-hop sensor wayarles (WSN) terutamanya bagi pemantauan jarak jauh dan integriti saluran paip minyak dan gas. Kesemua unit pengesan antara lokasi disambung melalui satu saluran WSN yang dikenali sebagai medium komunikasi wayarles dan diukur ke stesen pemantauan berpusat. Penempatan WSN pada topologi linear multi-hop mempunyai faktor-faktor penyumbang kepada penurunan prestasi keseluruhan rangkaian yang berkadar dengan jumlah bilangan nod dalam rangkaian yang padat. Secara umum, kelemahan ini adalah penyumbang kepada kebolehpercayaan rangkaian, kapasiti rangkaian rendah, respon rangkaian tinggi dan faktor pendorong kesan ketidaksamaan terhadap nod destinasi. Kajian ini memperkenalkan Dual interleaving Linear Static Routing (DI-LSR) iaitu algoritma jalinan komunikasi cekap bagi mencapai peningkatan ketara keseluruhan prestasi dalam saluran paip rangkaian. DI-LSR telah diuji dan dianalisa dalam pelbagai persekitaran simulasi mengikut piawaian IEEE 802.11 bagi mengatur kedudukan pada masa depan saluran paip rangkaian.</p></div> Siva Kumar Subramaniam, Shariq Mahmood Khan, Rajagopal Nilavalan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/841 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A MODIFIED MODEL BASED ON FLOWER POLLINATION ALGORITHM AND K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR FOR DIAGNOSING DISEASES http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/854 <div><p class="abstract">Exponential growth of medical data and recorded resources from patients with different diseases can be exploited to establish an optimal association between disease symptoms and diagnosis. The main issue in diagnosis is the variability of the features that can be attributed for particular diseases, since some of these features are not essential for the diagnosis and may even lead to a delay in diagnosis. For instance, diabetes, hepatitis, breast cancer, and heart disease, that express multitudes of clinical manifestations as symptoms, are among the diseases with higher morbidity rate. Timely diagnosis of such diseases can play a critical role in decreasing their effect on patients’ quality of life and on the costs of their treatment. Thanks to the large data set available, computer aided diagnosis can be an advanced option for early diagnosis of the diseases. In this paper, using a Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), a new method is suggested for diagnosis. The modified model can diagnose diseases more accurately by reducing the number of features. The main purpose of the modified model is that the Feature Selection (FS) should be done by FPA and data classification should be performed using KNN. The results showed higher efficiency of the modified model on diagnosis of diabetes, hepatitis, breast cancer, and heart diseases compared to the KNN models.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Pertumbuhan eksponen dalam data perubatan dan sumber direkodkan daripada pesakit dengan penyakit berbeza boleh disalah guna bagi membentuk kebersamaan optimum antara simptom penyakit dan mengenal pasti gejala penyakit (diagnosis). Isu utama dalam diagnosis adalah kepelbagaian ciri yang dimiliki pada penyakit tertentu, sementara ciri-ciri ini tidak penting untuk didiagnosis dan boleh mengarah kepada penangguhan dalam diagnosis. Sebagai contoh, penyakit kencing manis, radang hati, barah payudara dan penyakit jantung, menunjukkan banyak klinikal simptom jelas dan merupakan penyakit tertinggi berlaku dalam masyarakat. Diagnosis tepat pada penyakit tersebut boleh memainkan peranan penting dalam mengurangkan kesan kualiti  hidup dan kos rawatan pesakit. Terima kasih kepada set data yang banyak, diagnosis dengan bantuan komputer boleh menjadi pilihan maju menuju ke arah diagnosis awal kepada penyakit. Kertas ini menggunakan Algoritma Flower Pollination (FPA) dan K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), iaitu kaedah baru dicadangkan bagi diagnosis. Model yang diubah suai boleh mendiagnosis penyakit lebih tepat dengan mengurangkan bilangan ciri-ciri. Tujuan utama model yang diubah suai ini adalah bagi Pemilihan Ciri (FS) perlu dilakukan menggunakan FPA and pengkhususan data perlu dijalankan menggunakan KNN. Keputusan menunjukkan model yang diubah suai lebih cekap dalam mendiagnosis penyakit kencing manis, radang hati, barah payudara dan penyakit jantung berbanding model KNN.