IIUM Engineering Journal http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually&nbsp;(June and December), is a peer-reviewed open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers, short communications and technical notes. The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines, and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Currently Indexed by:</strong></p> <p><a title="thomson_reuters_logo" href="http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Search.do?product=UA&amp;SID=U1yWZttU3hFUyp1wzif&amp;search_mode=GeneralSearch&amp;prID=11a92d27-6b66-4ebb-b2ba-b981a72237e1" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 75px; 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hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/scholar_logo.gif" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="MyCite_img" href="http://www.myjurnal.my/public/browse-journal-view.php?id=237" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 80px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/mcclogo.jpg" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="DOAJ_img" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2289-7860" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 120px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/doaj_logo.jpg" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="ISC_img" href="http://mjl.isc.gov.ir/Default.aspx?lan=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 40px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/isc_logo.jpg" alt=""></a></p> <div> <div> <div><strong><span style="color: red;">&nbsp;</span></strong></div> </div> <div><br><br></div> </div> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUM EJ is committed to meet and uphold standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process.&nbsp; A summary of our expectation of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/about/editorialPolicies#focusAndScope" target="_self">link</a>].</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> en-US <p>The IIUM Engineering journal follows the open access policy.</p> zahirulalam@iium.edu.my (Prof. Dr. AHM Zahirul Alam) alam_z@ieee.org (Zahirul alam) Sat, 01 Dec 2018 01:57:15 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1008 <div class="WordSection1"> <h1 style="margin: 3.6pt 0cm .0001pt 129.25pt;">(IIUMEJ)</h1> <hr> <p><strong>IIUM ENGINEERING JOURNAL</strong></p> <br><strong>ISSN: 1511-788X&nbsp;&nbsp; E-ISSN: 2289-7860</strong> <br><strong>Volume 19, Issue 2, December 2018</strong> <br><strong>https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v19i2</strong></div> <div class="WordSection1"><br> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin-top: 4.55pt;"><strong>CHIEF EDITOR</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">Ahmad Faris Ismail, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h2 style="margin-top: 5.4pt;"><strong>TECHNICAL EDITOR</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">Erry Yulian Triblas Adesta, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h2 style="margin-top: 5.65pt;"><strong>EXECUTIVE EDITOR</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">AHM Zahirul Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h2 style="margin-top: 5.65pt;"><strong>ASSOCIATE EDITOR</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.85pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">Anis Nurashikin Nordin, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <h2 style="line-height: 10.9pt; margin-top: 5.4pt;"><strong>LANGUAGE EDITOR</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.9pt; margin-left: 7.4pt;">Lynn Mason, Malaysia</p> <h2 style="margin-top: 6.1pt; line-height: normal;"><strong>COPY EDITOR</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-left: 7.4pt;">Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .25pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <h2 style="line-height: normal;"><strong>EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 5.85pt 279.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 5.85pt 279.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 5.85pt 279.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Amir Akramin Shafie, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 5.85pt 279.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Erwin Sulaeman, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 5.85pt 279.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 10.6pt; margin-left: 20.95pt;">Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 241.15pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 241.15pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 295.25pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Md Zahangir Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 295.25pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 295.25pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 161.7pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 161.7pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">&nbsp;Muataz Hazza Faizi Al Hazza, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 181.95pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 181.95pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Nor Farahidah Binti Za'bah, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 158.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 158.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Rosminazuin AB. Rahim, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 158.55pt .0001pt 20.95pt;">Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> <h1><strong>INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</strong></h1> <p>A. Anwar, United States</p> <p>Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</p> <p>Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Hanafy</p> <p>Omar, Saudi Arabia</p> <p>Hany Ammar, United States</p> <p>Idris Mohammed Bugaje, Nigeria</p> <p>K.B. Ramachandran, India Kunzu Abdella, Canada</p> <p>Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France</p> <p>M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</p> <p>Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland Mohamed B Trabia, United States</p> <p>Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States</p> <p>Nazmul Karim</p> <p>Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</p> <p>Razi Nalim, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States</p> <p>Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</p> <p>Tibor Czigany, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary</p> <p>Yiu-Wing Mai, The University of Sydney, Australia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2 style="line-height: 10.75pt; margin-top: .05pt;"><strong>AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUMENGINEERING JOURNAL</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 17.25pt .0001pt 7.4pt;">The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually, is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">span </span>of engineering disciplines; covering the main <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">areas</span> of engineering: Electrical and <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">Computer</span> Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">and</span> Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental and Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">other</span> <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">areas</span> of Engineering and Applied Science are also welcomed. The <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">IIUM</span> Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers, Invited review papers, Short communications, Technical notes, and Letters to the editor </em> <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">(no</span> page charge). Book reviews, reports of and/or call for papers of conferences, symposia and meetings, and advances in research <span style="letter-spacing: -.15pt;">equipment</span> could also be published in <span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">IIUM</span> Engineering Journal with minimum charges.</p> <h2 style="line-height: 10.8pt; margin-top: 5.3pt;"><strong>REFEREES’ NETWORK</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 98%; margin: 0cm 18.05pt .0001pt 7.4pt;">All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</p> <h2 style="margin-top: 5.6pt; line-height: normal;"><strong>SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</strong></h2> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="line-height: 97%; margin: .2pt 11.25pt .0001pt 7.4pt;">A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM-Engineering Journal website:<a href="http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal"><span style="color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal. </span></a>Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website and the e-mail addresses of the Executive Editor: <a href="mailto:zahirulalam@iium.edu.my"> <span style="color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">zahirulalam<em>@iium.edu.my</em></span></a> Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jan Gombak, 53100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. <em>Phone: (603) 6196 4529, Fax:(603) 6196 4488.