IIUM Engineering Journal http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal, published biannually&nbsp;(June and December), is a peer-reviewed open-access journal of the Kulliyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).</p> <p>The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes original research findings as regular papers, review papers, short communications and technical notes. The Journal provides a platform for Engineers, Researchers, Academicians, and Practitioners who are highly motivated in contributing to the Engineering disciplines, and Applied Sciences. It also welcomes contributions that address solutions to the specific challenges of the developing world, and address science and technology issues from an Islamic and multidisciplinary perspective.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Subject areas suitable for publication are as follows:</strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li class="show">Chemical and Biotechnology Engineering</li> <li class="show">Civil and Environmental Engineering</li> <li class="show">Computer Science and Information Technology</li> <li class="show">Electrical, Computer, and Communications Engineering</li> <li class="show">Engineering Mathematics and Applied Science</li> <li class="show">Materials and Manufacturing Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering</li> <li class="show">Mechatronics and Automation Engineering</li> </ul> <p>Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are welcome.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Currently Indexed by:</strong></p> <p><a title="thomson_reuters_logo" href="http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Search.do?product=UA&amp;SID=U1yWZttU3hFUyp1wzif&amp;search_mode=GeneralSearch&amp;prID=11a92d27-6b66-4ebb-b2ba-b981a72237e1" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 75px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/thomson-reuters.jpg" alt=""></a> <a title="scopus_logo" href="https://www.scopus.com/results/results.uri?numberOfFields=0&amp;src=s&amp;clickedLink=&amp;edit=&amp;editSaveSearch=&amp;origin=searchbasic&amp;authorTab=&amp;affiliationTab=&amp;advancedTab=&amp;scint=1&amp;menu=search&amp;tablin=&amp;searchterm1=1511-788X&amp;field1=ISSN&amp;dateType=Publication_Date_Type&amp;yearFrom=Before+1960&amp;yearTo=Present&amp;loadDate=7&amp;documenttype=All&amp;resetFormLink=&amp;st1=1511-788X&amp;st2=&amp;sot=b&amp;sdt=b&amp;sl=15&amp;s=ISSN%281511-788X%29&amp;sid=b639176a02479137aba58a447f25ef93&amp;searchId=b639176a02479137aba58a447f25ef93&amp;txGid=25b0f8de3d2daf6267c597a70a34f87c&amp;sort=plf-f&amp;originationType=b&amp;rr=" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 60px; hight: 60px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/scopus_logo.gif" alt=""></a><br><br></p> <p><a title="Google_Scholar_img" href="http://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;view_op=search_venues&amp;vq=IIUM+Engineering+Journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 60px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/scholar_logo.gif" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="MyCite_img" href="http://www.myjurnal.my/public/browse-journal-view.php?id=237" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 80px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/mcclogo.jpg" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="DOAJ_img" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2289-7860" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 120px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/doaj_logo.jpg" alt=""></a>&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="ISC_img" href="http://mjl.isc.gov.ir/Default.aspx?lan=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="width: 40px; hight: 10px;" src="/ejournal/files_ejournal_2017/journals/1/index_logo/isc_logo.jpg" alt=""></a></p> <div> <div> <div><strong><span style="color: red;">&nbsp;</span></strong></div> </div> <div><br><br></div> </div> <p><strong><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statements</strong>:</strong></p> <p>IIUM EJ is committed to meet and uphold standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process.&nbsp; A summary of our expectation of editors, peer-reviewers, and authors is stated here [<a title="Editorial Policies" href="/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/about/editorialPolicies#focusAndScope" target="_self">link</a>].</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Current Issue:</strong></p> <p><a title="Vol. 18 No. 2, 2017" href="/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/issue/view/59" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vol. 18, No. 2, 2017, has been published on Dec. 1st, 2017.</a></p> <p><a href="/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/pages/view/future_articles" target="_self">Future articles&nbsp;(List of accepted manuscripts)</a></p> </div> en-US <p>The IIUM Engineering journal follows the open access policy.</p> zahirulalam@iium.edu.my (Prof. Dr. AHM Zahirul Alam) akhter900@gmail.com (Md. Akhtaruzzaman) Fri, 01 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/915 <p align="center"><strong> IIUM ENGINEERING JOURNAL</strong></p><p align="center"><strong> INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA</strong></p><hr /><p align="center"> </p><div class="WordSection1"><p> </p><h2>CHIEF EDITOR</h2><p>Ahmad Faris Ismail, IIUM, Malaysia                                                                                                              </p><h2>TECHNICAL EDITOR</h2><p>Erry Yulian Triblas Adesta, IIUM, Malaysia</p><h2>EXECUTIVE EDITOR</h2><p>AHM Zahirul Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</p><h2>ASSOCIATE EDITOR</h2><p>Anis Nurashikin Nordin, IIUM, Malaysia</p><h2>LANGUAGE EDITOR</h2><p> Lynn Mason, Malaysia</p><h2>COPY EDITOR</h2><p>Hamzah Mohd. Salleh, IIUM, Malaysia</p><h2>EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS</h2><p>Abdullah Al-Mamun, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Abdumalik Rakhimov, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Amir Akramin Shafie, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Erwin Sulaeman, IIUM, Malaysia a</p><p>Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p><p>Hazleen