</p></div> Mehdi Zekriyapanah Gashti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/854 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A SINGLE LC TANK BASED ACTIVE VOLTAGE BALANCING CIRCUIT FOR BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/895 <div><p class="abstract">A single series resonant converter has been designed to balance the voltage level of nowadays, battery operated vehicles and machine power tools are becoming popular due to their simple and compact structure, low operating and maintenance costs, moreover renewable energy utilization facility etc. In order to obtain the necessary operating voltage and current of these devices, many electric cells are combined together in series and parallel combination. A series battery balancing circuit can be used to improve the efficiency of each cell charging and discharging process and consequently increase the lifespan of it. A battery management system (BMS) needs an efficient balancing circuit. This paper presents a high-speed single LC-tank DC to DC converter based electric cell balancing schemes. Since the supercapacitors are equivalent of rechargeable battery; in this research two supercapacitors have been used instead of rechargeable batteries. The voltage balance has been maintained by charging and discharging the supercapacitors through a single LC-tank circuit. As a result, the overall voltage balancing time has been reduced and improved the circuit performance. Experimental result shows that the proposed balancing circuit can reduce the voltage difference between the two supercapacitors from 350 mV to 0 V in 284 seconds, which is less time than the existing system.</p></div> AKM AHASAN HABIB, S.M.A Motakabber, MUHAMMAD IBN IBRAHIMY, AHM Zahirul Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/895 Wed, 23 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ON THE CONTROL OF THE HEAT CONDUCTION http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/796 <div><p class="abstract">Mathematical models of thermo control processes in a rectangular plate are considered. In the model under consideration, the temperature inside a plate is controlled by heat exchange through one boundary while the other three are insulated. The control parameter is a function that satisfies certain integral equations. Sufficient conditions for achieving the given projection of the temperature at a fixed point on the plate and given average temperature are studied.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Model matematik bagi proses kawalan suhu dalam bekas segi empat tepat telah dipilih. Melalui model ini, suhu bekas dikawal dengan menukar haba melalui salah satu sisi bekas, manakala tiga sisi lain telah ditebat. Parameter kawalan ini ialah fungsi, di mana ia sesuai dengan persamaan sesetengah integral. Keadaan sesuai bagi mencapai suhu tetap bekas seperti cadangan dan suhu purata yang diberikan turut dikaji.</p></div> Yusuf Ergashivich Fayziev ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/796 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING SAGO (METROXYLON SAGU) VIA AUTOCLAVING METHOD http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/815 <div><p class="abstract">Sago (<em>metroxylon sagu</em>) is a polysaccharide bio resource, which is biodegradable and low in toxicity that can be found in large scale in Mukah, Sarawak.  A simple green method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been developed using sago dissolved in water as the reducing agent. The mixture of dissolved sago and silver nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) were autoclaved at 121 °C for 20 minutes. The size, morphology and structures of the AgNPs formed in the sago solution were investigated through UV-Vis spectrophotemeter, XRD and FESEM analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape and well distributed with average particle sizes of 19.3 ± 2.7 nm.</p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Sago (Pokok Rumbia) adalah sumber bio polisakarida yang bioterurai dan rendah ketoksikan yang boleh didapati dalam skala yang besar di Mukah, Sarawak. Satu kaedah hijau yang mudah untuk mensintesis nanopartikel perak telah dihasilkan dengan menggunakan sagu yang larut dalam air sebagai ejen penurunan. Campuran sagu yang dilarutkan dan perak nitrat (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) telah autoklaf pada suhu 121°C selama 20 minit. Saiz, morfologi dan struktur nanopartikel perak yang terhasil di dalam larutan sago telah disiasat melalui analisis spektrofotometer UV-Vis, XRD dan FESEM. Nanopartikel perak yang dihasilkan adalah berbentuk bulat dengan purata saiz partikel 19.3 ± 2.7 nm.