</em></p> <p class="MsoBodyText" style="margin-top: .45pt;"><em><span style="font-size: 12.5pt;">&nbsp;</span></em>&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="WordSection3"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: center; margin: 6.3pt 122.7pt 1.05pt 118.25pt;" align="center"><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 18pt;"><strong><span style="font-family: Cambria, serif; color: #233e5f; text-decoration: underline;"> Table of Content</span></strong></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 2.95pt 0cm .0001pt 7.4pt;"><strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> EDITORIAL............................................................................................... i</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 5.9pt 0cm .0001pt 7.4pt;"><a href="#_bookmark5"><strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> CHEMICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING</span></strong></a></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.05pt 11.25pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> C</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">HLORELLA VULGARIS </span></em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> LOGISTIC GROWTH KINETICS MODEL IN HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF AQUEOUS</span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> AMMONIA<strong>...................</strong>&nbsp;<span style="letter-spacing: -.9pt;">1</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 29.35pt; line-height: 103%;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 103%; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Nurain Atikah Che Aziz, Noor Illi Mohamad Puad, Amanatuzzakiah Abdul Halim,</span></em> <em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 103%; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Faridah Yusof, Suzana Yusup</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> SYNTHETIC ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT AND ANTIMICROBIAL FABRICS: PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES............. 10</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 0cm .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Norashikin Binti Mat Zain, John Olabode Akindoyo, Mohammad Dalour Hossen Beg</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.4pt 0cm .0001pt 7.4pt;"><a href="#_bookmark14"><strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING</span></strong></a></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 12.1pt; margin: 6.05pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> PERFORMANCE OF HIGH STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE USING PALM WASTES................................... 30</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 11.35pt; margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">Md. Nazmul Huda, Mohd Zamin Jumaat, Abul Bashar Mohammad Saiful Islam,&nbsp;</span></em><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Walid Abubaker Al-Kutti</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 5.95pt 0cm .0001pt 7.4pt;"><a href="#_bookmark19"><strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> ELECTRICAL, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING</span></strong></a></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.0pt 9.6pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> WIDE RANGE MODULATION INDEXES FEATURED CARRIER-BASED PWM STEPPED WAVEFORM FOR HALF-</span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> BRIDGE MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS.........................................................................................&nbsp;<span style="letter-spacing: -.45pt;">43</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 102%; margin: 0cm 11.25pt .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 102%; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Majdee Tohtayong, Sheroz Khan, Mashkuri Yaacob, Siti Hajar Yusoff, Nur Shahida Midi, Musse</span></em> <em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 102%; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Muhamud Ahmed</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> A N</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">OVEL METHOD TO ESTIMATE </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> E</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">CONOMIC </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> R</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">EPLACING </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> T</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">IME OF </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> T</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">RANSFORMER </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> U</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">SING </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> M</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ONTE </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> C</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ARLO </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> A</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">LGORITHM AND&nbsp;</span><span style="color: windowtext; font-family: Calibri, sans-serif; font-size: 10pt;">ANN............................................................................................... 54</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent: 10.9pt; line-height: 101%; margin: .2pt 9.4pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 101%; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Mehdi Zareian Jahromi, M. Hossein Mehrabanjahromi, Mohsen Tajdinian, Mehdi Allahbakhshi</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent: 10.9pt; line-height: 101%; margin: .2pt 9.4pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 101%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> ADAPTIVE TRIMMED MEAN AUTOREGRESSIVE MODEL FOR REDUCTION OF POISSON NOISE IN</span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 101%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> SCINTIGRAPHIC IMAGES.......... <span style="letter-spacing: -.45pt;">68</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 11.45pt; margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Khan Bahadar Khan, Muhammad Shahid, Hayat Ullah, Eid Rehman, Muhammad Mohsin Khan</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .55pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> E</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">VALUATION OF THE </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> W-M</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ETRIC </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> R</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">OUTING </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> U</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">SING </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> RPL P</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ROTOCOL IN </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> LLNS........................................................................ 80</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent: 10.9pt; line-height: 102%; margin: .1pt 9.55pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 102%; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Rosminazuin Ab Rahim, Abdallah M. Awwad, Aisha Hasan Abdalla, Aliza Aini Md Ralib</span></em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 102%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> INVESTIGATION ON NEED FOR</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 102%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> SPECIFIC PROPAGATION MODEL FOR SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT BASED ON</span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 102%; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> DIFFERENT TERRAIN CHARACTERISTICS<strong>...................</strong><span style="letter-spacing: -.45pt;">90</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 11.1pt; margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Jide Julius Popoola, Akinlolu Adediran Ponnle, Yekeen Olajide Olasoji, Samson Adenle Oyetunji</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .55pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> A STUDY ON LOW-COMPLEXITY TRANSMIT ANTENNA SELECTION FOR GENERALIZED SPATIAL</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> MODULATION.................................................................................. 105</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .25pt 0cm .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Simeon Olumide Ajose, Adewale Akanbi Alafia, Agbotiname Lucky Imoize</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .4pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> A N</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">EW </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> S</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">PECTRUM AND </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> E</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">NERGY </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> A</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">WARE </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> R</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">OUTING PROTOCOL IN </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> C</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">OGNITIVE </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> R</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ADIO </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> S</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ENSOR </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> N</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ETWORK</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">.............................. </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">118</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .25pt 0cm .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Sara Moshtaghi, Sayyed Majid Mazinani</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .55pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> R</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ECENT TRENDS IN DENGUE DETECTION METHODS USING BIOSENSORS</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">................................................................................ </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">134</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .2pt 0cm .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Ahmad Anwar Zainuddin, Anis Nurashikin Nordin, Rosminazuin Ab Rahim</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .45pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> N</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">UMERICAL </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> A</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">NALYSIS OF </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> T</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">UNNEL </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> LED L</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">IGHTING </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> M</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">AINTENANCE </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> F</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ACTOR</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">.......................................................................... </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">154</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: .05pt 0cm .0001pt 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Mehmet Sait Cengiz, Çiğdem Cengiz</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.0pt 0cm .0001pt 7.4pt;"><a href="#_bookmark5"><strong> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; 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color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> OSCILLATOR<strong>...................</strong></span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">&nbsp;<span style="letter-spacing: -.3pt;">182</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: 12.15pt; margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Md Sazzad Hossien Chowdhury, Md. 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font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> MECHATRONICS AND AUTOMATION ENGINEERING</span></strong></a></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 6.05pt 0cm .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> COLOR RECOGNITION </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> W</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">EARABLE DEVICE USING MACHINE LEARNING FOR VISUALY IMPAIRED PERSON</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">................................... </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">213</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent: 10.9pt; margin: .05pt 5.65pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Tarek Mohamed Bolad , Nik Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Noor Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif</span></em></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-indent: 10.9pt; margin: .05pt 5.65pt .0001pt 18.45pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> COMBINATION OF F</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">USED </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> D</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">EPOSITION </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> M</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ODELLING WITH </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> A</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">BRASIVE </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> M</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ILLING </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> FOR </span> <span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> ATTAIN</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;">ING </span> <span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> HIGHER DIMENSIONAL</span> <span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> ACCURACY AND BETTER SURFACE FINISH</span><span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">&nbsp;..................................... </span> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; letter-spacing: -.3pt;"> 221</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 29.35pt;"><em> <span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif; color: windowtext; text-decoration: none;"> Abu Naser Mohammad Amanullah Tomal, Tanveer Saleh, Md Raisuddin Khan</span></em></p> <p class="MsoBodyText"><em> <span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">&nbsp;</span></em></p> <hr width="300"> <p class="MsoBodyText"><em> <span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: Calibri,sans-serif;">&nbsp;Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisement herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.</span></em></p> <p><strong>Published by:</strong></p> <p>IIUM Press,</p> <p>International Islamic University Malaysia Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Phone (+603) 6196-5014, Fax: (+603) 6196-6298</p> <p>Website:&nbsp;<a href="http://www.iium.edu.my/office/iiumpress" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://www.iium.edu.my/office/iiumpress</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> AHM Zahirul Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1008 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Chlorella vulgaris logistic growth kinetics model in high concentrations of aqueous ammonia http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/893 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> The ability of microalgae to utilize CO<sub>2</sub> during photosynthesis and grow rapidly shows their potential in CO<sub>2</sub> bio-fixation to capture and store the gas. However, CO<sub>2</sub> capture by this biological approach is very slow compared to chemical reaction-based processes such as absorption using amine or aqueous ammonia. Integration between chemical (aqueous ammonia) and biological (microalgae) aspects might enhance the capturing process and at the same time the microalgae can assimilate CO<sub>2</sub> for beneficial bioproduct formation. Thus, it is important to assess the growth of the microalgae in various concentrations of ammonia with CO<sub>2</sub> supply. Hence, the main objective of this study is to investigate <em>Chlorella vulgaris</em> growth and its kinetics in aqueous ammonia. To achieve that, <em>C. vulgaris</em> was cultivated in various concentrations of aqueous ammonia between 0 to 1920 mg/L at room temperature (i.e. 27 °C) and supplied with 15% (v/v) of CO<sub>2</sub> under illumination of 3500 lux of white fluorescent light. Result shows that the maximum growth capacity (<em>X<sub>max</sub></em>) of <em>C. vulgaris </em>is deteriorating from 1.820 Au to 0.245 Au as the concentration of aqueous ammonia increased. However, no significant change in maximum specific growth rate (<em>µ<sub>max</sub></em>) was observed. The growth data was then fitted into the logistic growth model. The model coefficient of determination (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em>) is decreasing, which suggests modification of the model is required.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Keupayaan alga-mikro untuk menggunakan CO<sub>2</sub> semasa proses fotosintesis dan pembiakannya yang pesat menunjukkan potensi dalam penggunaan dan penyimpanan gas ketetapan-biologi. Walau bagaimanapun, penggunaan CO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp; melalui cara ini adalah sangat perlahan berbanding proses tindak balas kimia melalui penyerapan amina ataupun cecair&nbsp; ammonia. Percampuran antara tindak balas kimia (cecair ammonia) dan tindak balas biologi, memungkinkan penambahan proses percampuran dan pada masa sama alga-mikro akan menyerap CO<sub>2</sub> bagi kepentingan pembentukan hasil biologi. Dengan itu, adalah sangat penting untuk mengawasi pertumbuhan alga-mikro dalam pelbagai ketumpatan ammonia bersama kandungan CO<sub>2</sub>. Oleh itu, objektif utama penyelidikan ini adalah untuk menyiasat pertumbuhan <em>Chlorella vulgaris</em> dan proses kinetik dalam cecair ammonia. Bagi memperoleh hasil tersebut<em>,&nbsp; C. vulgaris</em> telah dikulturkan pada ketumpatan cecair berbeza antara 0 ke 1920 mg/L pada suhu bilik (iaitu 27 °C) dan dibekalkan dengan 15% (v/v) CO<sub>2</sub> di bawah cahaya putih flurosen&nbsp; 3500 lux. Keputusan menunjukkan kapasiti pertumbuhan terbanyak (<em>X<sub>max</sub>)</em> <em>C. vulgaris</em> telah berkurang daripada 1.820 Au kepada 0.245 Au apabila ketumpatan cecair ammonia dikurangkan. Walau bagaimanapun, tiada perubahan ketara pada kadar pertumbuhan (<em>µ<sub>max</sub></em>) dapat dilihat. Data kadar pertumbuhan kemudiannya dikemas kini pada model pertumbuhan logistik. Model pekali penentu (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em>) telah direndahkan di mana cadangan untuk mengubah model adalah diperlukan.</p> Azlin Suhaida Azmi, NURAIN ATIKAH CHE AZIZ, Noor Illi Mohamad Puad, Amanatuzzakiah Abdul Halim, Faridah Yusof, Suzana Yusup ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/893 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 SYNTHETIC ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT AND ANTIMICROBIAL FABRICS: PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/929 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Recently, there is a strengthening requirement for antimicrobial fabrics that are resistant to pathogens, offer greater hygiene, and are protective in an active lifestyle. Synthetic compounds have been applied to impart antimicrobial properties to the fabrics.