Anuar, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Konstantin Khanin, University of Toronto, Canada</p><p>Ma'an Al-Khatib, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Md. Zahangir Alam, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Meftah Hrairi, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Mohamed B. Trabia, United States</p><p>Mohammed Konneh, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States</p><p>Mustafizur Rahman, National University Singapore, Singapore</p><p>Nor Farahidah Za bah, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</p><p>Teddy Surya Gunawan, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p>Waqar Asrar, IIUM, Malaysia</p><p> </p><h2>AIMS &amp; SCOPE OF IIUMENGINEERING JOURNAL</h2><p>The <strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong>, published biannually, is a carefully refereed international publication of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Contributions of high technical merit within the span of engineering disciplines; covering the main areas of engineering: Electrical and Computer Engineering; Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Automation and Mechatronics Engineering; Material and Chemical Engineering; Environmental and Civil Engineering; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Engineering Mathematics and Physics; and Computer Science and Information Technology are considered for publication in this journal. Contributions from other areas of Engineering and Applied Science are also welcomed. The IIUM Engineering Journal publishes contributions under <em>Regular papers, Invited review papers, Short communications, Technical notes, and Letters to the editor </em> (no page charge). Book reviews, reports of and/or call for papers of conferences, symposia and meetings, and advances in research equipment could also be published in IIUM Engineering Journal with minimum charges.</p><h2>REFEREES’ NETWORK</h2><p>All papers submitted to IIUM Engineering Journal will be subjected to a rigorous reviewing process through a worldwide network of specialized and competent referees. Each accepted paper should have at least two positive referees’ assessments.</p><h2>SUBMISSION OF A MANUSCRIPT</h2><div class="WordSection1"><p>A manuscript should be submitted online to the IIUM-Engineering Journal website:</p><p><a href="/ejournal">http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal</a>. Further correspondence on the status of the paper could be done through the journal website and the e-mail addresses of the Executive Editor: <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="mailto:zahirulalam@iium.edu.my">zahirulalam<em>@iium.edu.my</em></a></span><em> </em>Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jan Gombak, 53100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. <em>Phone: (603) 6196 4529, Fax:(603) 6196 4488.</em></p></div></div><br clear="all" /> <h1><strong>INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE</strong></h1><p> </p><table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph" align="left">A. Anwar, United States</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Abdul Latif Bin Ahmad, Malaysia</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Farzad Ismail, USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Hanafy Omar, Saudi Arabia</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Hany Ammar, United States</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"> </td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph" align="left"> K.B. Ramachandran, India</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Kunzu Abdella, Canada</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Luis Le Moyne, ISAT, University of Burgundy, France</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">M Mujtaba, United Kingdom</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Mohamed AI-Rubei, Ireland</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Mohamed B Trabia, United States</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Mohammad S. Alam, Texas A&amp;M University-Kingsville, United States</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Nazmul Karim</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Ossama Abdulkhalik, Michigan Technological University, United States</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Razi Nalim, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Syed Kamrul Islam, United States</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Tibor Czigany</p></td></tr><tr><td align="center" valign="top" width="454"><p class="TableParagraph">Yiu-Wing Mai</p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><strong> </strong><strong> </strong></p><p align="center"><strong>Published by:</strong></p><p align="center">IIUM Press, International Islamic University Malaysia</p><p align="center">Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Phone (+603) 6196-5014, Fax: (+603) 6196-6298 Website: <a href="http://iiumpress.iium.edu.my/bookshop"> http://iiumpress.iium.edu.my/bookshop</a></p><p> </p><p> </p><p>Whilst every effort is made by the publisher and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appears in this Journal, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisement herein are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher and the editorial committee accept no liability whatsoever for the consequence of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.</p><p> </p><p><strong>IIUM Engineering Journal</strong></p><p><strong>ISSN: 1511-788X   E-ISSN: 2289-7860</strong></p> AHM Zahirul Alam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/915 Thu, 29 Mar 2018 17:40:24 +0000 PURIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF L-ASPARAGINASE ENZYME PRODUCED BY NEWLY ISOLATE BACILLUS SP. http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/654 <div><p class="abstract">A newly bacterial producing L-asparaginase was successful isolated from Sungai Klah Hot Spring, Perak, Malaysia and identified as <em>Bacillus sp. </em>It was the best L-asparaginase producer as compared to other isolates. Production of L-asparaginase from the microbial strain was carried out under liquid fermentation. The crude enzyme was then centrifuged and precipitated with ammonium sulfate before further purified with chromatographic method. The ion exchange chromatography HiTrap DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column followed by separation on Superose 12 gel filtration were used to obtain pure enzyme. The purified enzyme showed 10.11 U/mg of specific activity, 50.07% yield with 2.21 fold purification. The purified enzyme was found to be dimer in form, with a molecular weight of 65 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The maximum activity of the purified L-asparaginase was observed at pH 9 and temperature of 60°C.