</p></div> Aliyah Jamaludin, Che Ku Mohammad Faizal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/815 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF ALKALINE TREATMENT ON PROPERTIES OF RATTAN WASTE AND FABRICATED BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/879 <div><p class="abstract">Binderless particleboard (BPB) has become an alternative to avoiding the usage of synthetic resin, possessing excellent properties but having low dimensional stability characteristics. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effects of alkaline treatment on properties of rattan furniture waste (RFW) and fabricated BPB. The RFW was fully immersed in a 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 10 minutes and dried in an oven at 35°C for two days. Then, the treated RFW was used to fabricate the BPB via a hot-pressing process at pressing parameters of 180°C and 5 minutes. The colour of the RFW changed to dark yellowish and chemical analysis showed some reduction in hemicellulose, lignin and ash content after the alkaline treatment, which have been confirmed through peak decline in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Only cellulose content increased after treatment due to a disruption of hydrogen bonding on the fibre surface. The treated BPB panels had improved mechanical and dimensional stability compared to untreated BPB panels, and achieved the minimum requirement of board standards. Removal of the fibres’ impurities, led to tremendous physical consolidation among fibres. The nature of the panels changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic as water molecules were released from the fibres during the treatment process. These results were supported by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis that displayed cleaner RFW fibres and rougher surfaces on the treated BPB panels.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Papan partikel tanpa pelekat (papan BPB) menjadi salah satu alternatif bagi menggelak penggunaan pelekat sintetik, ianya mempunyai sifat-sifat terbaik walaupun keseimbangan dimensi papan masih berada pada tahap rendah. Oleh itu, tujuan kajian ini dijalankan adalah bagi menyelidik kesan rawatan alkali ke atas sifat sisa perabot rotan dan  papan BPB yang dihasilkan. Sisa perabot rotan direndam penuh ke dalam cecair alkali Natrium Hidroksida (NaOH) berkepekatan 1%, selama 10 minit dan sesudah itu dikeringkan di dalam ketuhar pada suhu 35°C selama dua hari. Kemudian, sisa perabot rotan yang telah dirawat ini digunakan bagi menghasilkan papan BPB melalui kaedah tekanan haba pada suhu tekanan 180°C selama 5 minit. Warna sisa perabot rotan telah berubah kepada kuning gelap, dan hasil analisa kimia menunjukkan pengurangan pada hemi-selulosa, lignin dan komposisi abu dalam serat rotan selepas rawatan alkali dan terbukti melalui pengurangan nilai puncak pada analisa Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Hanya kandungan selulosa meningkat selepas rawatan alkali, disebabkan gangguan pada ikatan hidrogen pada permukaan serat. Papan BPB yang terhasil menggunakan serat dirawat telah menunjukkan peningkatan pada sifat mekanikal dan keseimbangan dimensi papan, serta mencapai piawaian minima papan, berbanding dengan papan BPB yang terhasil menggunakan serat tidak dirawat. Hal ini disebabkan pembuangan kotoran serat menghasilkan penyatuan fizikal yang sangat baik antara serat. Sifat semulajadi pada papan BPB juga telah bertukar dari hidrofilik kepada hidrofobik, kerana molekul-molekul air dilepaskan dari serat semasa rawatan alkali. Keputusan ini disokong melalui analisa Mikroskop Pengimbas Elektron (SEM) yang menunjukkan permukaan serat rotan RFW lebih jelas dan permukaan papan BPB yang lebih kasar.</p></div> Zuraida Ahmad, Maisarah Tajuddin, Nurul Farhana Fatin Salim, Zahurin Halim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/879 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 AMORPHOUS STRUCTURE IN CU-ZN-V-AL OXIDE COMPOSITE CATALYST FOR METHANOL REFORMING http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/808 <div><p class="abstract">Cu-Zn-V-Al oxide composite catalysts were prepared using a co-precipitation method to investigate hydrogen and carbon monoxide yield of a methanol reforming reaction. The mass compositions of metals were initially determined on the Simplex Centroid statistical design. The effects of various metal compositions on the