&nbsp; In this paper, synthetic antimicrobial agents, namely quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), triclosan, and <em>N</em>-halamine are discussed along with their mechanisms of action. Research has been done on synthetic antimicrobial treatment of fabrics; the tested microorganisms used to determine their efficiency and durability are summarized. It is also found that although synthetic antimicrobial agents have excellent strength to kill the microorganisms, some of these antimicrobial agents are harmful and have adverse effects on the environment, safety, and health. Identification of these problems will provide future&nbsp;challenges&nbsp;to overcome and improve the techniques used for antimicrobial treatment of the fabrics. Based on the infromation presented herein, it is recommended that subsequent studies should consider the use of antimicrobial agents that are either obtained from plant sources or from microorganisms. On the other hand, nanotechnlogy should be explored for production of antimicrobial agents in further studies based on its potential to facilitate the production of environmentally benign antimicrobial agents.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kebelakangan ini, permintaan terhadap fabrik antimikrobial bagi mencegah jangkitan patogen, penjagaan kebersihan dan perlindungan bagi gaya hidup yang aktif semakin meningkat. Sebatian sintetik telah diguna pakai bagi menambah sifat antimikrobial pada fabrik. Di dalam artikel ini, agen antimikrob sintetik yang dinamakan sebagai sebatian ammonium kuater (QAC), polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), triclosan dan N-halamine serta mekanisma tindak balasnya telah dibincangkan. Penyelidikan telah dijalankan terhadap fabrik yang dirawat menggunakan agen antimikrob sintetik. Mikroorganisma yang digunakan bagi menentukan kecekapan dan daya tahan turut diringkaskan. Keputusan menunjukkan agen antimikrobial sintetik mempunyai tindak balas yang sangat baik untuk membunuh mikroorganisma, namun sebahagian agen antimikrobial ini berbahaya dan mempunyai kesan buruk terhadap alam sekitar, keselamatan dan kesihatan. Melalui kaedah kenal pasti masalah, ia dapat memberi solusi dan membaiki teknik rawatan antimikrobial pada fabrik pada masa hadapan. Hasil keputusan dan perbincangan menunjukkan kajian seterusnya harus menimbang penggunaan agen antimikrobial yang diperoleh dari sumber tumbuhan. Selain itu, nanoteknologi harus diterokai bagi pengeluaran agen antimikrobial berdasarkan potensinya yang mesra alam.</p> Norashikin Binti Mat Zain, John Olabode Akindoyo, Mohammad Dalour Hossen Beg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/929 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 PERFORMANCE OF HIGH STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE USING PALM WASTES http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/919 <div><p class="abstract">The performance of high strength structural lightweight concrete (LWC) using the palm wastes, oil palm shell (OPS) as well as palm oil clinker (POC) has been reported. Existing literatures used either OPS or POC individually for production of LWC. Each concept has their own advantages-disadvantages. In this study, both OPS and POC have been put together as coarse aggregate on the way to see the improvement of mechanical properties of waste based LWC. To achieve this purpose, regular coarse aggregate has been fully replaced by OPS and POC in the concrete. This structural grade lightweight concrete is named as palm shell and clinker concrete (PSCC). Attempts have been made with the series of OPS and POC mixture aimed at identifying for better performance. The quantity of OPS and POC mix has been varied as 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70%. Mechanical properties of PSCC like density, workability, compressive strength at different ages, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength as well as modulus of elasticity have been evaluated. It is revealed that the proposed PSCC has extensive potential in terms of high compressive strength and good material behavior to perform as a better LWC. The study could offer structural lightweight concrete of compressive strength up to 46 MPa that is 31% higher than the control mix. The usage of 50% OPS to 50% POC coarse aggregate by vol. in the concrete mix is found to be the optimum mix. Furthermore, simple correlations have been developed which can easily predict compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity of lightweight concrete.</p></div> Md. Nazmul Huda, Mohd Zamin Jumaat, A. B. M. Saiful Islam, Walid A. Al-Kutti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/919 Thu, 22 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000 WIDE RANGE MODULATION INDEXES FEATURED CARRIER-BASED PWM STEPPED WAVEFORM FOR HALF-BRIDGE MODULAR MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/788 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> This paper presents simulation results of the influence of wide range modulation index values ( ) in carrier-based PWM strategy for application in generating the stepped waveform. The waveform is tested for application in single-phase half-bridge modular multilevel converters (MMCs) topology. The results presented in this paper include a variation of the fundamental component (50 Hz) in the voltage output. &nbsp;It also studies total harmonic distortion of the output voltage (THDv) and the output current (THDi) when the modulation index is changed over the linear-modulation region, 0 &lt; &lt; 1. It also explores the effect of a modulation index greater than 1. Moreover, different output voltage shapes, as a consequence of varied &nbsp;on MMCs, are also illustrated for showing the effect of varying the value of on sub-module of MMCs.</p> <p><em><strong>ABSTRAK:</strong> </em>Kajian ini berkenaan tentang pengaruh simulasi terhadap pelbagai nilai indeks ( ) berasaskan strategi PWM bagi menghasilkan bentuk gelombang bertingkat. Bentuk gelombang ini diuji untuk aplikasi topologi MMCs. Keputusan menunjukkan variasi pada komponen asas (50Hz) pada voltan akhir. Keputusan menunjukkan jumlah penyelarasan harmonik voltan akhir (THDv) dan arus (THDv) apabila indeks modulasi telah ditukar pada had modulasi linear, 0 &lt; &lt; 1. Ia juga membincangkan tentang kesan indeks modulasi lebih daripada 1. Selain itu, bentuk voltan akhir yang berbeza mengikut perubahan nilai &nbsp;&nbsp;pada MMCs juga dilampirkan bagi menunjukkan kesan perbezaan nilai &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;pada sub-modul MMCs.</p> Majdee Tohtayong, Sheroz Khan, Dr., MASHKURI BIN YAACOB, Prof. Dr, Siti Hajar Yusoff, Dr., NUR SHAHIDA BINTI MIDI, Dr., Musse Ahmed Mohamud Ahmed, Prof. Dr ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/788 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Novel method to estimate Economic Replacing Time of Transformer Using Monte Carlo Algorithm and ANN http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/793 A hybrid method for developing a more principled approach is presented to determine the life expectancy of transformers. The approach is constructed on an economic analysis of the transformers operational characteristics in combination  with the technical issues incorporated in the decision process. In this method, firstly life time of transformer is estimated using a hybrid method based on Monte Carlo algorithm and artificial neural network. Also Pareto distribution function is applied to consider health history of transformer and uncertainty in DP behavior of transformer. In the next step, a method is proposed in order to estimate economic replacement time of transformer. This method is based on the well-known bathtub failure model, containing repairs and scheduled maintenance, in order to achieve at a more economically aim  replacing decision. This aim is obtained in part by considering the uncertainty intrinsic in transformer failures and the corresponding discontinuations in power. In essence, this method organizes a decision support system for determination the life expectancy of a transformer. Simulation results show the high accuracy and functionality of the proposed approach in estimating economic replacing time of the Transformer. Mehdi Zareian Jahromi, M.Hossein Mehrabanjahromi, Mohsen Tajdinian, Mehdi Allahbakhshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/793 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ADAPTIVE TRIMMED MEAN AUTOREGRESSIVE MODEL FOR REDUCTION OF POISSON NOISE IN SCINTIGRAPHIC IMAGES http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/835 <div><p class="abstract">A 2-D Adaptive Trimmed Mean Autoregressive (ATMAR) model has been proposed for denoising of medical images corrupted with poisson noise. Unfiltered images are divided into smaller chunks and ATMAR model is applied on each chunk separately. In this paper, two 5x5 windows with 40% overlapping are used to predict the center pixel value of the central row. The AR coefficients are updated by sliding both windows forward with 60% shift. The same process is repeated to scan the entire image for prediction of a new denoised image. The Adaptive Trimmed Mean Filter (ATMF) eradicates the lowest and highest variations in pixel values of the ATMAR model denoised image and also average out the remaining neighborhood pixel values. Finally, power-law transformation is applied on the resultant image of the ATMAR model for contrast stretching. Image quality is judged in terms of correlation, Mean Squared Error (MSE), Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) of the image with latest denoising techniques. The proposed technique showed an efficient way to scale down poisson noise in scintigraphic images on a pixel-by-pixel basis.