</p></div> Dzun Noraini Jimat, Intan Baizura Firda Mohamed, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Parveen Jamal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/654 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:08 +0000 PEDOT:PSS–MODIFIED PLATINUM MICROELECTRODES FOR MEASUREMENTS IN AQUEOUS MEDIA: EFFECT OF POLYMER SURFACE AREA ON LONG-TERM ANODIC PEAK CURRENT STABILITY http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/715 Contamination of drinking water by hazardous agents is becoming a serious global threat, so it is necessary to develop more efficient sensing technologies for applications in liquid media. The limited working lifetime of electrochemical biosensors, especially when measurements are made continuously in liquid media, remains an unsolved challenge. We studied the effect of PEDOT:PSS surface area on platinum microelectrodes with respect to electrode ability to conduct reversible ion-to-electron transduction in liquid media. Electropolymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) EDOT:PSS to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was conducted on microplatinum electrodes 5 and 10 mm long using a galvanostatic mode. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine capacitive peak current; higher peak current indicates higher redox capacitance. Field-emisison scanning-electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the PEDOT:PSS transucer layer after measurement in liquid media. The anodic capacitive peak currents did not differ significantly between the two electrodes at day one (~0.20 mA); however, peak current decreased by ~ 20% and ~ 80% at day six for 10- and-5 mm electrode lengths, respectively. The results imply that PEDOT:PSS surface area plays a role in transduction of PEDOT:PSS in aqueous media. Wan Wardatul Amani Wan Salim, Abdelmohsen Benoudjit, Habibah Farhana Abdul Guthoos, Farrah Aida Arris ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/715 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:09 +0000 THE PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF MODERN BIOENGINEERING http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/723 <p>This paper investigates the philosophical foundations of modern bioengineering to articulate its ethical framework. Engineering as an ultimate mechanism to transform knowledge into practice is essential for both physical and biological sciences. It reduces data, concepts, and designs to pictorial forms. The integration of engineering with the newly emerging biosciences, has presented a unique opportunity to overcome the major challenges that face the environmental and human health. To harness potentials of bioengineering and establish a sustainable foundation for green technology, modern scientists and engineers need to be acquainted with the normative questions of science. In addition to acquiring the general principles of scientific research and identifying the intrinsic goals of the endeavour, philosophy of bioengineering exposes bioengineers to both the descriptive ‘<em>how</em>’ questions of the physical world as well as the normative ‘<em>why</em>’ questions of values. Such an interdisciplinary approach is significant, not only for inspiring to acquire the genuine knowledge of the existing world, but also to expose the bioengineers to their ethical and social responsibilities. Besides introducing the conceptual framework of bioengineering, this paper has investigated the three major philosophies that have been dominating the theoretical presuppositions of scientific research method in history. Namely, (i) Systems biology approach; (ii) Evolutionary biology approach; and (iii) Mechanical view approach. To establish the ethical foundation of modern bioengineering, the paper, also has conducted an analytical study on various branches of the emerging discipline of bioscience.</p><p>The paper has concluded that adopting the interdisciplinary approach in research and education is essential to harness potentials of bioengineering and to establish foundations of green technology. To achieve the final objectives of bioengineering, both the practical and theoretical knowledge of values must be acquired. The former is essential for invention and innovation; meanwhile the later exposes bioengineers to the integrated discipline of knowledge and values.</p><p><em> </em></p> Ibrahim A. Shogar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/723 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:09 +0000 ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYLACTIC ACID-BLOCK-POLY(2-VINYLPYRIDINE)/GOLD NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITES FOR GLUCOSE BIOSENSOR DEVELOPMENT http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/727 Nanocomposites that consist of diblock copolymer (BCP) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be applied as a matrix to immobilize enzymes or other molecules based on the well-defined core/shell nanostructures of these composites. In this research, polylactic acid-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PLA-b-P2VP)/hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) hydrate (HAuCl<sub>4</sub>.3H<sub>2</sub>O) composites were hybridized and then reduced in dichloromethane (DCM) solution. The hybridizations between gold precursors and the P2VP domain were prepared with different ratios of gold to P2VP block (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 5:1, 10:1) by taking advantage of the association between the long-pair nitrogen of the pyridine group of P2VP. The reduction of the Au<sup>3+</sup>/PLA-b-P2VP composite was accomplished by hydrazine solution in order to get gold nanoparticle/PLA-b-P2VP composites, which was visually confirmed