physicochemical properties of the catalyst were studied via X-ray diffractogram (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) analyses, and reaction. XRD revealed crystals in the samples. Crystalline CuO in Cu<sub>30</sub>V<sub>30</sub>Al<sub>40</sub> formed with the addition of zinc oxide at the metal loading below 30 wt%. A combination of zinc oxide and vanadia, however, had no Zn-V complex crystal but its scanning electron microscopy image showed the formation of string structures (AS). The catalyst that contained the AS exhibited a broad hydrogen reduction peak in the TPR analysis. Vanadium at a loading below 40 wt% with various zinc and cuprum compositions also formed small ASs and exhibited single TPR peaks. A reaction yield study revealed the optimum compositions of metal oxides when the data was fitted by response surface plots. The catalysts with high content of AS were not at the peaks however. Cu-Zn based catalysts showed the highest hydrogen yield for the reaction temperature of between 150 <sup>o</sup>C to 225 <sup>o</sup>C and vanadia-promoted catalyst with AS only appeared to be the optimum catalyst at the higher temperature.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Mangkin komposit oksida Cu-Zn-V-Al disediakan menggunakan kaedah pemendakan bersama untuk mengkaji hasil hidrogen dan karbon monoksida daripada tindak balas pembentukan semula metanol. Komposisi jisim logam-logam dikenal pasti terlebih dahulu menggunakan reka bentuk statistik Simplex Centroid. Pelbagai kesan komposisi logam terhadap sifat-sifat mangkin kimia-fizikal dikaji menerusi analisis-analisis pembelauan sinar-X (XRD) dan program penurunan suhu teratur (TPR), dan tindak balas kimia. Hasil analisis XRD menzahirkan kristal pada sampel-sampel. Hablur CuO terbentuk dalam Cu<sub>30</sub>V<sub>30</sub>Al<sub>40</sub> dengan penambahan zink oksida pada muatan logam kurang daripada 30% berat. Gabungan zink oksida dan vanadia walau bagaimanapun tidak menghasilkan hablur kompleks Zn-V, namun imbasan imej mikroskop elektron menunjukkan pembentukan struktur tetali (AS). Mangkin yang mengandungi AS menunjukkan penurunan puncak hidrogen yang lebar dalam analisis TPR. Vanadium pada muatan berat logam kurang daripada 40% berbanding komposisi zink dan kuprum juga membentuk AS kecil dan menghasilkan puncak-puncak TPR tunggal. Hasil tindak balas kajian menunjukkan komposisi optimum oksida logam apabila data ujikaji dipadankan dengan menggunakan plot permukaan respon. Mangkin yang mempunyai kandungan AS tertinggi bagaimanapun tidak berada pada puncak. Mangkin berasaskan Cu-Zn menunjukkan hasil hidrogen tertinggi bagi suhu tindak balas antara 150 <sup>o</sup>C hingga 225 <sup>o</sup>C dan mangkin yang ditambah vanadia bersama AS pula muncul sebagai mangkin optimum pada suhu lebih tinggi.</p></div> Mohd Sabri Mahmud, Zahira Yaakob, Abu Bakar Mohamad, Wan Ramli Wan Daud, Vo Nguyen Dai Viet ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/808 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) WITH NICKEL ADDED DIELECTRIC FLUID http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/759 <div><p class="abstract">In this study, the effect of nickel powder mixed dielectric fluid on Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) performance of mild steel has been carried out. Peak current, tool/electrode diameter and concentration of powder are the process parameters. The process performance is measured in terms of material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), and surface roughness (SR). The experiment has been designed using a Full Factorial in Design of Experiment (DOE) software. The research outcome is to identify the important process parameters that maximize MRR and minimize TWR and SR. The experiment has been carried out using 2 levels of current (3.5 A and 6.5 A), tool diameters (14 mm and 20 mm) and Nickel powder concentrations (0 g/l and 6 g/l). The weight of the mild steel work piece and copper electrode are measured before and after each run. Based on the results, current is the most significant parameter affecting MRR, TWR, and SR. It was also found that with added nickel powder in the dielectric fluid, the tool life is longer and surface roughness of the work piece is improved. Furthermore, it was shown that both MRR and TWR increased with the increase in tool diameter. However, SR was improved as tool diameter increased but its effect was not very significant.