</p></div> Khan Bahadar Khan, Muhammad Shahid, Hayat Ullah, Eid Rehman, Muhammad Mohsin Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/835 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF THE ROUTING METIRC W-METRIC USED WITH RPL PRTOCOL IN LLNS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/840 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> The current de-facto routing protocol over Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLN) developed by the IETF Working Group (6LOWPAN), is named as Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy networks (RPL). RPL in the network layer faces throughput&nbsp; challenges due to the potential&nbsp; large networks, number of nodes, and that&nbsp; multiple&nbsp; coexisting applications&nbsp; will&nbsp; be&nbsp; running&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; same physical layer.&nbsp; In this study, a node metric for RPL protocol based on the node’s Queue Backlogs is introduced, which leads to a better throughput performance while maintaining the delay and the ability to use with different network applications. This metric depends on the length of Packet Queue of the nodes with the consideration of other link and node metrics, like ETX or energy usage, leading to better load balancing in the network. To implement and evaluate the proposed metric compared to other RPL metrics, ContikiOS and COOJA simulator are used. Extensive simulations have been carried out in a systematic way resulting in a detailed analysis of the introduced metric namely W-metric, expected transmission count (ETX) and objective function zero (OF0) that uses hop-count as a routing metric. The analysis and comparison are based on five performance parameters, which are throughput, packet delivery ratio (PDR), latency, average queue length, and power consumption. Simulation results show that the introduced W-metric has a good performance compared to other RPL metrics with regards to performance parameters mentioned above. At the same time, the results show that its latency performance is comparable with other RPL routing metrics. In a sample simulation of 500 seconds with 25 nodes and with nodes sending packets periodically to the network root at a rate of 1 packet per 4 seconds, W-metric showed a very efficient throughput of 5.16 kbps, an increase of 8.2% compared to ETX. Results showed that it has a packet delivery ratio of 93.3%, which is higher compared to 83.3% for ETX and 74.2% for OF0. Average queue length of 0.48 packet shows improvement of 15.8% better than ETX. In addition, it exhibits an energy consumption of 5.16 mW which is 2.1% less than ETX. Overall, W-metric appears to be a promising alternative to ETX and OF0 as it selects routes that are more efficient by working on load balancing of the network and by considering the link characteristics.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Protokol penghalaan de-facto semasa ke atas Rangkaian Kekuatan Rendah dan Lossy yang dibangunkan oleh Kumpulan Kerja IETF (6LOWPAN), dinamakan Protokol Penghalaan untuk Kekuatan Rendah dan Rugi (RPL). RPL dalam lapisan rangkaian menghadapi cabaran throughput berikutan jangkaan rangkaian besar, bilangan nod dan aplikasi berganda bersama akan diproses dalam lapisan fizikal yang sama. Dalam kajian ini, satu metrik nod untuk protokol RPL berdasarkan pada Backend Queue node diperkenalkan, yang membawa kepada prestasi yang lebih baik sambil mengekalkan kelewatan dan keupayaan untuk digunakan dengan aplikasi rangkaian yang berbeza. Metrik ini bergantung pada panjang Packet Queue dari node dengan pertimbangan metrik lain dan nodus lain, seperti ETX atau penggunaan tenaga, yang mengarah kepada keseimbangan beban yang lebih baik dalam rangkaian. Untuk melaksanakan dan menilai metrik yang dicadangkan berbanding metrik RPL lain, ContikiOS dan COOJA simulator telah digunakan. Simulasi meluas telah dijalankan dengan cara yang sistematik yang menghasilkan analisis terperinci mengenai metrik yang diperkenalkan iaitu W-metrik, kiraan penghantaran dijangkakan (ETX) dan fungsi objektif sifar (OF0) yang menggunakan kiraan hop sebagai metrik penghalaan. Analisis dan perbandingan adalah &nbsp;berdasarkan lima parameter prestasi, iaitu throughput, nisbah penghantaran paket (PDR), latency, panjang panjang antrian, dan penggunaan kuasa. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahawa W-metrik yang diperkenalkan mempunyai prestasi yang lebih baik berbanding dengan metrik RPL lain berkaitan dengan parameter prestasi yang dinyatakan di atas. Pada masa yang sama, hasil menunjukkan bahawa prestasi latency W-metrik adalah setanding dengan metrik penghalaan RPL yang lain. Dalam simulasi sampel 500 saat dengan 25 nod dan dengan nod yang menghantar paket secara berkala ke akar rangkaian pada kadar 1 paket setiap 4 saat, W-metrik menunjukkan keluaran yang sangat efisien iaitu 5.16 kbps, peningkatan sebanyak 8.2% berbanding ETX. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa ia mempunyai nisbah penghantaran paket 93.3%, yang lebih tinggi berbanding 83.3% untuk ETX dan 74.2% untuk OF0. Purata panjang giliran 0.48 packet menunjukkan peningkatan 15.8% lebih baik daripada ETX. Di samping itu, ia mempamerkan penggunaan tenaga sebanyak 5.16 mW iaitu 2.1% kurang daripada ETX. Secara keseluruhan, W-metrik nampaknya menjadi alternatif yang berpotensi menggantikan ETX dan OF0 kerana ia memilih laluan yang lebih cekap dengan bekerja pada keseimbangan beban rangkaian dan dengan mempertimbangkan ciri-ciri pautan.</p> Rosminazuin Ab. Rahim, Abdallah Awad, Aisha Hassan Abdalla Hashim, ALIZA AINI MD RALIB ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/840 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 INVESTIGATION ON NEED FOR SPECIFIC PROPAGATION MODEL FOR SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT BASED ON DIFFERENT TERRAIN CHARACTERISTICS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/886 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Owing to their speed of excution as well as their limited reliance on detailed knowledge of the terrain characteristics of the service environments, empirical propagation models have enjoyed general acceptability in the wireless communication research community. However, recent industrial observations show that no single propagation model can best fit all the radio service environments, which led to the hypothesis of specific models for specific environments. In order to scientifically verify this hypothesis, the study presented in this paper investigated the performance of the free space propagation loss (FSPL) model in two different radio environments characterised with different types of obstructions. The investigation was conducted through field strength distribution measurement of two broadcasting radio stations transmitting at 96.5 MHz and 102.3 MHz. The field strength measurement data obtained were analysed. The result of the analysis shows gross disparity between the measured path losses and calculated path losses using FSPL model. The disparity thus necessitates the modification of the FSPL model in order to develop each propagation model for each of the two radio stations employed and their environment. The developed models were then evaluated to ascertain their performances relative to the FSPL model. The performance evaluation results show that the predictions of the developed propagation models vary for each of the two environments. Furthermore, the comparative performance evaluation result of the developed models with similar studies in the literature shows that the developed models perform favourably. The overall result from the developed models confirms the hypothesis that each location requires a specific propagation model for proper radio wave design and quality of signal transmission and reception.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kelebihan yang ada pada kelajuan perlaksanaannya dan juga kurang pergantungannya pada butiran terperinci ciri-ciri khusus bentuk rupa bumi di persekitaran servisnya, model penyebaran empirik telah diterima umum dalam komuniti kajian komunikasi tanpa wayar. Walau bagaimanapun, pemerhatian industri terkini menunjukkan tidak ada sebarang model penyebaran yang sesuai bagi semua keadaan servis radio, ini menghala kepada hipotesis keperluan model tertentu pada keadaan servis tertentu. Bagi menentusahkan secara saintifik hipotesis ini, kajian yang dibentangkan dalam kertas ini mengkaji tentang prestasi model kehilangan penyebaran pada ruang bebas (FSPL) dalam dua persekitaran radio berlainan melalui beberapa jenis halangan berbeza. Kajian telah dijalankan ke atas dua stesen radio penyiaran pada frekuensi 96.5 MHz dan 102.3 MHz melalui ukuran sebaran ruang keupayaan. Data ukuran ruang keupayaan telah diperoleh dan dianalisa. Keputusan analisis menunjukkan keputusan tidak seragam yang melampau antara ukuran kehilangan laluan dan pada kiraan model FSPL. Ketidaksamaan ini memungkinkan keperluan mengubah model FSPL bagi membangunkan model penyebaran pada setiap dua radio stesen yang digunakan dan persekitarannya. Model yang dibangunkan ini kemudiannya dinilai bagi mengesahkan prestasinya dengan model FSPL. Keputusan penilaian menunjukkan perbezaan pada jangkaan model penyebaran bagi setiap dua keadaan. Tambahan, keputusan perbandingan model yang dibangunkan dalam karya ini adalah serupa seperti kajian lain yang berkaitan. Secara keseluruhannya model yang dibangunkan ini mengesahkan hipotesis bahawa setiap lokasi memerlukan model penyebaran bagi rekaan gelombang radio yang sesuai dan juga kualiti signal penyebaran dan penerimaan.