by a direct color change from bright yellow to purple. In this work, ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to confirm the association between gold precursors and pyridine groups as well as the synthesis of gold nanoparticles.The composite which labeled as R3 (Au<sup>3+</sup>: P2VP = 10:1) showed the highest peak current based on the cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurment. Furthermore, graphene oxide (GO) was added into R3 to prepare BCP/AuNPs/GO composite and reduced to BCP/AuNPs/rGO through electrochemical reduction. The resulting BCP/AuNPs/rGO showed high potential to be used in amperometric biosensor. Fathilah binti Ali, Long Jiajia, Wan Wardatul Amani binti Wan Salim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/727 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:10 +0000 THE ISLAMIC ETHICS OF MITOCHONDRIA TRANSPLANTATION http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/731 <p><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">ABSTRACT: Biotechnology has opened a new chapter with the advent of mitochondria transplantation for cell-based therapy. Mitochondrial transplantation was successfully led to birth; however, cytoplasmic transplantation has caused apprehension, since the mixing of human ooplasm from two different maternal sources may generate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy in the offspring. Islamic legal verdicts on human cloning and somatic cell transfer have been overweighing explicit as to its prohibition, due to the change of creation, mixing of lineage and other evaluations. Is mitochondria transplantation equivalent to human cloning in that genetic information is proliferated and does it, therefore, take the same legal rule? Are there possible benefits (<em>masalih</em>) for medical treatment that may render mitochondria transplantation permissible, or are possible harms (<em>mafasid</em>) overweighing? Or is it a completely different procedure, taking a different rule? The paper will investigate into these questions and discuss the dimensions of Islamic ethics on the issue.</span></strong></p><p><strong><em><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span></em></strong></p> Anke Iman Bouzenita ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/731 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:10 +0000 STUDY OF DIFFERENT TREATMENT METHODS ON CHICKEN FEATHER BIOMASS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/806 <div><p class="Author">The chicken feathers (CFs)  consist of up to 10 % of total chicken dry mass and they have many potential industrial applications. CFs contains protein fibers named as keratin, which is an insoluble protein. Primary sanitization phases are complex because of the presence of lots of blood born microbes, pathogens and parasites in raw biomass. The extraction process of keratins from the unprocessed feathers is also a challenging task. Prior to the extraction cleaning/sanitization of feathers is a very necessary step. Thus, the present work was conducted to optimize  an efficient surfactant  for the cleaning process of the  CFs by using ionic and non-ionic surfactants. The experiment was conducted by the washing of feathers with double distilled water (ddH<sub>2</sub>O), detergents, ether and lastly with boiling water. The washed feathers treated with surfactants and the effect of each surfactant was analyzed by a microbiological test which tells about the extent of  the presence of different bacteria on the treated feathers. SEM, EDX, FTIR were used to study the morphology and composition of  untreated and treated CFs. SEM showed there was no detectable fiber damage after treatment. Cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) (t3) was one of the best surfactant for the treatment of CFs among all the surfactant used. The present study described the best treatment method  for the CFs.</p><p class="Author"><strong><em> </em></strong></p></div> Swati Sharma, Arun Gupta, Syed Mohd Saufi Tuan Chik, Chua Yeo Gek Kee, Praddep Kumar Podder, Malini Subramaniam, Jayshree Thuraisingam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/806 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:10 +0000 Anti-lipolytic activity and phytochemical screening ofChelianthesalbomarginataagainst pathogenic microorganisms http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/819 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT:</em></strong>The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic properties of selected fern<strong><em>, </em></strong><strong><em>Chelianthusalbomarginata</em></strong>and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic fern-extract (MFE) of these ferns was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. MFE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (6-23mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against <em>Enterobacter </em>sp (23 mm). In addition, the MFE of <strong><em>C. albomarginata</em></strong><strong>h</strong>ad the best MIC values of 2.25µg/ml against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>Enterobacter sp.,</em> respectively. The MFE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (66.5%) against a porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). This result showed that MFE of <strong><em>C. albomarginata</em></strong><strong>under optimal concentration</strong>is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities, that is to be beneficial in the body weight management.</p> Rini Jarial ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/819 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:10 +0000 OPTIMIZATION OF FLOCCULATION PROCESS BY MICROBIAL COAGULANT IN RIVER WATER http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/740 The existing process of coagulation and flocculation are using chemicals that known as cationic coagulant such as alum, ferric sulfate, calcium oxide, and organic polymers.  