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Dalam kajian ini, mutu keberhasilan campuran serbuk nikel cecair dielektrik pada Sisa Mesin Elektrik (EDM) ke atas besi ringan telah dijalankan. Arus tertinggi, alat/diameter elektrod dan ketumpatan serbuk adalah parameter kawalan. Pencapaian proses diukur dari segi kadar penyingkiran bahan (MRR), kadar penggunaan alat (TWR) dan kekasaran permukaan (SR). Eksperimen ini direka bentuk dengan menggunakan perisian Faktorial Penuh dalam Rekaan Eksperimen (DOE). Hasil kajian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi kepentingan parameter kawalan yang mengoptimumkan MRR, meminimumkan TWR dan SR. Eksperimen ini dijalankan pada 2 peringkat arus elektrik (3.5 A dan 6.5 A), diameter alat (14 mm dan 20 mm) dan ketumpatan serbuk nikel (0 g/l and 6 g/l). Berat bahan uji seperti besi ringan dan elektrod tembaga diukur pada sebelum dan selepas setiap ujian. Berdasarkan keputusan, arus elektrik adalah faktor paling ketara yang mempengaruhi MRR, TWR, dan kekasaran permukaan. Turut didapati pada setiap pertambahan serbuk Nikel ke dalam cecair dielektrik, jangka hayat alat turut bertambah dan kekasaran permukaan pada bahan uji turut bertambah baik. Selain itu, kedua-dua MRR dan TWR bertambah dengan setiap pertambahan diameter alat. Sebaliknya, kekasaran permukaan bertambah baik dengan pertambahan diameter alat tetapi kesannya tidak ketara.</p></div> AHSAN ALI KHAN, Muataz Hazza faizi Al Hazza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/759 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF DURIAN SKIN NANOFIBRE BIOCOMPOSITE http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/903 <p>To come up with a biodegradable alternative in reducing the use of polymer-based materials, polypropylene (PP) and durian skin nanofibre (DSNF) were melt-blended in a Haake internal mixer before compression moulded into composite specimens. The composites were exposed under ultraviolet (UV) radiation to simulate the effect of sunlight. The significant effect of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) was observed by the improvement recorded in tensile properties and reduction of water absorption in PP/DSNF composite. The colour index of composites increased with UV radiation exposure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed DSNF was well-dispersed in PP matrix in the presence of MAPP.</p> Siti Nur E'zzati Mohd Apandi, Hazleen Anuar, Siti Munirah Salimah Abdul Rashid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/903 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW ON RHEOLOGY OF NON-NEWTONIAN PROPERTIES OF BLOOD http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/826 <div><p class="abstract">Human blood is composed of red cells, white blood cells, and platelets in a fluid called plasma that contains organic and mineral salts and protein. The rheological characteristics of blood are determined by the properties of these combinations and their interaction with each other. The plasma is essentially a Newtonian fluid, but the blood as a whole behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid showing all signs of non-Newtonian rheology including deformation rate dependency, viscoelasticity, yield stress, and thixotropy. The purpose of this study is mainly a review based on past work on blood rheology, determinants of blood viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, blood viscosity measurement, and heat transfer in blood flow to better understand the non-Newtonian effect in the blood circulation system.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Darah manusia terdiri daripada sel-sel merah, sel darah putih dan platlet dalam cecair yang dipanggil plasma, mengandungi garam organik dan mineral dan protein. Ciri-ciri sifat reologi darah ditentukan oleh sifat-sifat kombinasi ini dan interaksi antara satu sama lain. Plasma adalah pada dasarnya Newtonian cecair tetapi secara keseluruhannya darah bersifat sebagai bukan suatu cecair Newtonian yang menunjukkan tanda-tanda bukan Newtonian reologi, mengandungi pergantungan kadar ubah bentuk, kelikatkenyalan, tegasan alah dan thixotropi. Tujuan kajian ini adalah berkenaan ulasan kajian-kajian lepas berkaitan rheology darah, penentu viskositi darah, tegasan alah dan thixotropi, ukuran kelikatan darah dan pemindahan haba dalam aliran darah bagi memahami kesan bukan Newtonian dalam sistem peredaran darah.