</p> Jide Julius Popoola, Akinlolu Adediran Ponnle, Yekeen Olajide Olasoji, Samson Adenle Oyetunji ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/886 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON LOW-COMPLEXITY TRANSMIT ANTENNA SELECTION FOR GENERALIZED SPATIAL MODULATION http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/899 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Generalized spatial modulation (GSM) maps its information to the index of the transmit antenna combination, making simultaneous transmission of multiple symbol possible. However, SM outperform GSM scheme in terms of error performance of the same data rate, due to average power effect. Transmit and receive diversity or the combination of both allow huge improvement in mimo systems in&nbsp; terms of error performance. In this paper, we investigate a near optimal low-complexity Euclidean distance antenna selection (LC-EDAS) technique in GSM system, to further improve the performance of the conventional GSM system. The LC-EDAS technique independently search across signal and spatial dimension to eliminate the worse channel prior to transmission. Secondly, we investigate a sub-optimal low-complexity transmit antenna selection (LCTAS) in the GSM system to further reduce the computational complexity (CC) imposed by LC-EDAS. The Monte Carlo simulation results obtained reveals a trade-off between the GSM scheme with LC-EDAS and GSM scheme with sub-optimal transmit antenna selection in terms of error performance and CC.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Modulasi Spatial Keseluruhan (GSM) menghubung informasi kepada indeks kombinasi antena yang dipancarkan, membuatkan pemancaran keseluruhan simbol dapat dilakukan. Walau bagaimanapun, SM lebih bagus daripada skim GSM pada prestasi kesilapan pada kadar data yang sama, kerana kesan purata kuasa. Kepelbagaian penghantaran dan penerimaan ataupun kombinasi keduanya memberi pembaharuan yang lebih besar dalam sistem mimo pada prestasi kesalahan. Penyelidikan ini akan mengkaji optima terdekat Euclidean kurang rumit, melalui teknik (LC-EDAS) pilihan jarak antenna dalam sistem GSM, bagi menambah prestasi sistem GSM sedia ada. Teknik LC-EDAS secara sendiri mencari signal dan dimensi separa bagi mengurangkan saluran lebih teruk semasa penghantaran. Kedua, kami mengkaji sub-optima proses pemilihan kurang rumit penyebaran antena (LCTAS) dalam sistem GSM bagi mengurangkan kerumitan pengiraan (CC) yang dikenakan oleh LC-EDAS. Keputusan simulasi Monte Carlo yang diperoleh menunjukkan timbangan antara skim GSM dan LC-EDAS dan skim GSM bersama sub-optima proses pemilihan penyebaran antena berdasarkan kesilapan prestasi dan CC.</p> Adewale Alafia, Simeon Olumide Ajose, Agbotiname Lucky Imoize ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/899 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A NEW SPECTRUM AND ENERGY AWARE ROUTING PROTOCOL IN COGNITIVE RADIO SENSOR NETWORK http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/927 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a new generation of communication systems that wants to solve the overcrowded spectrum&nbsp;utilization of the unlicensed bands. It has combined sensor networks and cognitive radio technology, so it has the challenges of energy restriction of sensors and also dynamic spectrum access of the cognitive radio network. On the other hand, considering both of these challenges in the routing protocol plays a basic role in network performance and we can’t apply the routing protocols that have been proposed for wireless sensor networks and cognitive radio networks, separately, in the CRSN. Therefore, this article has tried to provide a new spectrum and energy-aware routing protocol in which the source is able to choose the most stable route in the aspect of node residual energy or spectrum access probability. Not only can considering the nodal residual energy and spectrum access in the route discovery process avoid repetitive link failure, but it also can increase the network lifetime. This protocol has been compared with ESAC, SCR, ERP, and SER. The result of this comparison has shown that our protocol reduces end-to-end delay, control overhead, throughput, and lifetime in comparison to other protocols, especially in small-scale networks.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Rangkaian sensor radio kognitif (CRSN) adalah generasi baru sistem telekomunikasi bagi menyelesaikan masalah kesesakan pada pemakaian band spektrum tidak berlesen. Ianya adalah kombinasi rangkaian sensor dan teknologi radio kognitif. Oleh itu, ia mempunyai cabaran sekatan tenaga pada sensor dan kemasukan spektrum secara dinamik pada rangkaian radio kognitif. Pada masa sama, dengan mengambil kira kedua-dua cabaran pada protokol rangkaian ini telah memainkan peranan asas pada prestasi rangkaian dan kami tidak boleh mengguna pakai protokol rangkaian yang telah diguna pakai pada rangkaian sensor tanpa wayar dan rangkaian radio kognitif secara asing dalam CRSN. Oleh itu, artikel ini cuba menyediakan spektrum baru dan pengawasan tenaga pada protokol rangkaian, di mana sumber boleh memilih laluan rangkaian yang stabil dengan mengambil kira pada aspek baki tenaga&nbsp; nod atau kebarangkalian akses spektrum. Selain itu, ianya dapat mengelakkan kegagalan laluan berulang juga menambahkan jangka hayat rangkaian. Protokol ini telah dibandingkan dengan ESAC, SCR, ERP dan SER. Perbandingan keputusan menunjukkan protokol ini mengurangkan kelewatan hujung-ke-hujung, mengawal kesesakan, mambaiki jumlah penghantaran dan menambah tempoh hayat berbanding protokol lain, khususnya pada rangkaian skala kecil.</p> Sayyed Majid Mazinani, Sara Moshtaghi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/927 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 RECENT TRENDS IN DENGUE DETECTION METHODS USING BIOSENSORS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/931 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Dengue illness is an infectious tropical disease, transmitted by <em>Aedes</em> mosquitos, that poses a serious health threat to the tropical world. This disease causes widespread infection worldwide, with about 50 million cases of dengue occurring per annum out of which 500,000 recorded cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 22,000 deaths.&nbsp; Currently, there are no effective vaccines available to prevent the spread of the infection. Accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic tests are required for early detection to reduce patient mortality rate. In this paper,&nbsp; common laboratory diagnosis methods for detecting dengue virus infection are discussed. Currently, virus isolation, RT-PCR and serology methods provide the most direct and accurate response for detection of dengue. However, these methods require tedious steps, expensive requirements and expert staffs. Recent research have proposed the usage of biosensors as an alternative new technology for detection of dengue. In this work, various types of biosensors such as electrochemical, piezoelectric, and optical biosensor have been described and compared to evaluate their effectiveness in dengue detection.&nbsp; It is observed that the optical biosensor offers the best detection due to its high sensitivity as compared to others, although it is popularly known as an expensive method. Alternatively, the use of electrochemical and piezoelectric biosensors (QCM) is highly recommended for detection of dengue due to their ease-of-use, low cost, low reagent consumption, disposability, and minimal sample preparation. These approaches have the potential to improve the rate of survival, particularly in resource-limited countries.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Virus denggi adalah penyakit berjangkit tropika bawaan nyamuk <em>Aedes</em> yang menimbulkan ancaman serius kepada kesihatan global. Penyakit ini menyebabkan jangkitan yang meluas di seluruh dunia, dengan kira-kira 50 juta kes denggi yang berlaku setiap tahun di mana 500,000 kes demam denggi berdarah dan 22,000 kematian direkodkan. Buat masa ini, tiada vaksin yang berkesan untuk mencegah penyebaran jangkitan ini. Ujian diagnostik makmal yang cepat dan tepat diperlukan untuk pengesanan denggi awal untuk mengurangkan kadar kematian pesakit. Dalam artikel ini, kaedah diagnosis makmal yang biasa dilakukan untuk mengesahkan jangkitan virus denggi akan dibincangkan. Pada masa kini, kaedah pengasingan virus, RT-PCR dan serologi adalah tindak balas yang paling cepat dan tepat untuk mengesan denggi. Walau bagaimanapun, kaedah-kaedah ini memerlukan langkah-langkah yang melecehkan, kos penyelenggaraan yang tinggi dan kakitangan&nbsp; yang terlatih. &nbsp;Penyelidikan terkini telah mencadangkan penggunaan biosensor sebagai teknologi baru alternatif untuk mengesan denggi. &nbsp;Dalam artikel &nbsp;ini juga pelbagai jenis biosensor seperti biosensor elektrokimia, piezoelektrik, dan biosensor optik telah dijelaskan dan dibandingkan untuk menilai keberkesanannya dalam pengesanan denggi. Difahamkan bahawa biosensor optik menawarkan pengesanan terbaik kerana kepekaannya yang tinggi berbanding dengan yang lain, walaupun ia dikenali sebagai kaedah berkos tinggi. Sebaliknya, biosensor elektrokimia dan piezoelektrik (QCM) sangat disyorkan untuk mengesan denggi kerana ia mudah digunakan, berkos rendah, penggunaan bahan uji yang terhad, boleh dipakai buang, dan mempunyai penyediaan sampel yang minima. Pendekatan-pendekatan ini berpotensi untuk meningkatkan kadar kemandirian di kawasan-kawasan sumber terhad.</p> AHMAD ANWAR ZAINUDDIN, ANIS NURASHIKIN NORDIN, ROSMINAZUIN AB RAHIM ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/931 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF TUNNEL LED LIGHTING MAINTENANCE FACTOR http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1007 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong>&nbsp; It is necessary to periodically maintain lighting equipment in accordance with international standards. Contamination of lamps caused by long-term use of lighting equipment will result in loss of Luminous Flux and optical losses. The decrease in lighting performance poses a visual difficulty for drivers and causes accidents. In this study, the total Maintenance Factor is numerically examined by considering the losses of diffuser and lens for LED lamps used in tunnel lighting. The variation of luminaries performance with years considering Maintenance Factors as regards environmental conditions and features of the luminaries is evaluated to demonstrate the importance of tunnel lighting maintenance. Moreover, to show the importance of LED lamps Maintenance Factor, the variation of illumination levels of LED lamps is analysed under different Maintenance Factors. It is observed that enhancing Maintenance Factor would contribute to energy efficiency.