Thus, this study concentrates on optimizing of flocculation process by microbial coagulant in river water. Turbidity and suspended solids are the main constraints of river water quality in Malaysia. Hence, a study is proposed to produce microbial coagulants isolated locally for river water treatment. The chosen microbe used as the bioflocculant producer is <em>Aspergillus niger</em>. The parameters to optimization in the flocculation process were pH, bioflocculant dosage and effluent concentration. The research was done in the jar test process and the process parameters for maximum turbidity removal was validated. The highest flocculating activity was obtained on day seven of cultivation in the supernatant. The optimum pH and bioflocculant dosage for an optimize sedimentation process were between 4-5 and 2-3 mL for 0.3 g/L of effluent concentration respectively. The model was validated by using a river water sample from <em>Sg. Pusu</em> and the result showed that the model was acceptable to evaluate the bioflocculation process. Fatin Nabilah Murad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/740 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:10 +0000 CHALLENGES IN TEXTILE WASTEWATER AND CURRENT PALLIATIVE METHODS: AN OVERVIEW http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/742 <div><p class="abstract">Effluents from dye and textile industries are highly contaminated and toxic to the environment. High concentration of non-biodegradable compounds contributes to increased biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater bodies.  Dyes found in wastewater from textile industries are carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic. Biological processes involving certain bacteria, fungi, activated carbon and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising methods for treating the waste water. These methods are either inefficient or ineffective.  These complexities necessitates search for new approaches that will offset all the shortcomings of the present solutions to the challenges faced with textile wastewater management. This article reviews the past and recent methods used in the treatment of the textile dye wastewater and the future opportunities for efficient treatment of textiles wastewaters.</p></div> Ibrahim Adebayo Bello ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/742 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:10 +0000 BIOELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF WILD TYPE BACILLUS CEREUS IN DUAL CHAMBER MICROBIAL FUEL CELL http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/801 Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bioelectrochemical system that uses bacteria as biocatalyst to oxidize organic substrates as well as release electrons, which can be harvested in an external circuit to produce electrical energy. In this study, a proteolytic biocatalyst <em>Bacillus cereus </em>(<em>B. cereus</em>)<em> </em>has been employed for the first time in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The wild type pure culture was isolated from municipal wastewater and identified using Biolog Gen III analysis. The MFCs were fueled with palm oil mill effluent (POME) and attained the maximum power density of about 3.88 W/m<sup>3</sup>. The electrochemical behavior of MFC operated by <em>B. cereus</em> was evaluated using polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetery (CV) analysis. <em>B. Cereus </em>excreated electron shuttling compound which significantly reduced the anode charge transfer resistance (52.95%). The FESEM result shows that <em>B. Cereus</em> has the capability of effective biofilm formation. These results revealed the electrocatalytic potentiality of <em>B. cereus</em> and which makes it a promising candidate to be used in MFCs. Therfore, this biocatlyst can be used to generate electricity through the wastewater valorization. M Amirul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/801 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:11 +0000 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PULSED MICROWAVE AND HYDRODISTILLATION EXTRACTION OF PIPERINE OIL FROM BLACK PEPPER http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/802 Black pepper is a tropical crop with an extensive medicinal potential in alternative medicine and nutraceutical applications. The pungent bioactive piperine is responsible for this functions and its efficacy requires an efficient extraction technologies for optimal isolation. There is therefore a need to determine the best factor settings that will optimize the relative efficiency of the extraction system with minimal variability. The best factor settings was achieved using the L<sub>9</sub> Taguchi parametric orthogonal design. The extraction parameters considered under this study were extraction time, irradiation power level, particle size and molar ratio. An optimal extraction condition was therefore achieved at 90 min extraction time, 350 W microwave power, 0.105 mm particle size and 10 mL/g molar ratio. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) otherwise known as response optimizer is an ideal metric in the determination of this optimum condition. The performance evaluation of reflux microwave extractor in relation to that of the hydrodistillation system placed the optimal efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio at 155.72% and 43.8469, respectively. The higher optimal efficiency obtained indicated that the microwave reflux extraction is better and more efficient than the conventional hydrodistillation techniques. OLUSEGUN ABAYOMI OLALERE ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/802 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:11 +0000 FIXED-BED ADSORPTION OF AQUEOUS VANILLIN ONTO RESIN H103 http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/804 The main objective of this work was to design and model fixed bed adsorption column for the adsorption of vanillin from aqueous solution. Three parameters were evaluated for identifying the performance of vanillin adsorption in fixed-bed mode, which were bed height, vanillin initial concentration, and feed flow rate. The maximum adsorption capacity was increased more than threefold to 314.96 mg vanillin/g resin when the bed height was increased from 5 cm to 15 cm. Bohart-Adams model and Belter equation were used for designing fixed-bed column and predicting the performance of the adsorption process. A high value of determination coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.9672 was obtained for the modelling of vanillin adsorption onto resin H103. Rozaimi Abu