</p></div> Esmaeel Fatahian, Naser Kordani, Hossein Fatahian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/826 Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0000 NUMERICAL STUDY OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUEL OIL-ALUMINA AND WATER-ALUMINA NANOFLUIDS FLOW IN A CHANNEL IN THE LAMINAR FLOW http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/857 <div><p class="abstract">The present study investigated the thermal effects of the use of nanoparticles in the fuel-oil and water-based fluids, as well as the numerical simulation of laminar flow of fuel-oil-alumina and the water-alumina nanofluids in a channel. A second order discretization method was used for solving equations and a SIMPLE algorithm was applied for pressure-velocity coupling using Fluent. Effect of nanoparticle volume fraction and particles size in different Reynolds numbers (900≤Re≤2100) on the convective heat transfer coefficient was studied. The simulation was conducted for three different volume fractions and particle sizes in the laminar flow under constant heat flux. The results showed that adding nanoparticles to the base fluid caused an increase in the thermal conductivity ratio of the fluid, which was observed to a greater degree in the fuel oil-alumina nanofluid than in the water-alumina nanofluid. The increase in nanoparticle volume fraction caused an increase in the convective heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt number of the nanofluids. The significant point of this study was that in the same volume fraction, the effect of adding alumina nanoparticles to the fuel-oil-based fluid had more effect than adding these particles to water-based fluid, while the effect of increasing the Reynolds number in the water-alumina nanofluid on convective heat transfer coefficient was greater than the fuel-oil-alumina. Also, in the same Reynolds number and volume fraction with increasing size of nanoparticles, the value of the convective heat transfer coefficient was decreased. The results of this study can be used in refineries and petrochemical industries where the fuel-oil fluid flows in the channels.<strong> </strong><strong></strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini adalah bagi mengkaji kesan haba terhadap penggunaan bahan bakar-minyak dan cecair asas-air dalam nanopartikel, juga menjalankan simulasi pengiraan aliran laminar bahan bakar-minyak-alumina dan cecair-nano air-alumina dalam saluran. Kaedah berasingan kelas kedua telah digunakan bagi menyelesaikan persamaan dan algoritma SIMPLE telah diaplikasikan dalam gandingan kelajuan-tekanan menggunakan Fluent. Kesan jumlah pecahan nanopartikel dan pelbagai bilangan saiz zarah dalam bilangan Reynolds (900≤Re≤2100) pada pekali pemindahan haba perolakan telah dikaji. Simulasi telah dijalankan pada tiga pecahan isipadu berlainan dan pada zarah dalam aliran laminar dengan fluks haba tetap. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa dengan penambahan nanopartikel dalam cecair-asas menyebabkan peningkatan nisbah daya pengaliran haba cecair pada cecair-nano bahan bakar-minyak-alumina melebihi daripada cecair-nano air-alumina. Penambahan pada pecahan isipadu nanopartikel ini menyebabkan peningkatan pada nilai pekali pemindahan haba perolakan dan bilangan Nusselt dalam cecair-nano. Perkara penting dalam kajian ini adalah pada pecahan isipadu sama, kesan penambahan nanopartikel alumina kepada cecair berasaskan minyak mempunyai kesan yang lebih besar daripada penambahan zarah-zarah ini kepada cecair berasaskan air. Pada masa sama, kesan peningkatan bilangan Reynolds dalam cecair-nano air-alumina pada pekali pemindahan haba perolakan lebih besar daripada kesan peningkatan bahan bakar-minyak-alumina. Selain itu, pada bilangan Reynolds yang sama dan dengan peningkatan saiz nanopartikel pecahan isipadu, nilai pekali pemindahan haba perolakan turut menurun. Hasil kajian ini boleh digunakan dalam industri penapisan dan petrokimia di mana bahan bakar cecair minyak mengalir dalam saluran.