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Penjagaan peralatan cahaya secara berkala mengikut piawai kebangsaan adalah amat penting. Pencemaran lampu disebabkan penggunaan peralatan cahaya pada jangka panjang akan menyebabkan kehilangan kilauan kerdipan lampu dan optik. Pengurangan pencahayaan ini menyebabkan kesukaran pandangan pada pemandu dan menyebabkan kemalangan jiwa. Kajian ini mengkaji tentang jumlah Faktor Penjagaan secara numerik dengan mengambil kira pengurangan difuser dan kanta pada lampu LED yang digunakan dalam terowong pencahayaan. Faktor Penjagaan pada perubahan kilauan berdasarkan tahun mengambil kira keadaan sekeliling dan ciri khas kilauan. Tambahan, ini dinilai bagi menunjukkan kepentingan penjagaan terowong pencahayaan dan kepentingan Faktor Penjagaan Lampu LED. Perubahan pada tahap terang pada lampu LED dikaji dengan mengambil kira Faktor Penjagaan. Peningkatan pada Faktor Penjagaan telah didapati dapat menjimatkan tenaga.</p> Mehmet Sait Cengiz, ÇIĞDEM CENGIZ ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/1007 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ABOUT THE SILICON SENSITIVITY OF THE DEEP LEVEL WITH ALTERNATING PRESSURE http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/794 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> This paper discusses the strain sensitivity of silicon with deep levels under variable pressure. It is shown that in the pressure swing in silicon with deep levels, there is a redistribution of the primary spatial inhomogeneities in the distribution of impurities so that the electron-hole relaxation after stress relief will occur in the new potential relief.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Kajian ini membincangkan tentang sensitiviti kepekaan strain silikon pada pelbagai tahap dalam tekanan. Keputusan menunjukkan terdapat ketidakharmonian agihan pada spasial utama dalam agihan kotoran dengan ayunan tekanan dalam silikon pada tahap dalam, supaya relaksasi lubang-elektron setelah pelepasan tekanan akan berlaku dalam pelepasan potensi baru.</p> Ikrom gulamjonovich Tursunov, Abdurahim Abduraxmonovich Okhunov, Odiljon Oxundadaevich Mamatkarimov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/794 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 THE HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR OSCILLATING 2D RECTANGULAR BOX USING WEAKLY COMPRESSIBLE SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS (WCSPH) METHOD http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/889 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> An implementation of the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (WCSPH) method is demonstrated to determine the hydrodynamics coefficients through radiation problem of an oscillating 2D rectangular box. Three possible modes of motion namely swaying, heaving, and rolling are carried out to establish the influence of oscillating motions in predicting the added mass and damping. Both solid boundary and fluid flow are modelled by WCSPH and validated by the potential flow and experimental results. Discrepancies observed at lower frequencies are further investigated using different particle resolutions, different time steps, and extending the domain with longer runtime to demonstrate the performance of WCSPH. Finally, flow separation and vortices are discussed and compared with experimental results.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Bagi fenomena yang melibatkan radiasi dalam air, segiempat kotak 2D diosilasikan dengan menggunakan simulasi WCSPH untuk memperoleh pekali hidrodinamik. Mod osilasi terbahagi kepada 3 iaitu sway, heave dan roll. Osilasi dengan mengguna pakai kotak akan mempengaruhi pergerakan air dalam menentukan nilai penambahan jisim dan rendaman. Keseluruhan domain air dan sempadan telah dimodelkan dengan menggunakan WCSPH. Semua model tersebut kemudiannya akan dibandingkan melalui keputusan eksperimen dan teori. Jika keputusan melalui kaedah WCSPH ini berbeza, terutama pada frekuensi rendah, penyelidikan lanjut akan dilakukan dengan menggunakan zarah resolusi yang berbeza, langkah masa yang berbeza dan menambah masa domain ujikaji bagi menilai keputusan WCSPH. Akhirnya, kriteria aliran dan kadar pusaran yang terhasil di sekeliling kotak akan dibincang dan dibandingkan bersama keputusan eksperimen.</p> Muhammad Zahir Ramli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/889 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 An analytical technique to obtain higher-order approximate periods for nonlinear oscillator http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/943 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> This paper presents simulation results of the influence of wide range modulation index values ( ) in carrier-based PWM strategy for application in generating the stepped waveform. The waveform is tested for application in single-phase half-bridge modular multilevel converters (MMCs) topology. The results presented in this paper include a variation of the fundamental component (50 Hz) in the voltage output. &nbsp;It also studies total harmonic distortion of the output voltage (THDv) and the output current (THDi) when the modulation index is changed over the linear-modulation region, 0 &lt; &lt; 1. It also explores the effect of a modulation index greater than 1. Moreover, different output voltage shapes, as a consequence of varied on MMCs, are also illustrated for showing the effect of varying the value of on sub-module of MMCs.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penulisan ini berkenan simulasi pengaruh pelbagai nilai indeks modulasi &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;( ) dalam strategi PWM berasaskan aplikasi dalam menghasilkan bentuk gelombang yang bertingkat. Bentuk gelombang ini diuji untuk aplikasi dalam topologi MMCs. Penilaian dan hasil dari artikle ini termasuk variasi komponen asas (50 Hz) dalam voltan keluar. Ia juga meneliti jumlah penyelarasan harmonik voltan keluar (THDv) dan arus keluaran (THDi) apabila indeks modulasi ditukar dalam rantau modulasi linear, 0 &lt; &lt;1. Ia juga meneroka kesan indeks modulasi lebih daripada 1. Selain itu, bentuk voltan keluar yang berbeza sebagai akibat dari pelbagai &nbsp;pada MMCs juga digambarkan untuk menunjukkan kesan berbeza-beza nilai &nbsp;pada sub-modul MMCs.</p> Md Sazzad Hossien Chowdhury, Md. Alal Hosen, MOHAMMAD YEAKUB ALI, AHMAD FARIS ISMAIL ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/943 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of poly(ethylene glycol) on the injectability, setting behavior and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate bone cement http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/913 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> The present paper reports on the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) addition on injectability, setting behaviour, and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for injectable bone filling applications. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)<sub>2</sub>, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub>, have been used as precursors in wet chemical precipitation synthesis of hydroxyapatite powder. Cement paste was prepared with different powder-to-liquid ratios, varied at 1.0, 1.3, 1.5 and 2.0. The incorporation of PEG was also varied at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% at the powder-to-liquid ratio of 1.3. The CPC produced was then evaluated in terms of injectability, setting time and mechanical strength. The results indicated that PEG addition significantly improved setting time, injectability, as well as compressive strength of CPC. Without PEG, the initial setting time ranged between 3 and 122 min, while the final setting time ranged between 5 and 277 min. The addition of PEG has significantly improved setting time where the initial setting time ranged from 47 to 88 min and the final setting time ranged from 182 to 228 min. The extrusion load decreased when PEG was added, which revealed an improvement in injectability; 82.5% without PEG addition and 95.5% when 5% PEG was added. The compressive strength of CPC is in the range of 0.59 to 1.344 MPa and its porosity is in the range of 39.2% to 47.1%. With the incorporation of PEG, the compressive strength greatly increased to the range of 1.167 and 1.786 MPa..</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Penyelidikan ini melaporkan tentang kesan menambah polietilina glikol (PEG) terhadap sifat-sifat simen kalsium fosfat seperti keupayaan suntikan, masa pengerasan dan kekuatan mekanikal. Kalsium hidroksida dan diammonium hidrogen fosfat digunakan sebagai reagen dalam kaedah pemendakan kimia basah bagi menghasilkan serbuk hidroksiapatit. Pes simen disediakan dengan nisbah serbuk kepada cecair yang berbeza, dengan nisbah 1.0, 1.3, 1.5 dan 2.0. Kemudian, PEG ditambah ke dalam simen kalsium fosfat dengan kepekatan yang berbeza, bernilai 1, 2, 3, 4 dan 5 wt% bagi 1.3 nisbah serbuk kepada cecair. Simen yang terhasil diuji bagi menilai keupayaan suntikan, masa pengerasan dan kekuatan mekanikal. Keputusan ujian-ujian tersebut menunjukkan bahawa penambahan PEG ke dalam simen telah meningkatkan kebolehan simen untuk disuntik, mengurangkan masa pengerasan simen dan meningkatkan kekuatan mekanikal simen. Simen tanpa PEG mempunyai masa pengerasan awal daripada 3 min kepada 122 min dan masa pengerasan akhir daripada 5 min kepada 277 min. Apabila PEG ditambah, masa pengerasan simen menjadi lebih baik dengan masa pengerasan awal daripada 47 min kepada 88 min dan masa pengerasan akhir daripada 182 min kepada 228 min. Peningkatan dalam keupayaan simen untuk disuntik telah dibuktikan dengan pengurangan beban penyempitan apabila PEG ditambah ke dalam simen. Simen tanpa PEG mempunyai 82.5% keupayaan suntikan dan meningkat kepada 95.5% apabila 5% PEG ditambah. Kekuatan mampatan simen bernilai antara 0.59 dan 1.334 MPa dan keliangan simen bernilai antara 39.2% dan 47.1%. Kekuatan mampatan simen meningkat dengan ketara apabila PEG ditambah, bernilai antara 1.167 dan 1.786 Mpa.