Samah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/804 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:11 +0000 RECOVERY OF THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF Musa Sp. THROUGH MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/812 <div><p class="abstract">The objective of this research was to identify the recovery of the biological active compound of <em>Musa</em> sp. thru microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compound were investigated on the effect of temperature, microwave power, irradiation time and solid to liquid ratio. The extraction process was carried out using only distilled water as an extracting agent. The result showed that, at 70<sup>o</sup>C fresh <em>Musa</em> sp. extracted 45% higher antioxidant compared to the dried <em>Musa </em>sp. 500 W was the best power of MAE to extract antioxidant and phenolic compound of ripe <em>Musa</em> sp., while for unripe <em>Musa</em> sp. 800 W was the best. The best irradiation time was 90 s, where it extracted almost 90% antioxidant activity of ripe and unripe <em>Musa</em> sp. Almost 480 mg GA/100 g FW of total phenolic content was extracted on the unripe peel. Solid to liquid ratio of 3 : 60 was the best parameter to extract antioxidant and phenolic content of ripe and unripe <em>Musa</em> sp. Overall, antioxidant and phenolic compound were significantly higher in the unripe peel, followed by ripe peel, unripe pulp and ripe pulp.</p></div> Farhan M. Said ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/812 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:11 +0000 DEVELOPMENT OF LOW POWER WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER SYSTEM USING RESONANCE PRINCIPLE WITH SECURITY FEATURES http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/651 <div><p class="abstract">This research describes a resonance principle-based low power Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system. The reflective impedance model is derived to evaluate the resonance coupling between coils. Additionally, Cockroft Walton voltage boosting circuit is incorporated to boost up the received voltage to the appropriate level, instead of using traditional conditioning circuits. The prototype model, operating at 130 kHz, is demonstrated experimentally and analysed graphically to validate the performance of designed circuit. For an overall span of 100 mm coil separation distance, the maximum efficiency of 60% with no load and 36% loaded system, is observed at a distance of 55 mm with the approximate (e.g., manual) axial orientation of coils. It can be supported widely for the portable electronic products and biomedical devices. As an added contribution, the WPT circuit were enabled by a password security feature using an arduino nicrocontroller. </p></div> Chandrasekharan Nataraj, Dr. Sheroz Khan, Dr. Mohamed Hadi Habaebi, Dr. Asan G.A Muthalif, Ravi Lakshmanan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/651 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:11 +0000 Implementation of Layered Decoding Architecture for LDPC Code using Layered Min-Sum Algorithm http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/677 <div><p class="abstract">For binary field and long code lengths, Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) code approaches Shannon limit performance. LDPC codes provide remarkable error correction performance and therefore enlarge the design space for communication systems.In this paper, we have compare different digital modulation techniques and found that BPSK modulation technique is better than other modulation techniques in terms of BER. It also gives error performance of LDPC decoder over AWGN channel using Min-Sum algorithm. VLSI Architecture is proposed which uses the value re-use property of min-sum algorithm and gives high throughput. The proposed work has been implemented and tested on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. The MATLAB result of LDPC decoder for low bit error rate (BER) gives bit error rate in the range of 10<sup>-1</sup> to 10<sup>-3.5</sup> at SNR=1 to 2 for 20 no of iterations. So it gives good bit error rate performance. The latency of the parallel design of LDPC decoder has also reduced. It has accomplished 141.22 MHz maximum frequency and throughput of 2.02 Gbps while consuming less area of the design.</p></div> Sandeep Kakde, Atish Khobragade, Shrikant Ambatkar, Pranay Nandanwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/677 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:11 +0000 RPL LOAD BALANCING IN INTERNET OF THINGS http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/702 <p class="abstract"><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong>  The wide address space provided by Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) lets any thing to be identified uniquely. consistency of the modified version of IPv6 protocol stack with smart objects, facilitated the Internet interconnection of the networks of smart objects and introduced Internet of things. A smart object is a small micro-electronic device that consists of a communication device, a small microprocessor and a sensor or an actuator. A network made of such devices is called low-power and lossy network. RPL routing protocol that is consistent to IPv6, is designed to be used in these kinds of networks. Load balancing is not considered in the RPL design process. Whenever RPL is used in large scale low-power and lossy networks some nodes will suffer from congestion and this problem severely degrades network performance. In this paper, we consider solutions provided to tackle RPL load balancing problems. Load balancing algorithms and protoclos are evaluated through simulation. We evaluate IETF RPL implementation and LB-RPL method with Contiki OS Java (COOJA) simulator. They are assessed comprehensively through metrics such as Packet delivery Ratio, Average End to End delay, and Gateway Throughput. LB-RPL improves RPL in terms of Packet delivery Ratio and throughput but increases Average End to End delay. Simulations results show that RPL load balancing needs extensive works to be performed yet.