</p></div> Hossein Fatahian, Hesamoddin Salarian, Majid Eshagh Nimvari, Esmaeel Fatahian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/857 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A PARAMETRIC STUDY ON CONTROL OF FLOW SEPARATION OVER AN AIRFOIL IN INCOMPRESSIBLE REGIME http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/784 <div><p class="abstract">This paper presents the effects of airfoil geometry on flow separation behavior and obtains the transition patterns at a specific angle of attack. A strong adverse pressure gradient field is observed at the leading edge of the airfoil, and it results in a flow detachment. Leading edge flow separation is studied along with the variation of skin friction coefficient over the airfoil. Novelty in the approach is the development of a hybrid control scheme to delay the flow separation with blowing/suction of air (termed active control) over the airfoil together with the tapping of flow from the pressure side as in a classical passive control procedure. The active controller delays the flow separation, while the passive controller is used to reduce the drag coefficient significantly and increases the total performance of an airfoil. The effectiveness of these controls is examined by varying the control parameters including blowing/suction velocity, the position of the slot in terms of percentage of chord and size of the slot. All the numerical simulations are carried out using ANSYS-Fluent software. A surrogate model is also developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics conveniently without much computational effort. The outcome of this study reveals that the blowing/suction velocity has a higher influence in delaying the flow separation.<strong> </strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kertas ini membentangkan tentang kesan geometri aerofoil pada perubahan pemisah aliran udara dan memperoleh bentuk peralihan pada darjah yang tepat. Terdapat tekanan kuat yang tidak sesuai pada kawasan kecerunan di hujung hadapan permukaan aerofoil, dan ini menyebabkan aliran udara terpisah. Pemisah aliran udara pada hujung hadapan ini dikaji bersama koefisien geseran pada permukaan aerofoil. Pendekatan baru pada kaedah ini adalah berkaitan pembangunan skim kawalan hibrid bagi melengahkan aliran pemisah udara melalui tiupan/sedutan udara (kawalan aktif) ke atas aerofoil bersama ketukan pada aliran dari tepi tekanan seperti mana prosedur klasik kawalan pasif. Kawalan aktif ini melengahkan aliran pemisah udara, sebaliknya kawalan pasif telah digunakan bagi mengurangkan koefisien penangguhan dengan ketara dan menambahkan jumlah prestasi aerofoil. Keberhasilan kawalan-kawalan ini dikaji dengan mengubah parameter kawalan termasuk kelajuan tiupan/sedutan udara, posisi slot berdasarkan peratusan garis temu dan saiz slot. Semua simulasi-simulasi numerikal ini dijalankan menggunakan perisian Ansys-Fluent. Model pengganti turut dibangunkan untuk menjangka ciri-ciri aero-dinamik dengan mudah tanpa usaha pengiraan yang banyak. Keputusan kajian ini mendedahkan tentang kelajuan tiupan/sedutan udara berpengaruh besar dalam melambatkan pemisahan aliran udara.</p></div> L Prabhu, J Srinivas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/784 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OPTIMIZATION OF BOX TYPE GIRDER WITH AND WITHOUT INDUSTRIAL CONSTRAINTS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/769 <div><p class="abstract">In this paper three dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis is performed for the optimization of an overhead crane box girder for capacity (50~120ton) and span (10 ~ 32 m) for safe bending stress and deflection with minimum mass and volume. A customized optimization code is developed using interpolative relations and correction factors to achieve optimized results with and without considering industrial constraints. A cutting and welding plan is developed to provide a standard operating procedure for the manufacturing of the box girder. Bill of materials, box girder design dimensions, and cutting and welding lengths are recorded with considerable time saving. <strong></strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kertas ini mengkaji tentang analisis tidak linear tiga dimensi unsur terhingga bagi mengoptimumkan kotak kren galang atas kepala bagi kapasiti (50 ~ 120 tan) dan pada kadar (10 ~ 32 m) bagi takat lentur selamat dan pesongan dengan jisim minimum dan isipadu. Kod optimum penyesuaian telah direka mengguna pakai kaitan interpolatif dan faktor-faktor pembetulan bagi mencapai keputusan yang optimum, dengan dan tanpa mengambil kira kekangan industri. Pelan pemotongan dan kimpalan telah dicipta bagi menyediakan prosedur operasi biasa bagi pembuatan kotak galang. Rang undang-undang bahan, dimensi reka bentuk kotak galang, pemotongan dan panjang kimpalan telah direkodkan dengan penjimatan masa yang besar.</p></div> Muhammad Abid, Shahbaz Mahmood Khan, Hafiz Abdul Wajid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/769 Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000