</p> Sufiamie Hablee, IIS SOPYAN, Maizirwan Mel, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, Md. Mujibur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/913 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 STUDY OF MESH QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FOR CFD ANALYSIS OF AN AIRFOIL http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/905 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong>&nbsp; Airfoils generate lift in engineering applications such as for airplanes, wind turbines, automotive spoilers, etc. For accurate CFD analysis of airfoils, the quality of the mesh is of paramount importance, especially when dealing with turbulent flows commonly encountered in real life applications. Currently there are different tools that are available to improve the quality of the mesh required for CFD studies. This paper describes a study to assess the significant of the quality of the mesh on CFD analyses of NACA 23012 airfoil by using selected open source tools. The turbulence is modeled using the well-known k-ω Shear Stress Transport model. For validation, results have been compared with experimental datasets which were obtained from “TAG Stuttgart #1” tunnel.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK:</em></strong> Sayap pesawat dapat menghasilkan daya angkat dalam aplikasi kejuruteraan seperti kapal terbang, turbin angin, spoiler automotif, dan sebagainya. Kualiti pada jaringan adalah amat penting bagi mendapatkan analisa CFD yang tepat pada sayap pesawat, terutamanya apabila berhadapan situasi aliran turbulen sebenar. Pada masa ini terdapat pelbagai perisian bagi meningkatkan mutu jaringan dalam kajian CFD. Kertas kerja ini membentangkan satu kajian bagi menilai kepentingan kualiti jaringan pada analisis CFD bagi sayap pesawat NACA 23012 dengan menggunakan sumber terpilih perisian terbuka. Model turbulen dibangunkan mengguna pakai model k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) yang terkenal. Bagi pengesahan, keputusan uji kaji telah dibandingkan dengan set data yang diperoleh dari terowong "TAG Stuttgart #1”."</p> Farah Aqilah, Mazharul Islam, Franjo Juretic, Joel Guerrero, David Wood, Farid Nasir Ani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/905 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 COLOR RECOGNITION WEARABLE DEVICE USING MACHINE LEARNING FOR VISUALY IMPAIRED PERSON http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/945 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Recognizing colors is a concerning problem for the visually impaired person. The aim of this paper is to convert colors to sound and vibration in order to allow fully/partially blind people to have a ‘feeling’ or better understanding of the different colors around them. The idea is to develop a device that can produce vibration for colors. The user can also hear the name of the color along with ‘feeling’ the vibration. Two algorithms were used to distinguish between colors; &nbsp;RGB to HSV color conversion in comparison with neural network and decision tree based machine learning algorithms. Raspberry Pi 3 with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) software handles the image processing. The results for RGB to HSV color conversion algorithm were performed with 3 different colors (red, blue, and green). In addition, neural network and decision tree algorithms were trained and tested with eight colors (red, green, blue, orange, yellow, purple, white, and black) for the conversion to sound and vibration. Neural network and decision tree algorithms achieved higher accuracy and efficiency for the majority of tested colors as compared to the RGB to HSV.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Membezakan antara warna adalah masalah yang merunsingkan terutamanya kepada mereka yang buta, separa buta atau buta warna. Tujuan kertas penyelidikan ini adalah untuk membentangkan kaedah menukar warna kepada bunyi dan getaran bagi membolehkan individu yang buta, separa buta atau buta warna untuk mendapat ‘perasaan’ atau pemahaman yang lebih baik tentang warna-warna yang berbeza disekeliling mereka. Idea yang dicadangkan adalah dengan membuat sebuah alat yang dapat menghasilkan getaran bagi setiap warna yang berbeza. Disamping itu, pengguna juga dapat mendengar nama warna tersebut. Algoritma yang digunakan untuk membezakan antara warna adalah penukaran warna RGB kepada HSV yang dibandingkan dengan rangkaian neural dan algoritma pembelajaran mesin berasaskan pokok keputusan. Raspberry Pi 3 bersaiz kad kredit dengan perisian Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) mengendalikan pemprosesan imej. Hasil algoritma penukaran warna RGB kepada HSV telah dilakukan dengan tiga warna yang berbeza (merah, biru, dan hijau). Tambahan pula, hasil rangkaian neural dan algoritma berasaskan pokok keputusan telah dilakukan dengan lapan warna (merah, hijau, biru, oren, kuning, ungu, putih, dan hitam) dengan penukaran warna tersebut kepada bunyi dan getaran. Selain itu, hasil rangkaian neural dan algoritma berasaskan pokok keputusan mencapai hasil dapatan yang baik dengan ketepatan dan kecekapan yang tinggi bagi kebanyakan warna yang diuji berbanding RGB kepada HSV.</p> NIK NUR WAHIDAH NIK HASHIM, TAREK MOHAMED BOLAD, Noor Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/945 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 COMBINING FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING WITH ABRASIVE MILLING TO ATTAIN HIGHER DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY AND BETTER SURFACE FINISH ON THE FINISHED PRODUCT http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/960 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> Currently, two manufacturing methods, namely CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining and rapid prototyping (RP), are widely used to produce final products and prototypes.&nbsp; Both the processes have their own advantages. CNC machining such as milling and grinding (subtractive method) can fabricate parts with higher precision and accuracy. On the other hand, RP (additive method), can manufacture parts with complicated 3-D (three dimensional) features, which ensures effective material usage. However, RP produced parts lack accuracy and smooth surface finish. In this research, we are aiming to achieve on-machine mechanical post-processing of 3-D printed (using Fused Deposition Modelling, a kind of RP process) parts to achieve higher dimensional accuracy and better surface roughness. To achieve the goal, we developed a new hybrid system to assimilate both of these processes. There are, however, two vital considerations needed to be taken into account for integrating the two processes. The first concern is the integration of dissimilar control systems for two processes and the second aspect is maintaining the tools’ (milling spindle and the heat extruder) setup accuracy during the changeover step. The developed hybrid machine has been tested with experimentations and the result showed that the dimensional accuracy was improved by 71% to 99% when the FDM part was compared with the final part after abrasive milling operation. At the same time, average surface roughness (R<sub>a</sub>) was improved up to 91.3%. Further, we found that low layer thickness improves the product quality. The proposed system could push the conventional FDM system to the next level to attain better quality of final products.</p> <p><strong><em>ABSTRAK: </em></strong>Dua kaedah terkini proses pembuatan, dinamakan mesin Kawalan Komputer Bernombor (CNC) dan prototaip langsung (RP) telah digunakan secara meluas bagi menghasilkan produk dan prototaip. Kedua-dua proses mempunyai keistimewaan tersendiri. Mesin CNC seperti mesin penghasil permukaan dan mesin penebuk lubang (melalui kaedah pengurangan) dapat menghasilkan sesuatu bahagian dengan ketepatan tinggi. Pada sudut lain, RP (melalui kaedah penambahan), dapat menghasilkan bahagian dengan kaedah 3D (tiga dimensi) yang rumit tetapi berkesan dalam memaksimakan penggunaan material. Walau bagaimanapun, penghasilan bahagian melalui kaedah RP mempunyai kekurangan pada ketepatan dan kekurangan pada kekemasan permukaan akhir. Kajian ini bertujuan meraih ketepatan dimensi yang lebih tinggi dan kekemasan permukaan yang lebih bagus pada proses terakhir pada bahagian cetakan mesin mekanikal 3D (menggunakan Model Deposit Fuse iaitu salah satu proses RP). Bagi mencapai tujuan ini, kami menghasilkan sistem hibrid terbaru untuk mengasimulasi kedua-dua proses. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat dua perkara penting perlu diambil kira untuk diintegrasi bersama kedua-dua proses. Penilaian pertama adalah pada sistem kawalan tidak serupa, dan kedua pada aspek pengekalan alat (gelendung pemutar dan kepanasan pembentuk) ketepatan penyediaan semasa peringkat perubahan. Mesin hibrid yang dicipta telah diuji melalui eksperimentasi dan keputusan menunjukkan ketepatan dimensi telah bertambah daripada 71% kepada 99% semasa bahagian FDM dibandingkan dengan bahagian akhir selepas operasi putaran kasar. Pada masa sama, purata permukaan kasar (Ra) telah bertambah kepada 91.3%. Kami juga mendapati ketebalan lapisan bawah telah menambah baik kualiti produk. Sistem yang dicadangkan dapat mengubah sistem FDM konvensional kepada peringkat lebih tinggi bagi memperolehi kualiti terbaik pada produk akhir.</p> A N M AMANULLAH TOMAL, Tanveer Saleh, Md. Raisuddin Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/960 Sat, 01 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000