</p> Mohammad Reza Parsaei, Ahmad Reza Parnian, Samaneh Miri Rostami, Reza Javidan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/702 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:12 +0000 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BAND-GAP ENERGY OF GALLIUM NITRIDE AND ITS STABILITY BEYOND ROOM TEMPERATURE USING BOSE–EINSTEIN MODEL AND VARSHNI’S MODEL http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/703 <div><p class="abstract">High temperature stability of band-gap energy of active layer material of a semiconductor device is one of the major challenges in the field of semiconductor optoelectronic device design. It is essential to ensure the stability in different band-gap energy dependent characteristics of the semiconductor material used to fabricate these devices either directly or indirectly. Different models have been widely used to analyze the band-gap energy dependent characteristics at different temperatures. The most commonly used methods to analyze the temperature dependence of band-gap energy of semiconductor materials are: Passler model, Bose–Einstein model and Varshni’s model. This paper is going to report the limitation of the Bose–Einstein model through a comparative analysis between Bose–Einstein model and Varshni’s model. The numerical analysis is carried out considering GaN as it is one of the most widely used semiconductor materials all over the world. From the numerical results it is ascertained that below the temperature of 95<sup>o </sup>K both the models show almost same characteristics. However beyond 95<sup>o </sup>K Varshni’s model shows weaker temperature dependence than that of Bose–Einstein model. Varshni’s model shows that the band-gap energy of GaN at 300<sup>o </sup>K is found to be 3.43eV, which establishes a good agreement with the theoretically calculated band-gap energy of GaN for operating at room temperature.</p></div> Md. Abdullah Al Humayun, AHM Zahirul Alam, Sheroz Khan, MohamedFareq AbdulMalek, Mohd Abdur Rashid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/703 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:12 +0000 DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR FOR USE IN HYDRODYNAMIC RENEWABLE ENERGY BY APPLYING ACO AND FEA http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/705 One of the most important ways to reduce fossil fuel consumption and consequently reduce greenhouse gases and environmental pollution is the use of renewable energies such as water, sun, wind, etc. One of the most efficient ways to take advantages of the shallow flowing waters such as rivers and fountains in electrical power generation is the use of hydrodynamic screw in the direction of water flow. The design of the generator for this application results in environmental dangers decrease. On the other hand, it provides some part of electrical energy required for human beings. Generators in hydrodynamic renewable energy system ought to have features such as high efficiency, power density and reliability as well as low volume. Among various generators, the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) meets these requirements very well. In this paper, first, analytical calculations and the design process of PMSG were explained. Then, the ant colony optimization (ACO) was used for the optimization of design quantities. PMSG design optimization increased in efficiency and decreased in volume. By improving these two parameters in the designed PMSG, it gets very suitable to be used in hydrodynamic renewable energy system. Finally, the results of the optimized design of PMSG were validated through simulation of it in Maxwell software and applying finite element analysis (FEA). Also the final results have been compared to similar experimental researches results. Amir Nikbakhsh, Hamidreza Izadfar, Yousef Alinejad Beromi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/705 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:12 +0000 DETECTOR RESPONSE FROM THERMAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION OF CONCEALED EXPLOSIVES http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/758 <p>Explosives concealed in small quatitites (~100 g), buried in landmines or in baggage, can be detected by characteristic gamma rays produced by neutron activation. However, the detection response can be reduced by attenuation of the signal in the background medium. This paper carries out a Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP-V, to estimate the gamma signal spectrum and intesity degradation at a sodium iodide (NaI) detector from a small sample of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive buried in limestone. It is found that the transmission across 25 cm of limestone is ~6% of the 2.2233 MeV hydrogen signal and ~20% of the nitrogen signal. An empirical formula, obtained from MCNP re-runs, is used to estimate the signal strength from TNT, buried at 5-25 cm in limestone, for a californium source (<sup>252</sup>Cf) emitting 2.31 x 10<sup>7</sup> n/s. It is found that for TNT mass in the range 0.1-3 kg, the signatures are in the range 20-2000 s<sup>-1</sup> from nitrogen and 24-2400 s<sup>-1</sup> from hydrogen. These estimates can be used to determine the scanning time for an explosives detection system.</p> Zafar ullah Koreshi, Hamda Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/758 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:12 +0000 A STUDY ON CAPABILITIES OF DIFFERENT ELECTRODE MATERIALS DURING ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM) http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/755 Electrode material inelectro discharge machining EDM process plays an important role in terms of material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR) and surface roughness (Ra). The purpose of this research is to investigate the capability of different electrode materials: copper, aluminum and graphite in EDM of AISI 304 stainless steel as a work piece. The research focuses on three current settings: 2.5A, 4.5A and 6.5A using kerosene as dielectric fluid. The experiment is planned and analyzed using full factorial of the experimental design using response surface methodology (RSM). two outputs have been investigated: MRR and EWR. The results indicated that the responses increased with the increase in current. Finally the desirability function method have been used to determine the optimum values. The resulat show that the maximum MRR and  the minimum EWR were achieved by using graphite electrode at current 6.5A. Muataz Hazza Faizi Al Hazza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/755 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:12 +0000 NATURAL CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER IN A POROUS MEDIUM WITHIN A TWO DIMENSIONAL ENCLOSURE http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/593 <p class="Default">In this paper, to achievement the effect of increase number of heating components arrangement on the rate of heat transfer of natural convection, that others have been less noticed. Therefore, in each stage increase the number of heating components so much the space occupied by them remains constant. Then by calculating the amount of heat transfer in different Rayleigh number became clear that minify and distributing heating solid phase in the enclosure increases the total Nusselt number and heat transfer, One reason could be high intensity of fluid motion in corners and near walls of the enclosure. In the next section with the solid phases on the enclosure can be made porous media model. As the results showed an increase in average Rayleigh number, Nusselt number has increased. Also be seen in the lower Darcy numbers, speed of increase in Nusselt number with increase in average Rayleigh number is higher. It can be said that in enclosure by any number of solid pieces with certain Darcy number, with an increase in average Rayleigh number, circular flow inside the enclosure becomes more intense and isothermal lines near walls with constant temperature are so dense, that represents an increase in rate of heat transfer. Also by increasing the Darcy number, rate of heat transfer from the porous media has decreased, as regards that a large share of heat transfer in porous media is done by conduction, although increasing Darcy number increases heat transfer of natural convection but decrease a heat transfer of conduction, therefore decrease total of heat transfer.</p> mehdi ahmadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/593 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:13 +0000 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN AERODYNAMIC DOWNFORCE PACKAGE FOR A FORMULA STUDENT RACE CAR http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/679 <p class="Abstract"><span>This paper presents design of aerodynamic downforce generating devices (front wing, rear wing and diffuser) to enhance the performance of the Formula Student Race Car using numerical and experimental studies. Numerical results using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies were primarily validated with the experimental results performed in the wind tunnel. It was concluded that the use of a downforce package can enhance the performance of the vehicle in the competition.</span></p> Muhammad Abid, Hafiz Abdul Wajid, Muhammad Zohair Iqbal, Shayan Najam, Ali Arshad, Ammad Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/679 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:13 +0000 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY CALCULATION WITH HEAT TRANSFER http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/695 In this paper we present a case study of apparent performance variation of<br />an optimized centrifugal compressor design when its metal parts are cold - before the conjugated heat transfer between the fluid and parts reaches an energetic equilibrium. The methods used are numerical, using full viscous 3D computational fluid dynamics with heat transfer. Three cases were considered, an adiabatic wall baseline, an all-blade cooling at 293 K and a more realistic stator row cooling at 293 K. Results indicate an apparent yet erroneous isentropic efficiency reading increase beyond 100% - which was to be expected due to the fluid cooling. However the isentropic and polytropic efficiencies could be estimated and were used to more accurately assess the performance of the compressor. Power consumption decreased to approximately 97% of the original load while the pressure ratio was marginally increased. This alone does not, however, explain the non-physical efficiency readings, which are mainly due to the assumptions<br />and manner under which the efficiency itself is calculated. The paper  presents a more robust approach to measuring efficiency, regardless of the heat transfer within the turbomachinery itself. Possible applications of the study may range from cold-start regime simulation to the optimization of inter-cooling setup or even flow angle control without mechanically actuated OGV Valeriu Dragan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/695 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:13 +0000 Recycling and Disposal of Lithium Battery: Economic and Environmental Approach http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/773 <p>The adoption of Lithium-ion battery technology for Electric Vehicle/Hybrid electric vehicle has received attention worldwide recently. The price of cobalt (Co) and lithium (Li) has increased due to the production of EV/HEV.  The used lithium battery is the valuable source of active metals (Co, Li, and Al) and the optimal way of extract these metals from this waste is still studied. The focus of this paper is to recovering active metals by using a hydro-metallurgical method in laboratory scale with 48.8 Wh battery to reveal the economic and environment benefits. Calcination on extracted active metals as pre-thermal treatment has been conducted at 700°C to remove the organic compounds from the surface of active metals. The experiment has been conducted and the result shows that the recovery of active metals (cathode) is 41% of cell cathode and an anode is 8.5% of the cell anode materials, which are 48.8% and 23.4% of the cathode and anode cell material price, respectively. By recycling the battery active metals about 47.34%, the emission can be reduced by 47.61% for battery metal production and 60.7% for transportation of used battery disposal. The total emission can be controlled about 52.85% by recycling the active metals on battery production.</p> Ataur Rahman, RAFIA AFROZ, MOHD SAFRIN ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journals.iium.edu.my/ejournal/index.php/iiumej/article/view/773 Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:50:13 +0000